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l&arfaarti College i-tbrarg 



(OUus •( 1S»S). 

, Received ( l-f ^A/o>l. /^ "J (= ■ 


XLhc Ibaftlui^t Societis. 






No. XCIV. 












%Xkt note IBltite^, toitt an inttoltuctton an^ ^otes, 








^' yD/y) ,' .-^ yc^/z^ <:^ 





Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., Pres. R.G.S., President. 

The Right Hon. The Lord Stanley of Alderley, Vice-President. 

Sir a. Wollaston Franks, K.C.B., F.R.S., Vice-President. 

O- Raymond Beazley, Esq., M.A. 

Miller Christy, Esq. 

Colonel G. Earl Church. 

The Right Hon. George N. Curzon, M.P. 

Albert Gray, Esq. 

The Right Hon. Lord Hawkesbury. 

Edward He a wood, Esq., M.A. 

Admiral Sir Anthony H. Hoskins, K.C.B. 

Rear-Admiral Albert H. Markham. 

A. P. Maudslay, Esq. 

E. Delmar Morgan, Esq. 

Captain N.athan, R.E. 

Admiral Sir E. Ommanney, C.B., F.R.S. 

Cuthbert E. Peek, Esq. 

E. G. Ravenstein, Esq. 

Coutts Trotter, Esq. 

Rear- Admiral W. J. L. Wharton, C.B., R.N. 

William Foster, Esq., Honorary Seen fary. 




The Fifth Book . . . . .699 

Notes to Book V . . . -745 

The Sixth Book 773 

Notes to Book VI . . .803 

The Seventh Book . . . . .819 

Notes to Book VII . . .838 

The Eighth Book . 855 

Notes to Book VIII . . 906 

The Ninth Book ..... 927 

PoRY's Relation of the Great Princes of Africa . 973 

His Discourse of the Religions professed there . looi 

And of the Fortresses and Colonies maintained there 
BY THE Spaniards and Portuguese . 1064 

Index of Places ..... 1073 

Index of Persons, etc. . .1106 



the Historic of Africa, and 
of the fnemorable things 
contained therein. 

A description of the kingdomes of Bugia and Tunis, 

^Hen as in the former part of this my 
historie I diuided Barbaria into 
certaine parts, I determined to write 
of Bugia as of a kingdome by it 
selfe: and I found indeed that not 
many yeeres ago it was a kingdome. 
For Bugia was subiect to the king of 
Tunis, and albeit for certaine yeeres the king of Telensin 
was Lord thereof, yet was it at length recouered againe by 
the king of Tunis, who committed the gouemment of the 
city vnto one of his sons, both for the tranquillitieof Bugia, 
and also that no discord might happen among his sonnes 
after his decease. He left behinde him three sonnes, the 
eldest whereof was called Habdulhaziz, and vnto him he 
bequeathed the kingdome of Bugia, as is aforesaide : vnto 
the second, whose name was Hutmen^ he left the kingdome 
of Tunis : and the third called Hanimare^ he made 
gouemour of the region of dates. This Hammare began 
foorthwith to wage warre against his brother Hutmen, by 
whom being at length taken in the towne of Asfacos, & 

Y V 2 


depriued of both his eies, he was carried captiue vnto 
Tunis, where he liued many yeeres blinde : but his brother 
Hiitmen gouerned the kingdome of Tunis full fortie yeeres. 
The prince of Bugia being most louing and dutifull to his 
brother, raigned for many yeeres with great tranquilities 
till at length he was by king Ferdinand of SpRiney and by 
the meanes of one Pedro de Nauarra^ cast out of his 

A description of the great citie of Bugia, 

THis auncient citie of Bugia built (as some thinke) by 
the Romans, vpon the side of an high mountaine, 
neere vnto the Mediterran sea, is enuironed with walles of 
great height, and most stately in regard of their antiquitie. 
The part thereof now peopled containeth aboue eight 
thousand families : but if it were all replenished with 
buildings, it were capeable of more then fower and twentie 
thousand housholds, for it is of a great length. The houses, 
temples, and colleges of this citie are most sumptuously 
built. Professors of liberall sciences heere are great store, 
whereof some teach matters pertaining to the lawe, and 
others professe naturall Philosophie. Neither Monasteries, 
Innes, nor Hospitals erected after their manner are heere 
wanting : and their market place is very large and faire : 
their streetes either descend or ascend, which is verie 
troublesome to them that haue any busines in the towne. In 
that part of the citie next vnto the toppe of the mountaine 
standeth a strong castle, most sumptuously and beautifully 
walled : and there are such notable letters and pictures 
most artificially carued vpon the plaister-worke and timber, 
that they are thought to haue cost much more then the 
building of the wall it selfe.'^ The citizens were exceeding 
rich, and vsed with their warlike gallies continually to 
molest the coasts of Spaine ; which was the occasion of 
the vtter ouerthrowe of their citie. For Pedro de Nauarra 


was sent against them with a fleete of fowerteene sailes 

onely. The citizens being addicted whollie to pleasure ThecUieof 

Bugia taken by 

and ease, and being terrified with the rumour of warre, Pedro de 

- . - .11. Nauarra. 

Dicause they were neuer exercised therein, were no sooner 
aduertised oi Pedro de Nauarra his approch, but al of them 
togither with their king betooke themselues to flight, and . 
left their citie abounding with all kinde of riches and 
wealth, to bee spoiled by the Spaniards, so that it was 
easily taken, in the yeere of Mahomet his Hegeira nine 
hundred and seuenteene.^ Soone after Pedro de Nauarra 
hauing sacked the citie, built a strong forte vpon the sea 
shore, and repaired an other which had lien a long time 
waste, furnishing them both with soldiers and munition. 
And sixe yeeres dSt^r, Barbarossa the Turke being desirous 
to winne this citie from the Christians, and hauing leuied 
onely a thousand soldiers, tooke the old forte, bicause he 
was fauoured by the inhabitants of all the mountaines 
adiacent : wherein hauing placed a garrison, he attempted 
to winne the other fort also : but at his first encounter he 
lost an hundred of his principall Turkes, & fower hundred 
of the mountainers that came to aide him ; insomuch that 
Barbarossa was enforced to flie vnto the castle of Gegel, as 
is aforesaid. 

Of the Castle of GegeL 

THis ancient castle built by the Africans, vpon an high 
rocke by the Mediterran sea, is distant about three- 
score miles from Bugia. Families it containeth to the 
number of fiue hundred ; and the buildings thereof are 
very base. The inhabitants are of a trustie and ingenuous 
disposition, and do most of them exercise husbandrie : 
howbeit their fieldes are but barren, and apt onely for 
barly, flaxe, and hempe. They haue great store of figs 
and nuts, which they vse to carrie in certaine barkes vnto 
Tunis. They haue in despight of the kings of Bugia 


and Tunis continued alwaies free from tribute : for that 
impregnable mountaine can be surprised by no siege nor 
encounter of the enimie. At length they yeelded them- 
selues vnto Barbarossa, who demaunded none other tribute 
of them, but onely the tenths of certaine fruits and come.'* 

Of the towne of Mesila, 

MEsila founded by the Romans not far from the 
Numidian desert, and being distant from Bugia 
almost an hundred miles, hath stately wals about it, but 
base houses within. The inhabitants being partly artificers 
and partly husbandmen, goe very homely apparelled, and 
are most greeuously oppressed with the continuall exactions 
of the Arabians, and with the daily molestations of the 
king of Bugia. My selfe vpon a time trauelling this way, 
could not finde so much fodder as was sufficient for twelue 
horses onely.^ 

Of the towne of Stefe, 

THis towne also built by the Romans, sixtie miles 
southward of Bugia, vpon a certaine beautifull 
plaine, is enuironed with strong and stately walles. It was 
in times past' exceedingly well stored with inhabitants : 
but since the Mahumetans were Lords thereof, it hath so 
decaied by the iniuries of the Arabians, who razed to the 
ground a great part of the wall, that within the whole 
circuit of this great and ancient towne, there are but an 
hundred houses at this present remaining.^ 

Of the towne of Necaus. 

THis towne built by the Romans neere vnto Numidia, 
and being distant from the Mediterran sea an 
hundred and eightie, and from the towne last mentioned 
eightie miles, is compassed with a strong and ancient wall. 
By this towne runneth a certaine riuer, on both sides 


whereof grow the best wal-nuts and figs that are to be 
found in the whole kingdome of Tunis, being vsually 
carried to Constantina to be solde, which citie is thence 
distant an hundred and eightie miles. The fields of this 
towne are exceeding fruitfull, and the inhabitants are very 
rich, liberall, and curious in their apparell. Here is an 
hospitall maintained at the common charges of the towne, 
to entertaine strangers that passe by. Here is a college 
also, the students whereof are allowed their diet and 
apparell. Neither is this towne destitute of a most stately 
and well-furnished temple. Their women are white, hauing 
blacke haires and a most delicate skinne, because they 
frequent the bath-stoues so often. Most of their houses 
are but of one storie high, yet are they very decent, and 
haue each one a garden thereto belonging, replenished with 
damaske-roses, myrtles, cammomill, and other herbes and 
flowers, and being watred with most pleasant fountaines. 
In these gardens likewise there are most stately arbours 
and bowres, the coolc shadow whereof in summer-time is 
most acceptable. And (to be briefe) all things here are so 
delightful! to the senses, and so alluring, that any man 
would be loth to depart from henceJ 

Of the towne of Chollo. 

THe great towne of Chollo founded by the Romans, 
vpon the Mediterran sea, at the foot of a certaine 
high mountaine, is enuironed with no walles at all : for the 
walles were razed to the ground by the Goths : neither did 
the Mahumetans, when they had got possession, build them 
vp againe. Howbeit this towne is notably well gouerned, 
and well stored with inhabitants, which are all men of a 
liberall and tractable disposition. They haue continually 
great traffique with the merchants of Genoa, and doe 
gather abundance of waxe and hides. Their fieldes vpon 
the mountaine are exceeding fruitfull, and they haue 


alwaies so defended themselues against the princes of 
Tunis and Constantina, that vntill this present they remaine 
free from tribute. From the iniurie of Constantina they 
are easily defended, both in regarde of the difficult moun- 
taines lying in the mid-way, and also in respect of the 
great distance ; for Constantina standeth almost an hundred 
and twentie miles off. Neither is there any citie through- 
out the whole kingdome of Tunis, either for wealth, or 
strong situation, any way comparable vnto this.^ 

Of the towne of Sucaicada. 

THis ancient citie built by the Romans also vpon the 
Mediterran sea, and standing about thirtie fiue 
miles from Constantina, was wasted and almost vtterly 
destroied by the Goths : howbeit by reason of the hauen 
being so famous and so frequented by the merchants of 
Genoa, the prince of Constantina caused certaine faire 
houses to be built thereabouts, for the said merchants of 
Genoa, to repose themselues and their goodes therein : and 
vpon a mountaine not farre off he built a strong castle, for 
the securitie and defence of the said merchants from all 
enemies whatsoeuer. From the said hauen to Constantina 
the high way is paued with certaine black stones, such as 
are to be seene in some places of Italie, being there called 
Le strode Rotnane^ which is a manifest argument, that 
Sucaicada was built by the Romans.® 

Of the citie of Constantina, 

NO man can denie the Romans to haue beene founders 
of this citie, that shall consider the great strength, 
height, and antiquitie of the walles, and how curiously they 
are beset and adorned with blacke stones.^^ This citie 
standeth vpon the south side of an exceeding high moun- 
taine, and is enuironed with steepe rocks, vnder which 
rocks and within the compasse whereof runneth the riuej* 


called Susegmare,^^ so that the said deepe riuer with the 
rocks on either side, serueth in stead of a towne-ditch to 
Constantina. The north part is compassed with a wall of 
great thicknes : and there are two extreme narrow passages 
onely, to enter into the citie, one on the east part, and 
another on the west. The citie-gates are very large and 
stately. The citie it selfe containeth aboue eight thousand 
families. Buildings it hath very sumptuous, as namely, the 
chiefe temple, two colleges, three or fower monasteries, and 
other such like. Here euery trade and occupation hath a 
seuerall place assigned : and the inhabitants are right 
honest and valiant people. Here is likewise a great 
companie of merchants, whereof some sell cloth and wooll, 
others send oile and silke into Numidia, and the residue 
exchange linnen-cloth and other wares for slaues and dates. 
Neither are dates so cheape in any region of all Barbarie 
besides. The kings of Tunis vsually commit the gouern- 
ment of Constantina vnto their eldest sonnes : and so he 
that is now king of Tunis bestowed Constantina vpon his The hard sue- 

, , . i-i 1 . .1 cesseofthe 

eldest Sonne in like sort: who waging warre against iht king of Tunis 
Arabians was slaine in the first battel. Then fel the sonnes. 
gouemment of Constantina vnto his second sonne, whose 
intemperate life was the cause of his sudden and vntimely 
death. After him succeeded the third and yoongest sonne, 
who in regarde of his insolent and shamelesse behauiour, 
was so hated of all the citizens, that some had determined 
to kill him : whereof his father hauing intelligence, sent 
for him, and kept him for certaine yeeres prisoner at Tunis. 
Afterward he committed the gouernment of Constantina 
to a certaine Renegado that of a Christian became a 
Mahumetan : this Renegado he trusted as his owne brother, 
for he had made former triall of him : who for many yeeres 
gouemed the place with great tranquillitie.^^ Vpon the 
north part of the citie standeth a certaine strong castle 
built at the same time when the citie it selfe was built ; 


which castle was more strongly fortified then before, by- 
one Elcated Nabil the kings lieutenant : and this castle 
greatly bridled both the citizens, and all the bordering 
Arabians, whose great captaine it held as prisoner, and 
released him not, till he had left his three sonnes for 
hostages. At length the said Elcated grew so hautie, that 
he coined money, to the great contempt of his king and 
soueraigne, whom notwithstanding he endeuoured by many 
giftes and presents to appease. But when men perceiued 
Elcated to degenerate from his first forme of gouernment, 
they that before loued him, and had him in high regarde, 
were presently of another minde, and vtterly forsooke him. 
So that laying siege vnto a certaine citie of Numidia called 
Pescara, he perceiued some treason to be attempted 
against him : and thereupon returning foorthwith to 
Constantina, he found the citie-gates shut against him : 
from whence he presently tooke his iourney to the king of 
Tunis, and was by him cast into prison, and not restored to 
libcrtie, till he had paid an hundred thousand duckats. 
Afterward by the kings aide he was restored to his former 
gouernment : but when he began to tyrannize ouer some of 
the chiefe citizens, he againe prouoked the whole citie vnto 
armes, who besieged foorthwith the castle whereunto he 
fled, which was such a corrasiue vnto Elcated his minde, 
that within few daies he died for sorrow.^^ And so the 
people after they were reconciled to their king, would from 
thencefoorth neuer admit any forren gouemour : wherefore 
the king of Tunis was (as is aforesaid) againe constrained 
to send his owne sonnes thither. The fields belonging to 
this citie are exceeding fertil. And on either side the 
riuer which runneth through the plaines, there are most 
commodious gardens, if they were well husbanded. Also 
without the citie stand many faire and ancient buildings. 
About a mile and a halfe from the citie standeth a certaine 
triumphall arch, like vnto the triumphall arches at Rome, 


which the grosse common people thinke to haue beene a 
castle where innumerable diuels remained, which (they say) 
were expelled by the Mahometans, when they came first to 
inhabite Constantina." From the citie to the riuer they 
descend by certaine staires hewen out of the rocke : and 
neere vnto the riuer standeth a little house so artificially 
cut out of the maine rocke, that the roofe, pillers, and 
walles are all of one continued substance, and here the 
women of Constantina wash their linnen. Neere vnto the 
citie likewise there is a certaine bath of hot water dispersing Hot baths, 
it selfe among the rocks : in this bath are great store of 
snailes, which the fond women of the citie call Diuels : and 
when any one falleth into a feuer or any other disease, they 
suppose the snailes to be the authors thereof ^^ And \i}[i(^ a fond and 

senselts super- 

onely remedie that they can apply vpon such an occasion stition. 
is this : first they kill a white hen, putting her into a platter 
with her feathers on, and then verie solemnly with waxe 
candles they carry her to the bathe, and there leaue her : 
and many good fellowes there are, which so soonc as the 
silly women haue set downe their hens at the bath, wil 
come secretly thither, and conuey away the hens to their 
owne kitchins. Somewhat farther from the citie eastward 
there is a fountaine of extreme cold water, and neere vnto 
it standeth a certaine building of marble adorned with 
sundric Hieroglyphicall pictures or emblemes, such as I 
haue seene at Rome, and at many other places of Europe. 
But the common people imagine that it was in times past 
a Gramar-schoole, & because both the masters and schollcrs 
thereof were most vitious, they were transformed (say they) 
into marble.^* The inhabitants twise euerie yeere send 
great store of wares into Numidia : and because as they 
trauell, they are in danger of the Arabian theeues, they 
hire certaine Turkish Harquebusiers for great wages to 
guard them. The merchants of Constantina trauelling to 
Tunis pay no tribute at all, but onely at their departure 


foorth of Constantina for the worth of euerie lOO. ducates 
in merchandise, they allow two ducates and a halfe. 


Of the towne of Mela. 

His towne built by the Romans within twelue miles of 
Constantina, and enuironed with most strong walles, 
containeth almost three thousand families: but at this 
present there are but few buildings by reason of the warres 
that haue happened. Here are great store of artizans : the 
most whereof are such weauers as make couerlets. In the 
market place there is a most cleere fountaine. The citizens 
are valiant, though they bee of rude behauiour. Here is 
abundance, not onely of fruits (whereupon some thinke 
the name of the towne to be deriued) but also of cattle knd 
corne. Vnto this towne the gouernour of Constantina 
sendeth euery yeere a certaine ludge, to decide the 
townesmens controuersies, and to receiue the yeerely 
tribute: howbeit oftentimes the said ludge is slaine by 
the people.^^ 

Of the ancient towne of Bona. 

THis towne built by the Romans vpon the Mcditerran 
sea, almost 120. miles more to the west was in 
auncient times called Hippo, where the reuerend father 
s. Augustine Saint Augustine was once Bishop. It was in processe of 
Hshop of time subdued by the Gothes, and was afterward surprised 
' and burnt to ashes by Hutmen the third patriarke after 

Mahumet And many yeeres after they built a new 
towne within two miles of the stones that were brought 
from the ruines of Bona : which new towne they called 
Beld Elhuneb, that is, the citie of the fruit called Ziziphus 
or luiuba, by reason of the great abundance of that fruit : 
the which they vse to dry in the sunne, and to keepe till 
winter.^® It containeth almost three hundred families, and 


all the houses and buildings thereof are verie base, saue 

one onely temple which standeth next the sea. The 

inhabitants are all of an ingenuous disposition, some of 

them being merchants, and the residue artizans. Here is 

great store of linnen-cloath wouen, the greatest part 

whereof is carried to Numidia. The inhabitants of this 

towne hauing vpon a time slaine their gouernours, were 

so bold as to threaten the king of Tunis : and they had 

without all doubt betrayed the towne vnto the Christians, 

had not the king of Tunis taken speciall heed thereunto.^® 

In this towne are certaine lewd people and most beggerly 

apparelled, which notwithstanding are highly reuerenced 

by the citizens. Here are no fountaines, nor yet any water 

at all, but rainewater onely which is kept in cesterns.^ On 

the east side of the towne standeth a strong castle built 

by the king of Tunis, where the gouernour of the towne 

appointed by the king hath his aboad. Vnto this towne 

adioyneth a most large plaine, containing in length fortie, 

and in bredth fiue and twentie miles : verie commodious 

for corne, and is inhabited by certaine Arabians called 

Merdez : these Arabians haue great store of cattell and 

but little money ; and they bring good store of butter 

dayly vnto Bona. Vnto this towne the people of Tunis, of 

the isle of Gerbi, and of Genoa vse yeerely to resort, and 

to buy great abundance of come and butter. Euery friday 

they haue neere vnto the towne wals a market, which is 

well frequented euen till night. Not farre from hence 

there is a certaine place in the sea, abounding with great 

store of corall : and because the townesmen know not how Great store of 

to fish for the same, the king of Tunis licenced certaine 

merchants of Genoa to fish for it : who in regard of the 

continuall assaults of pirates, because they could not speed 

of their purpose, they obtained leaue also of the king to 

build a castle neere vnto the place : but that the townesmen 

would in no case permit, saying that the Genoueses in times 


past tooke their towne by such a wile, and that it was 
afterward recouered againe by the king of Tunis.^^ 

Of the towne of Tefas, 

THE towne of Tefas founded by the Africans vpon the 
side of a mountaine, and standing almost an hundred 
and fiftie miles southward of Bona, was in times past verie 
populous, and full of braue buildings, but it hath beene 
since destroyed by the Arabians. Afterward being re- 
planted with new inhabitants, and remaining free from war 
for certaine moneths, it was the second time destroyed by 
the Arabians. Last of all (because it was a place com- 
modious for corne) it was inhabited the third time by 
certaine Africans, called Haoara, and that by the ayde of a 
certaine prince brother vnto him, which had slaine Enasir 
the king of Tunis his sonne : but now all that remained of 
this towne was vtterly razed by the king of Tunis.^^ 

Of the citie of Tebessa, 

THis great and strong citie built by the Romans neere 
vnto Numidia, and being distant two hundred miles 
southward from the Mediterran sea, is compassed with an 
high wall made of such stones as are to be seene vpon the 
Colosso at Rome : neither saw I, to my remembrance, any 
such wals in all Africa or Europe : and yet the houses 
and other buildings are verie base. Through part of this 
citie runneth a great riuer : and in the market, and diuers 
other places stand certaine marble pillers, hauing Epigrams 
and sentences with Latin letters engrauen vpon them : 
there are also other square pillers of marble couered with 
roofs. The plaines adiacent albeit verie drie, yet are they 
most fruitfull for corne. Fiue miles from hence grow such 
abundance of wall-nut-trees, as you would take them to be 
some thicke forrest Neere vnto this towne standeth a 
certaine hill full of mighty caues, wherein the common 


people say, that giants inhabited of olde : but it is most 
euident, that those caues were digged by the Romans at 
the same time when they built the citie : for certaine it is 
that the stones whereof the citie-walles consist, were taken 
out of those rockes. The inhabitants are people of a 
couetous, inhumane, and beastly disposition ; neither will 
they vouchsafe to looke vpon a stranger: insomuch that 
Eldabag a famous Poet of the citie of Malaga, in Granada, 
hauing in his trauell this way receiued some discourtesie, . 
wrote in disgrace of Tebessa certaine satyricall verses, 
which my selfe likewise haue thought good here to set 
downe in the dispraise thereof 

Within this place here^s nought of any worthy 
Saue worthies nuts^ which Tebessa affourds. 

Softy I mistake^ the marble walks are worth 
Your earnest vieWy so are t/ie Chris tall-fourds : 

But hence are banisht vertues all diuinCy 

The place is helly t/ie people woorse than swine. 

This Eldabag was a most learned and elegant Poet in the 
Arabian toong, and out of measure satyricall, and bitter in 
his inuectiues. But to returne to our former purpose, these 
Tebessians haue alwaies rebelled against the king of Tunis, 
and haue slaine all the gouernours that he hath sent. 
Wherefore the king that now is, trauelling vpon a time 
towards Numidia, sent certaine ambassadours into the city, 
to know how the citizens stood affected towards him : vnto 
whom they (instead of God saue the King) made answere : 
God saue our Citie-walles, Whereat the king waxing 
wroth, sacked the citie forthwith, beheaded and hanged 
diuers of the inhabitants, and made such hauock, that euer 
since it hath remained desolate. This was done in the 
yeere of the Hegeira 915.^ 


Of the towne called Vrbs. 

BY the name of this towne it sufficiently appeareth that 
the Romans were the first founders thereof. Situate 
it is vpon the most beautifull plaine of al Africa, which by 
reason of the abundance of fountaines is so wel stored with 
corne, that from thence to Tunis (which standeth 190. 
miles northward of this place) and to other regions adioyn- 
ing, great plentie of corne is transported. In this towne 
are to bee scene sundrie monuments of the Romans, as 
namely images of marble, and euerie where vpon the walles 
are sentences in Latin letters engrauen : the towne-walles 
are most artificially and sumptuously built. This towne 
the Gothes, being assisted by the Moores, surprised, when 
as it contained the chiefe treasure and wealth that the 
Romanes enioyed in all Africa. Afterward it remained 
for certaine yeeres desolate, being at length notwithstand- 
ing inhabited a new, yet so, that it deserueth rather the 
name of a village then of a towne. Not far from this 
towne runneth a certaine riuer, vpon the which are diuers 
water- milles ; and this riuer taketh his beginning from a 
little hill but halfe a mile distant from the towne. All the 
inhabitants are either weauers or husbandmen, and are 
continually molested by the king of Tunis. Howbeit if the 
fertilitie of the soyle, the pleasantness of the place, and the 
holesome disposition of the aire, were as well knowne to 
the king, as they are to my selfe, I thinke verily that he 
would leaue Tunis, and goe and dwell in this region. The 
Arabians are well acquainted with the place, for from hence 
they yeerely transport great store of corne vnto their 
deserts. 2* 

Of the towne of Beggia. 

THis towne built by the Romans vpon a mountaine 
almost twentie miles distant from the Mediterran 
sea, and about eightie miles westward of Tunis, standeth 


right in the way from Tunis to Constantina. But because 
the name of this towne is no Arabian name, it seemeth, 
that the first name hath been oftentimes corrupted and 
changed. The ancient walles of this towne are as yet 
standing, and it is a most defensible place, and well 
furnished with all kinde of necessaries. It is inhabited 
with great store of weauers and husbandmen, and the fields 
thereof are so large and fruitfull for all kindes of graine, 
that the people of the same region could not sufficiently 
manure them, vnlesse they were assisted by certaine 
bordering Arabians : and yet a great part Of their fields 
lieth vntilled : howbeit they send continually great store of 
corne vnto Tunis. The king of Tunis surchargeth them 
with continuall and greeuous exactions, which is the cause 
why their estate so mightily decaieth.^ 

Of the towne called Haiti Sammit. 

THis towne was in my time founded by the king of 
Tunis, being distant almost thirtie miles from Beggia. 
It was built (they say) of purpose, that none of the fields 
thereabout might lie vntilled. But it hath since beene 
destroied by the Arabians, at the commandement of the 
king of Tunis: and now there remaineth a tower and 
certaine other buildings onely, whereof some haue roofes 
vpon them and others none.** 

Of the towne of Casba, 

THis towne built by the Romans vpon a large plaine of 
twelue miles compasse, is fower and twentie miles 
distant from Tunis. The towne-wall remaineth strong as 
yet ; but the towne it selfe is destroied by the Arabians, 
and the fields lie vntilled, and all by the negligence of the 
king of Tunis, and of the inhabitants of the same region.^ 

z z 



Of the castle of Chores. 

His castle founded not many yeeres past by the 
Africans vpon the riuer of Magrida, and being about 
ten miles distant from Tunis, is enuironed with most 
fruitfull fields. Neere vnto this towne groweth a certaine 
wood greatly abounding with oliues. At length it was 
destroied by certaine Arabians called Beni Heli^ which 
make perpetuall warre against the king of Tunis, and Hue 
onely vpon theft and robberie.^ 


Oj the towne of Biserta. 

^He ancient towne of Biserta otherwise called Bensart, 
founded by the Africans vpon the Mediterran sea, 
thirtie fiue miles from Tunis, is but of a small bignes, and 
is inhabited with most miserable people. Neere vnto this 
towne entreth a certaine creeke or arme of the sea, which 
at the first being very narrow increaseth by little and little 
into a maruellous bredth. On either side thereof dwell 
great store of fishers and husbandmen : and westward of 
the said creeke lieth a most large and fruitfull plaine called 
Mater, which is greeuously molested by the king of Tunis, 
and by the Arabians. In this creeke are taken abundance 
of fishes : and after the moneth of October they catch a 
The fish called Certaine fish called by the Africans Giarrafa, which I take 
Laccia.^ ^ to be the same that is at Rome called Laccia : for then by 
reason of the abundance of raine that falleth, the saltwater 
of the baye becommeth somewhat fresh, wherewith those 
fishes (they say) are much delighted. Very deepe it is, 
and afibordeth good fishing till the end of May : but then 
the fishes begin to decrease, and to be much drier in taste 
then before, like vnto the fishes taken in the riuer of Fez.^ 


Of the great citie of Carthage. 

THis famous and ancient citie was built at the first by 
a certaine people that came out of Syria. But others 
say that it was founded by a queene. The African 
chronicler Ibnu Rachich is of opinion, that it was built by a 
certaine people that came from Barca, being expelled thence 
by the king of Egypt : wherefore I cannot in this place 
affirme any certaintie as touching the founders thereof: 
for besides that the African historiogjraphers disagree about 
this matter, there is none that hath left any writing thereof 
ancienter then the decay of the Roman empire : when as 
all the Romans that were found in Africa were expelled 
by the Goths. But afterward Tripolis of Barbaria and 
Capis being taken by the Mahumetans, the inhabitants of 
them both went vnto Carthage, whither the principall 
Romans and Goths had retired themselues, who endeuoured 
by all meanes to withstand the Mahumetans : and after 
many skirmishes the Romans fled to Bona, and the Goths 
left Carthage for a pray vnto the Mahumetans ; so that it 
remained desolate many yeeres after, till a certaine 
Mahumetan patriarke called Elmahdi brought in new 
colonies : howbeit he could scarce furnish the twentieth 
part with inhabitants. There are to be scene at this day 
certaine ruines of the citie-walles, till you come to a deepe 
and large cesterne. And there remaineth as yet also a 
certaine conduct which conueieth water to the citie from a 
mountaine thirtie miles distant, being like vnto the conduct 
of the great palace at Rome. Neere vnto Carthage like- 
wise are certaine great and ancient buildings, the description 
whereof is out of my remembrance.^ On the west and 
south part of this citie are diuers gardens replenished with 
all kinde of fruites, which are carried from thence to Tunis 
in great abundance. The plaines adioining to this citie are 
exceeding fruitfuU, though not very large: for vpon the 

ZZ 2 


north part thereof lietb a mountaine, the sea, and the gulfe 
of Tunis*^ : on the east and south parts it ioyneth to the 
1526. plaines of Bensart. But ♦now this citie is fallen into 

extreme decay & miserie : merchants shops there are not 
aboue twenty or five and twenty at the most : and all the 
houses of the towne being scarce fiue hundred, are most 
base and beggerly. In my time here was a stately temple 
and a faire college also, but no students were therein.^ 
The townesmen, though very miserable, yet are they 
exceeding proud withall, and seeme to pretend a great 
shew of religion. And the greater part of them are either 
gardiners or husbandmen, and are greeuously oppressed 
with the kings daily exactions. 


A description of the mightie citie of Tunis, 

His citie is called by the Latines Tune- 
tunty and by the Arabians Tunus, 
which name they thinke to be corrupt, 
because it signifieth nought in their 
language : but in olde time it was 
called Tarsis, after the name of a citie 
in Asia.^ At the first it was a small 
towne built by the Africans vpon a certaine lake, about 
twelue miles from the Mediterran sea. And vpon the 
decay of Carthage Tunis began to increase both in 
buildings and inhabitants. For the inhabitants of Carthage 
were loth to remaine any longer in their owne towne, 
fearing least some armie would haue beene sent out of 
Europe : wherefore they repaired vnto Tunis, and greatly 
enlarged the buildings thereof. Afterward came thither 
one Hucba Vtmen the fourth Mahumetan patriarke, who 
perswaded the citizens, that no armie or garrison ought to 
Th£ building remaine in any sea-townes : wherefore he built another 
or atraoan, ^.^.^ called Cairaoan, being distant from the Mediterran sea 
thirtie, and from Tunis almost an hundred miles ; vnto 


which citie the armie marched from Tunis, and in the 

roome thereof other people were sent to inhabite.** About 

an hundred and fiftie yeeres after, Cairaon being sacked 

by the Arabians, the prince thereof was expelled, and 

became gouemor of the kingdome of Bugia : howbeit he 

left certaine kinsmen of his at Tunis, who gouemed that 

citie. And ten yeeres after, Bugia was taken by Joseph the 

Sonne of Tesfin^ who seeing the humanitie of the foresaid 

prince, would not expel him out of his kingdome : but so 

long as it remained to the said prince and his posteritie, 

loseph caused it to be free from all molestation. Afterward 

Abdul Mumen king of Maroco hauing recouered Mahdia 

from the Christians, marched towards Tunis, and got 

possession thereof also.^ And so Tunis remained peaceably Tunis suHea 

vnder the dominion of the kings of Maroco, so long as the Mumen and 

kingdome was gouerned by the said Abduly and his sonne Maroco, 

loseph^ and their successors lacob and Mansor. But after 

the decease of Mansor^ his sonne Mahumet Ennasir made 

war against the king of Spaine, by whom being vanquished, 

he fled to Maroco, and there within few yeeres ended his 

life. After him succeeded his brother losephy who was 

slaine by certaine soldiers of the king of Telensin.^ And 

so vpon the death of Mahumet, and of his brother loseph, 

the Arabians began to inhabite the territorie of Tunis, and 

to make often sieges and assaults against the citie it selfe : 

whereupon the gouernour of Tunis adueftised the king 

of Maroco, that vnlesse present aide were sent, he must 

be constrained to yeeld Tunis vnto the Arabians. The 

king therefore sent a certaine valiant captaine, called 

Habduluahidif" and borne in Siuill a citie of *Granada, "" Or perhaps 


with a fleete of twentie sailes vnto Tunis, which he found 
halfe destroied by the Arabians : but so great was his 
eloquence and wisdome, that he restored all things to their 
former estate, and receiued the yeerely tribute. After 
fjabduluahidi succeeded his sonne Abu Zachheria^ who 


in learning and dexteritie of wit, excelled his father. This 
A6u built a castle vpon a certaine high place of the west 
part of Tunis, which he adorned with faire buildings and 
with a most beautifull temple. Afterward taking his 
loumey vnto the kingdome of Tripolis, and returning 
home by the southerne regions, he gathered tribute in 
all those places : so that after his decease he left great 
treasure vnto his sonne. And after A6u succeeded his 
sonne,^ who grew so insolent, that he would not be subiect 
to the king of Maroco, because he perceiued his kingdome 
to decay : at the same time also had the Marin-familie 
gotten possession of the kingdome of Fez, and so was the 
familie of Bent Zeyen possessed of the kingdomes of 
Telensin and Granada. And so while all those regions 
were at mutuall dissension, the dominions of Tunis b^an 
mightily to increase. Insomuch that the king of Tunis 
marched vnto Telensin, and demanded tribute of the 
inhabitants. Wherefore the king of Fez, who as then laid 
siege against Maroco, craued by his ambassadours the 
king of Tunis his friendship, and with great giftes obtained 
the same. Then the king of Tunis returning home con- 
querour from Telensin, was receiued with great triumph, 
and was saluted king of all Africa, because indeed there 
was no prince of Africa at the same time comparable vnto 
him. Wherefore he began to ordaine a roiall court, and 
to choose Secretaries, counsellers, captaines, and other 
officers appertaining to a king ; after the very same man- 
ner that was vsed in the court of Maroco. And from the 
time of this king euen till our times, the kingdome of 
Tunis hath so prospered, that now it is accounted the 
richest kingdome in all Africa. The said kings sonne 
raigning after his fathers death, enlarged the suburbes of 
Tunis with most stately buildings. Without the gate 
called Bed Suvaica*^he built a streete containing to the 
number of three hundred families ; and he built another 


streete at the gate called Bed el Manera*^ consisting 
of more than a thousand families. In both of these 
streetes dwell great store of artificers, & in the street last 
mentioned all the Christians of Tuni^, which are of the 
kings garde, haue their aboad. Likewise there is a third 
streete built at the gate next vnto the sea, called Beb el 
Bahar,** and being but halfe a mile distant from the gulfe 
of Tunis. Hither doe the Genoueses, Venetians, and all 
other Christian merchants resort, and here they repose 
themselues out of the tumult and concourse of the Moores : 
and this street is of so great bignes, that it containeth 
three hundred families of Christians and Moores, but the 
houses are verie low, and of small receit. The families of 
the citie, togither with them of the suburbs, amount almost 
to the number of ten thousand. This stately and popu- 
lous citie hath a peculiar place assigned for each trade 
and occupation. Heere dwell great store of linnen- 
weauers, and the linnen that they weaue is exceeding 
fine, & sold at a great price ouer al Africa.** The women a strange 

*-i. 1.11... i- *. kind of spin- 

ox this towne vse a strange kinde of spinning : for standing ning. 

vpon an high place or on the vpper part of the house 

they let downe their spindles at a window, or through 

a hole of the plancher into a lower roume, so that the 

weight of the spindle makes the thread verie equall and 

euen. And here the linnen-drapers haue many shops, and 

are accounted the wealthiest citizens in all Tunis: here 

are also great store of grocers, apothecaries, taylors, and 

of all other trades and occupations : butchers here are 

verie many which sell mutton for the most part, especially 

in the spring, and in summer: also here are abundance 

of all kinde of artificers, euerie of which to describe would 

prooue tedious: the apparell of their merchants, priests, 

and doctors is verie decent Vpon their heads they weare 

a Dulipan, which is couered with a great linnen-cloth : the 

courtiers likewise find the souldiers weare all of them 


Dulipans, but not couered with linnen. Rich men here 
are but few, by reason of the scarcitie of all kinde of 
graine: for a man cannot till a piece of ground, be it 
neuer so neere the citie, in regard of the manifold in- 
uasions of the Arabians. Corne is brought vnto them 
from other regions and cities, as namely from Vrbs, from 
Beggia, and from Bona. Some of the citizens of Tunis 
haue certaine fields in the suburbs walled round about, 
where they sowe some quantitie of barley and of other 
come : howbeit the soyle is maruellous dry, and standeth 
in need of much watring: for which purpose euery man 
hath a pit, whereout with a certaine wheele turned about 
by a mule or a camel, and through certaine conueyances 
and passages made for the nonce, they water all the vpper 
part of their ground : now consider (I pray you) what 
great crop of corne can be reaped out of so little a field, 
walled round about and watred by such cunning and 
Industrie. Bread they make verie .excellent, albeit they 
leaue the bran still among the flower, & they bake their 
loaues in certaine mortars, such as the Egyptians vse 
to beat flaxe in. The merchants and most part of the 
citizens vse for food a kinde of homely pulse or pappe 
called by them Besis, being made of barley meale in forme 
of a dumpling, whereupon they powre oyle or the broth of 
Pome- citrons. And there is a certaine place in the citie 
where nothing but barley prepared in a readines to make 
the said pulse, is to be sold. They vse also another kinde 
of foode almost as homely as the former : for seething 
a quantitie of meale thoroughly in water, and after braying 
it in another vessell with a pestill, they powre oyle or 
flesh-pottage thereunto, and so eat it : and this meate 
they call Bezin : but the richer sort feed themselues with 
more daintie meats.** All their milles (except such as 
stand vpon a riuer not far from the citie) are turned 
about either by the strength pf mules^ or asses. Iq 


this citie they haue no fountaines, riuers, nor welles 
of fresh water: but they all vse raine-water taken out 
of cestems, sauing that there is a fountaine in the 
suburbs, from whence certaine porters bring salt water 
into the citie to sell, which they thinke to be more 
holesome and fit for drinke then raine-water. Other wels 
there are that affoorde most excellent water, which is 
reserued onely for the king & his courtiers. In this citie 
there is one most stately temple, furnished with sufficient 
number of priests, and with rich reuenues. Other temples 
there be also, but not endowed with so ample reuenues : 
here are colledges likewise and monasteries built after 
their maner, al of which are maintained vpon the common 
beneuolence of the citie. There are certaine people in this 
citie whom a man would take to be distraught, which goe 
bare-headed and bare-footed, carrying stones about with 
them, and these are reuerenced by the common people, for 
men of singular holinea Moreouer on the behalfe of one 
of these mad fellowes, called Sidi el-Daki; and for the 
residue of his fond societie, the king of Tunis built one of 
the foresaid monasteries, and endowed the same with most 
ample reuenues. All the houses of this citie are indifferently 
beautifull, being built of excellent stones, and adorned with 
much painting and earning. They have verie artificiall 
pargettings or plaister- works, which they beautifie with 
orient colours : for wood to carue vpon is verie scarce at 
Tunis. The floores of their chambers are paued with 
certaine shining and faire stones : and most of their houses 
are but of one storie high : and almost euerie house hath 
two gates or entrances ; one towards the street, and 
another towards the kitchin and other back-roumes : 
between which gates they haue a faire court, where they 
may walke and conferre with their friends. The bath- 
stoues here are far more commodious than those at Fez, 
though not so large and sumptuous. In the suburbs are 


many pleasant gardens which yeeld fruit, albeit not in 
great abundance, yet verie excellent : pome-citrons, roses, 
and other flowers here are great store, especially in that 
place which they call Bardo, where the king hath built a 
palace amidst those beautiful! and sweete gardens. On 
all sides of the citie within fower or fiue miles, there growe 
such plentie of oliues, that the oyle thereof sufficeth not 
onely the citie, but is carried also in great quantitie into 
Egypt. The wood of the oliue-trees which they cut downe 
they vse to burne and to make char-coales thereof : neither 
do I thinke any place to be more destitute of wood then 
this. Pouertie constraineth some of their women to lead 
an vnchast life : they are decently apparelled, and going 
foorth of the house, they weare vailes or maskes before 
their faces, like vnto the women of Fez : for with one 
linnen-cloath they couer their foreheads, and ioine thereto 
another which they call Setfari: but about their heads 
they lap such fardels of linnen, as they seeme comparable 
to the heads of Giants. Most part of their substance and 
labour they bestow vpon perfumes and other such vanities. 
They haue here a compound called Lhasis, whereof 
whosoeuer eateth but one ounce falleth a laughing, dis- 
porting, and dallying, as if he were halfe drunken ; and is 
by the said confection maruellously prouoked unto lust.^ 

Of the king of Tunis his court y and of the rites and 
ceremonies there vsed, 

SO soone as the king of Tunis hath by inheritance 
attained to his kingdome, all his nobles, doctors, 
priestes, and iudges, binde themselues by solemne oth vnto 
him. Immediately after any kings death, his sonne and 
heire apparent succeedeth in the kingdome : then the 
chiefe officer of the court (called the Munafid, because hq 
is the kings vice-roy or high deputie) presenteth himselfe 
foorthwitb vnto the new king, and giueth vp an account of 


all things which he did while the olde king liued : and then 
at the kings appointment euerie of the nobles receiue 
offices from the Munafid according to their seuerall places 
of dignitie. Another principall officer there is, called the 
Mesuare, that is, the great commander and gouernour of 
the warlike forces : who hath authoritie to increase or 
diminish the number of soldiers, to giue them their pay, to 
leuie armies, and to conduct the same whither he thinketh 
good* The third officer in dignitie is the Castellan, who 
with his soldiers taketh charge of the castle, and looketh 
to the sauegarde of the kings owne person : and he allotteth 
punishments vnto such prisoners as are brought into the 
said castle, as if he were the king himselfe. The fourth 
officer is the gouernor of the citie, whose dutie is to 
administer iustice in the common wealth, and to punish 
malefactors. The fift officer is the kings secretarie, who 
hath authoritie to write, and to giue answere in the kings 
name : he may open and read any letters whatsoeuer, 
except such as are sent vnto the Castellan and gouernour 
of the citie. The sixt is the kings chief chamberlaine, who 
is to furnish the walles with hangings, to appoint vnto 
euery man his place, and by a messenger to assemble the 
kings counsellours, and this man hath great familiaritie 
with the king, and hath accesse to speak with him, as often 
as he pleaseth. The seuenth in dignitie is the kings 
treasurer, who receiueth all customes, tributes, and yeerly 
reuenues, and paieth them, with the kings consent, vnto the 
Munafid. The eight officer is he that receiueth tribute for 
merchandize that are brought by land, who taketh custome 
also of forren merchants, which are constrained for the 
value of euery hundred duckats to pay two duckats and a 
halfe : this customer hath many spies and officers, who 
hauing intelligence of any merchants arriuall, they bring 
him foorthwith before their master, in whose absence they 
keepe him so long in their custodie, till their said master 


be present, and till the merchant hath deliuered all such 
custome as is due, and being bound with many othes, he is 
dismissed. The ninth officer receiueth tribute only of such 
wares as are brought by sea, and dwelleth in a house by 
the hauens side. The tenth is the steward of the kings 
houshold, whois to prouide bread, meate,and other necessarie 
victuals, and to apparell all the kings wiues, eunuches, and 
the Negro-slaues that attend vpon him. He also taketh 
charge of the kings sonnes and of their nurses, and 
allotteth busines vnto the Christian captiues. These are 
the chiefe officers vnder the king of Tunis : the residue 
(least I should seeme tedious to the reader) I haue of 
purpose omitted to intreate of. The king of Tunis hath 
fifteene hundred most choise soldiers, the greatest part of 
whom are Renegadoes or backsliders from the Christian 
faith : and these haue liberall. pay allowed them. They 
haue a captaine ouer them also, who may increase or 
diminish their number as he pleaseth. Also there are an 
hundred and fiftie soldiers being Moores, who haue 
authoritie to remoue the tents of the kings armie from 
place to place. There are likewise a certain number of 
crossebowes, which attend vpon the king whithersoeuer he 
rideth : but next of all to the kings person is his garde of 
Christians, which (as we signified before) dwell in the 
suburbs. Before the king marcheth a garde of footemen, 
being all of them Turkish archers, and gunners. Imme- 
diately before the king goe his lackies or footemen. 
One there is that rideth on the one side of the king, 
carrying his partizan, another on the other side beareth 
his target, and the third comming behind him carrieth his 
crossebowe. Others there are also that attend vpon the 
king, whom (for breuities sake) we omit here to speak of. 
These are the principall rites and ceremonies of the ancient 
kings of Tunis, being much different from them which are 
vsed by the king that now is, I could here make a large 


discourse of the kings vices that now raigneth (at whose 
hands I confesse my selfe to haue receiued great benefits) 
but that is not my purpose at this present : this one 
thing I can aflfirme, that he is maruellous cunning to 
procure money out of his subiects purses. But he himselfe 
liueth sometimes in his palace, and sometimes in gardens, 
in the companie of his concubines, musicians, stage-plaiers, 
and such like. When he calleth for any musician, he is 
brought in blindfold or hoodwinked in manner of a hawke. 
The golden coine*^ of Tunis containeth fower and twenty 
charats apeece, that is to say, a duckat and one third part 
of the coine of Europe : there is a kind of siluer-money 
coined also, being fower square in forme, which waieth sixe 
charats apeece: and thirtie or two and thirtie of these 
peeces are equall in value to one peece of their gold coine, 
and they are called Nasari : the Italians call the gold- 
coine of Tunis Doble.*® And thus much concerning the ^^^ 
king of Tunis, and the customes of his court 

Of the towne of Neapolis. 

THis ancient towne built by the Romans vpon the 
Mediterran sea almost twelue miles eastward of 
Tunis is inhabited by certaine Moores called Nabell. It 
was in times past very populous, but now there dwell but 
a few pesants therein, which exercise themselues onely 
about sowing and reaping of flaxe.*^ 

Of the towne of Camtnar. 

THis towne is very ancient also and neere vnto 
Carthage, standing eight miles northward of Tunis. 
The inhabitants being many in number are all of them 
gardiners, and vse to bring their herbes and fruits to Tunis 
to be solde. Here also growe great store of sugar-canes, Sugar-Cana. 
which are brought likewise vnto Tunis : but because they 


haue not the arte of getting out the sugar, they vse onely 
after meales to sucke the sweete luice out of the said 

Of the towne of Marsa. 

THis ancient towne standing vpon the Mediterran sea 
neere the same place where the hauen of Carthage 
was of olde, remained certaine yeeres desolate, but now it 
is inhabited by certaine fishers and husbandmen : and here 
they vse to white linnen-cloth. Not far from hence are 
certaine castles and palaces, where the king of Tunis 
ordinarily remaineth in summer-time.^^ 

Of the towne of Ariana. 

MOreouer this ancient towne was built by the Goths 
almost eight miles northward of Tunis. It is 
enuironed with most pleasant and fruitfull gardens, and it 
hath a strong wall, and containeth many husbandmen. 
Certaine other little townes there are not far distant from 
Carthage, some inhabited, and the residue desolate, the 
names whereof I haue quite forgotten.^^ 

Of the towne of Hammamet, 

THis towne built by the Mahumetans of late yeeres, 
and enuironed with a wall of great strength, is 
distant from Tunis almost fiftie miles. The inhabitants 
are miserable people, and oppressed with continuall 
exactions, being the greatest part of them either fishers or 

Of the town of Heraclia, 

THis little and ancient towne was founded by the 
Romans vpon a certaine mountaine, and was after- 
ward destroied by the Arabians.^ 


Of the towne of Susa. 

THis exceeding great and ancient towne was built by 
the Romans vpon the Mediterran sea, being distant 
from Tunis about an hundred miles. The plaines 
adioyning abound with oliues and figs : their fieldes are 
most fruitfull for barlie, if they could be tilled, but the 
Arabians often incursions are the cause why they lie 
waste. The inhabitants being most liberall and courteous 
people, and great friends unto strangers, make voiages 
most of them vnto the easterne regions and vnto Turkie ; 
and some also frequent the next townes of Sicilia and 
Italie. The residue of the inhabitants are either weauers, 
or graziers of cattell, or such as turne wooden vessels, 
wherewith they furnish the whole kingdome of Tunis. 
When the Mahumetans first woon that prouince, this 
towne was the seate of the vice-roy, whose palace is as 
yet remaining. A most stately towne it is, enuironed with 
strong walles, and situate vpon a most beautifuU plaine. 
It was in times past well stored with inhabitants, and with 
faire buildings whereof some, together with a goodly 
temple, are as yet extant. But now it containeth very 
few people, and but fiue shops in all, by reason of the 
kings continuall exactions. I my selfe was constrained to 
stay in this towne for fower daies, in regarde of the danger 
of the time.^^ 

Of the towne of Monaster, 

THe ancient towne of Monaster built by the Romans 
vpon the Mediterran sea, and distant almost twelue 
miles from Susa, is enuironed with most impregnable and 
stately walles, and containeth very faire buildings : but the 
inhabitants are most miserable and beggerly people, and 
weare shooes made of sea-rushes : most of them are either 
weauers or fishers : their fare is barlie bread, and a kinde 


of foode mingled with oile, which we called before Bezzin, 
which is vsed in all the townes thereabout : the soile will 
yeeld no other corne but barlie. The territorie adiacent 
aboundeth with oranges, peares, figs, pomegranates, and 
oliues, sauing that it is continually wasted by the inuasion 
of the enemie.^ 

Of tfie tawne of Tobulba. 

THis towne built also by the Romaines vpon the 
Mediterran sea, standeth about twelue miles east- 
ward of Monaster. For certaine yeeres it was very popu- 
lous, and greatly abounded with oliues : but afterwarde it 
was so wasted by the Arabians, that now there are but few 
houses remaining, which are inhabited by certaine religious 
men : these religious men maintaine a faire hospitall for 
strangers trauelling that way, where they courteously 
entertaine euen the Arabians themselues.*^ 

Of the towne of El MahdiUy otherwise called Africa, 

EL Mahdia founded in our time*® by Mahdi the first 
patriarke of Cairaoan vpon the Mediterran sea, and 
fortified with strong wals, towers, and gates, hath a most 
noble hauen belonging thereto. Mahdi when hee first 
entred into this region, fained himselfe in an vnknowne 
habite to be descended of the linage of Mahuntety whereby 
growing into great fauour of the people, he was by their 
assistance made prince of Cairaoan, and was called El 
Mahdi Califa: afterward trauelling fortie daies iourney 
westwarde into Numidia to receiue tribute due vnto him, 
he was taken by the prince of Segelmesse,^ and put in 
prison, howbeit the said prince of Segelmese being presently 
mooued with compassion toward him, restored him to his 
former libertie, and was for his good will not long after 
slaine by him: Afterwarde tyrannizing ouer the people, 
and perceiuing some to conspire against him, he erected 


this towne of Mahdia, to the end he might there finde safe 
refuge when neede required. At length one Beiezid^ a 
Mahumetan prelate (whom they called the cauallier or 
knight of the asse, bicause that riding continually vpon an 
asse he conducted an armie of fortie thousand men) came 
vnto Cairaoan : but Mahdi fledde vnto his new towne, 
where with thirtie saile of ships sent him by a Mahumetan 
prince of Cordoua, he so valiantly encountered the enimie, 
that Beiezid and his sonne were both slaine in that battaile : 
afterward returning to Cairaoan, he grew in league and 
amitie with the citizens, and so the gouernment remained 
vnto his posteritie for many yeeres. But an hundred and 
thirtie yeeres past this *towne was taken by the Christians, *^' Mahdia. 
and was afterwards recouered by a certaine Mahumetan 
patriarke of Maroco called Abdel Mutnen^^ but nowe it is 
subiect vnto the king of Tunis, by whom it is continually 
oppressed with most grieuous exactions. The inhabitants 
exercise traffike with forraine nations : and they are at so 
great dissention with the Arabians, that they are scarce 
permitted to til) their grounds. Not many yeeres ago 
Pedro de Nauarra assailing this towne onely with nine 
ships, was defeated of his purpose, and constrained to 
returne with great losse of his men. This hapned in the 
ycere of our Lord 1519.®^ 

Of the towne of Asfachus. 

THis towne was built by the Africans vpon the 
Mediterran sea, at such time as they waged warre 
against the Romaines. It is compassed with most high 
and strong wals, and was in times past very populous, 
but now it containeth but three or fower hundreth families 
at the most, and but a fewe shops. Oppressed it is both 
by the Arabians, and by the king of Tunis. All the 
inhabitants are either weauers, marriners, or fishermen. 
They take great store of fishes called by them Spares, 

3 A 


which worde signifieth nought in the Arabian and Bar- 
barian, much less in the Latine toong. This people Hue 
also vpon barly bread and Bezin : their apparell is base, 
and some of them traffike in Egypt and Turkie.^ 

Of the great citie of Cairaoan, 

THE famous citie of Cairaoan otherwise called Caroen,^ 
was founded by HucbUy who was sent generall of an 
armie out of the Arabia deserta, by Huttnen the thirde 
Mahumetan Califa. From the Mediterran sea this citie 
is distant sixe and thirtie, and from Tunis almost an 
hundred miles ; neither was it built (they say) for any 
other purpose, but onely that the Arabian armie might 
securely rest therein with all such spoiles as they woone 
from the Barbarians, and the Numidians. He enuironed it 
with most impregnable walles, and built therein a 
sumptuous temple, supported with stately pillers. The 
saide HuQjba after the death of Hutmen was ordained prince 
of Muchauia, and gouerned the same till the time of Qtialid 
Califa the sonne of Habdul Malicf^ who as then raigned 
in Damasco : this Qualid sent a ccrtaine captaine called 
Muse the sonne of Nosair^ with an huge armie vnto 
Cairaoan : who hauing staled a fewe daies with his armie 
not farre from Cairaoan, marched westward, sacking and 
spoiling townes and cities, till he came to the Ocean sea 
shore, and then he returned towards Cairaoan againe. 
From whence he sent as his deputie a certaine captaine 
into Mauritania, who there also conquered many regions 
and cities. Insomuch that Muse being mooued with a 
iealous emulation, commanded him to staie till himselfe 
came. His said Deputie therefore called T'-cxwA encamped 
himselfe not far from Andaluzia, whither Muse within 4 
months came vnto him with an huge armie. From whence 
both of them with their armies crossing the seas, arriued 
in Granada, and so marched by lande against the Goths. 


Against whom Theodoricus the king of Goths opposing 
himselfe in battaile, was miserablie vanquished. Then the 
foresaide two captaines with all good successe proceeded 
euen to Castilia, and sacked the citie of Toledo, where 
amongst much other treasure, they founde many reliques 
of the saints, and the very same table whereat Christ sate 
with his blessed Apostles, which being couered with pure 
gold and adorned with great store of precious stones, was 
esteemed to be woorth halfe a million of ducates, and this 
table Muse carrying with him as if it had beene all the 
treasure in Spaine, returned with his armie ouer the sea, 
and bent his course towarde Cairaoan. And being in the 
meane space sent for by the letters of Qualid Califa^ he 
sailed into Egypt : but arriuing at Alexandria, it was tolde 
him by one Hescian^ brother vnto the saide Calif a^ that the 
Call/a his brother was fallen into a most dangerous 
disease : wherefore he wished him not to goe presently 
unto Damasco, for feare least if the Califa. died in the 
meane season, those rich and sumptuous spoiles should 
be wasted and dispersed to no ende. But Muse little 
regarding this counsell, proceeded on to Damasco, and 
presented all his spoiles to the Califa^ who within fiue 
daies after deceased. After whom his brother succeeding 
CalifUy depriued Muse of his dignitie, and substituted one 
lezul into his roome, whose sonne, brother, and nephewes 
succeeding, gouerned the citie of Cairaoan,^ till such time 
as the familie of Qualid was depriued of that dignitie, and 
one Elagleb was appointed lieutenant, who gouerned not 
the towne as a Califa : from that time the Mahumetan 
Califas leauing Damasco, remooued vnto Bagaded, as we 
find recorded in a certaine Chronicle.^ After the decease 
of Elagleb^ succeeded his sonne, and the gouernment 
remained vnto his posterie for an hundred threescore and 
ten yceres, till such time as they were depriued thereof by 
one Mahdi Califa,^ But at the same time when Elagleb was 

3 A 2 


gouernour, the citie of Cairaoan was so increased both with 

inhabitants, and building^s, that a towne called Recheda 

was built next vnto it, where the prinee and his nobles 

The isle of vscd to remaincJ^ In his time also the Isle of Sicilia was 

Sicilu subdued c r^t t i i • i 

byihegouem- woonc : for ^/(CZ^/<?^ Sent thither a ccrtainc captaine called 
ouroj . ff^i^^^^i^^ ^j^Q built vpon the said Island a towne instead 

of a forte, calling it according to his owne name Halcama^ 
which name is vsed by the Sicilians euen till this presentJ^ 
Afterward this new towne was beseiged by certaine people 
that came to aide the Sicilians. Whereupon one Ased was 
sent with an armie, & so the Moores forces being augmented 
they conquered the residue of Sicilia, by which meanes the 
dominions of Cairaoan began woonderfully to increase. 
The citie of Cairaoan standeth vpon a sandie and desert 
plaine, which beareth no trees, nor yet any come at all. 
Corne is brought thither from Susa, from Monaster, and 
from Mahdia, all which townes are within the space of 
forty miles. About twelue miles from Cairaoan standeth 
a certaine mountaine called Gueslet, where some of the 
Romaines buildings are as yet extant: this mountaine 
aboundeth with springs of water and carobs, which springs 
run downe to Cairaoan, where otherwise they shoulde haue 
no water but such as is kept in cesternes.^^ Without the 
wals of this citie raine water is to be found in certaine 
cesternes onely till the beginning of lune. In sommer 
time the Arabians vse to resort vnto the plaines adioining 
vpon this towne, who bring great dearth of corne and 
water, but exceeding plentie of dates and flesh with them, 
and that out of Numidia, which region is almost an hundred 
threescore and ten miles distant. In this citie for certaine 
yeeres the studie of the Mahumetan lawe mightily flourished, 
so that heere were the most famous lawyers in all Africa. 
It was at length destroied, and replanted againe with 
newe inhabitants, but it coulde neuer attaine vnto the 
former estate. At this present it is inhabited by none but 


leather-dressers, who sende their leather vnto the cities of 
Numidia, and exchange it also for cloth of Europe. How- 
beit they are so continually oppressed by the king of Tunis, 
that now they are brought vnto extreme miserie/* 

Of the citie of Capes, 

THis ancient citie built by the Romaines vpon the 
Mediterran sea, was fortified with most high and 
stately walles, and with a strong castle.''* lust by it 
runneth a certaine riuer of hot and salt water.^^ It hath 
continually been so molested by the Arabians, that the 
inhabitants abandoning their citie, resorted vnto certaine 
plaines replenished with great abundance of dates, which 
by a certaine arte are preserued all the yeere long. Heere 
is also digged out of the grounde a kinde of fruite about 
the bignes of a beane, and in taste resembling an almond. 
This fruite being ordinarie ouer all the kingdome of Tunis, 
is called by the Arabians Habhaziz.^® The inhabitants The fruit 
of the foresaide plaine are blacke people, being all of them ^haziz. 
either fishers, or husbandmen. 

Of tlu towne called El Hamma, 

THis most ancient towne ^^ founded also by the 
Romans, and being distant from Capes almost 
fifteene miles, is enuironed with most stately and strong 
walles : aud vpon certaine marble stones therein are 
engrauen diuers monuments of antiquitie. The streets 
and buildings of this towne are very base, and the inhabi- 
tants miserable, and addicted to robberie. Their fields are 
barren and vnprofitable, and will bring foorth nought but 
certaine vnsauorie dates. A mile and a halfe to the south 
of this towne beginneth a certaine riuer of hot water to a riuer of hot 
spring, which being brought thorough the midst of the 
citie by certaine chanels is so deepe, that it will reach vp 
to a mans nauell : howbeit by reason of the extreme heat 


of the water, there are but few that will enter thereinto. 
And yet the inhabitants vse it for drinke, hauing set it a 
cooling almost an whole day. At length this riuer not far 
from the towne maketh a certaine lake, which is called the 
Theiakfof lake of leaocrs : for it is of woonderfull force to heale the 

lepers. ^ 

disease of leprosie, and to cure leprous sores : wherefore 
neere vnto it are diuers cottages of lepers, some of whom 
are restored to their health. The saide water tasteth in a 
manner like brimstone, so that it will nothing at all quench 
a mans thirst, whereof I my selfe haue had often triall. 

Of the castle of Machres, 

THe castle of Machres^® was built by the Africans in 
my time vpon the entrance of the gulfe of Capes, to 
defend the same region from the inuasion of the enemie. 
It is almost fiue hundred miles distant from the isle of 
Gerbi. All the inhabitants are either wcauers, shipwrights, 
or fishermen, and haue traffike & recourse ouer all the 
foresaid isle. They haue al the same language that the 
^ people of the isle of Gerbi vse : but because they want 
grounds and possessions, al of them, saue the weauers. 
Hue only vpon theft & robbery. 

Of t/te isle of Gerbi or Zerbiy where lohn Leo the Author 

of this Historic was taken by Italian pirates ^ and 

carried thence to Rome, 

THis islc^® being neere vnto the firme land of Africa, 
and consisting of a plaine and sandie ground, 
aboundeth exceedingly with dates, vines, oliues, and other 
fruits, and containcth about eighteen miles in compasse. 
It hath also certaine farmes and granges, which are so 
farre distant asunder, that you shall scarce finde two or 
three in one village. Their ground is drie and barren, 
which though it be neuer so well tilled, will yeeld but a 


little barlie. And here come and flesh is alwaies at an 
exceeding rate. At the sea shore standeth a strong castle,, 
wherein the gouernour of the whole Island and his retinue 
haue their abode. Not farre from hence there is a certaine 
village,^ where the Christian, Mauritanian, and Turkish 
merchants haue their place of residence ; in which place 
there is a great market or faire weekely kept, whither 
all the merchants of the Island and many Arabians from 
the maine land with great store of cattle and wooll doe 
resort The inhabitants of the Isle bring cloth thither to 
sell, which they themselues make, and this cloth togither 
with great store of raisins they vsually transport vnto 
Tunis, and Alexandria to be solde. Scarce fiftie yeeres 
sithence this Isle was inuaded and conquered by Chris- 
tians : but it was immediately recouered by the king of 
Tunis.^ And presently after (new colonies being heere 
planted) the foresaide castle was reedified : which the 
kings of Tunis afterwarde enioied. But after the death of 
king Hutmen the Islanders returned to their former liber- 
tie, and presently broke the bridge from the Island to the 
maine lande, fearing least they shoulde be inuaded by 
some land-armie. Not long after the said Islanders 
slaying the king of Tunis his gouemours of the Isle, haue 
themselues continued gouemours thereof till this present. 
Out of this Island is gathered the summe of fowerscore 
thousand Dobles (euery Doble containing an Italian 
ducate, and one third part) for yeerely tribute, by reason 
of the great concourse and resort of the merchants of 
Alexandria, Turkic, and Tunis. But now because they 
are at continuall dissension and controuersie, their estate 
is much impaired. In my time Don Ferdinando king oiThearmieof 
Spaine, sent a great armada ageinst this Island, vnder the nando defeated, 
conduct of the duke of Alua, who not knowing the nature 
of the same, commanded his soldiers to land a good 
distance from thence : but the Moores so valiantly defended 


their Island, that the Spaniards were constrained to giue 
backe : and so much the greater was their distresse, in 
that they coulde not finde water sufficient to quench their 
extreme thirst. Moreouer at the Spaniards arriuall it 
was a full tide, but when they would haue returned on 
bourd, it was so great an ebbe, that their ships were con- 
strained to put to sea, least they shoulde haue beene cast 
vpon the sholdes. The shore was drie for almost fower 
miles togither, so that the Spanish soldiers were put vnto 
great toile, before they coulde come to the waters side. 
And the Moores pursued them so eagerly, that they slew 
and took prisoners the greatest part of them, and the 
residue escaped by shipping into Sicilia. Afterwarde the 
GerHmade Empcrour CharUs the fift sent a mightie fleete thither 

tributarie vnto 

Charles the fift vxiA^x the conduct of a Rhodian knight of the order of 

by meancs ^/ ^ f, . ,. . . 

knight of the Samt lohfi dc Messina^ who so discreetly behaued himselfe 
in that action, that the Moores compounded to pay fiue 
thousand Dobles for yeerly tribute, vpon condition of the 
Emperours league and goodwill, which yeerely tribute is 
payde vntil this present.^^ 

Of the towne of Zoara. 

THis towne built by the Africans vpon the Mediterran 
sea, standeth eastward from the Isle of Gerbi 
almost fiftie miles. The towne wall is weak and the 
inhabitants are poore people, being occupied about nothing 
but making of lime and plaistring, which they sell in the 
kingdome of Tripoli. Their fields are most barren : and 
the inhabitants haue continually beene molested by the 
invasions of the Christians, especially since the time that 
they woon Tripolis.^ 


Of the towne of Lepide, 

THis ancient towne founded by the Romans, and 
enuironed with most high and strong walles, hath 
twise been sacked by the Mahumetans, and of the stones 
and ruines thereof was Tripolis afterward built.^ 

Of the aide citie of Tripolis. 

OLde Tripolis built also by the Romans, was after 
woon by the Goths, and lastly by the Mahumetans, 
in the time of Califa Homar the second. Which 
Mahumetans hauing besieged the gouernour of Tripoli six 
moneths together, compelled him at length to flee vnto 
Carthage. The citizens were partly slaine, and partly 
carried captiue into Egypt and Arabia, as the most famous 
African Historiographer Ibnu Rachith reporteth.^ 

Of the new citie of Tripolis in Barbarie. 

Fter the destruction of old Tripolis,^ 
there was built another city of that 
name : which city being inuironed 
with most high and beautifull wals, 
but not verie strong, is situate vpon 
a sandie plaine, which yeeldeth great PUntieof 
store of dates. The houses of this 
citie are most stately in respect of the houses of Tunis : 
and heere also euerie trade and occupation hath a seuerall 
place. Weauers here are many. They haue no wels nor 
fountaines ; but all their water is taken out of cesterns. 
Come in this citie is at an exceeding rate ; for all the fields 
of Tripoli are as sandie and barren as the fields of 
Numidia. The reason whereof is, for that the principall 
and fattest grounds of this region are ouerflowed with the 
sea. The inhabitants of this region aflfirme, that the 
greatest part of their fields northward are swallowed vp by 


the Mediterran sea, the like whereof is to be seene in the 
territories of Monaster, Mahdia, Asfacos, Capes, the Isle 
of Gerbi, and other places more eastward, where the sea for 
the space of a mile is so shallow, that it will scarce reach 
vnto a mans nauell. Yea, some are of opinion, that the 
citie of Tripolis it selfe was situate in times past more to 
the north, but by reason of the continuall inundations of 
the sea, it was built and remooved little and little south- 
ward ; for proofe whereof there stand as yet ruines of 
houses drowned in certaine places of the sea.^ In this 
citie were many faire temples and colledges built, and an 
hospitall also for the maintenance of their owne poore 
people, and for the entertainment of strangers. Their fare 
is verie base and homely, beeing onely the forenamed 
Besis made of barley meale : for that region affoordeth so 
small quantitie euen of barley, that he is accounted a 
wealthie man that hath a bushell or two of corne in store. 
The citizens are most of them merchants ; for Tripolis 
standeth neere vnto Numidia and Tunis, neither is there 
any citie or towne of account between it and Alexandria : 
neither is it far distant from the Isles of Sicilia and Malta : 
and vnto the port of Tripolis Venetian ships yeerly resort, 
and bring thither great store of merchandize. This citie 
hath alwaies been subject unto the king of Tunis : but 
when Abulhasen the king of Fez besieged Tunis, the king of 
Tunis was constrained with his Arabians to flee into the 
deserts. Howbeit when Abulhasen was conquered, the 
king of Tunis returned to his kingdome : but his subiects 
began to oppose themselues against him : and so that 
common-wealth was afterward greuiously turmoyled with 
ciuill dissensions and warres. Whereof the king of Fez 
hauing intelligence, marched the fifth yeere of the said 
cuill warre with an armie against the citie of Tunis, and 
hauing vanquished the king thereof, and constrained him 
to flee vnto Constantina, he so straitly besieged him, that 


the citizens of Constantina seeing themselues not able to 
withstad the king of Fez, opened their citie gates to him 
and to all his armie. Whereupon the king of Tunis was 
carried captiue vnto Fez, and was afterward kept a while 
prisoner in the castle of Septa.^ In the meane season 
Tripolis was by a Genouese fleete of twentie sailes surprised J^^Jl^fl^^^ 
and sacked, and the inhabitants carried away captiue. Genowaies, 
Whereof the king of Fez beeing aduertised, gaue the 
Genoueses fiftie thousand ducates vpon condition that he 
might enioy the towne in peace. But the Genoueses 
hauing surrendred the towne, perceiued after their departure, 
that most of their ducates were counterfait.® Afterward 
the king of Tunis being restored vnto his former liberty by 
Abuselim king of Fez, returned home vnto his kingdome, 
and so the gouernment thereof remained vnto him and his 
posteritie, till Abubar the sonne of Hutmen togither with 
his yoong sonne was slaine in the castle of Tripolis by a 
nephew of his, who afterward usurped the kingdome : but 
he was slaine in a battell which he fought against Habdul 
Mumetiy who presently thereupon became Lord of Tripolis. 
After him succeeded his sonne ZachariaSy who within a 
few moneths dyed of the pestilence. After Zacharias, 
Mucamen the sonne of Hesen and cosin to Zacharias was 
chosen king ; who beginning to tyrannize ouer the citizens 
was by them expelled out of his kingdome : and afterward 
a certaine citizen was aduanced vnto the royall throne, who 
gouemed verie modestly. But the king which was before 
expelled sent an armie of souldiers against Tripolis, who 
loosing the field, were all of them put to flight. Afterward 
the king that began to raigne so modestly, prooued a verie 
tyrant, and being murthered by his kinsman, the people 
made choise of a certaine nobleman, leading as then an 
Hermites life, and in a manner against his will appointed 
him their gouernour : and so the gouernment of the citie 
of Tripolis remained vnto him and his posteritie, till such 


time as king Ferdinando sent Don Pedro de Nauarra 
^^^db^d ^S^'"^^ *^ • ^^^ ^"^ ^^ sudden encountring this citie, 
de Nauarra. carried away many captiues with him. The gouernour of 
Tripoh's and his sonne in lawe were sent prisoners vnto 
Messina. Where, after certaine yeeres imprisonment, they 
were restored by the Emperour Charles the fift vnto their 
former libertie, and returned vnto Tripolis, which towne 
was afterward destroyed by the Christians. The castle of 
Tripolis being enuironed with most strong walles, begin (as 
I vnderstand) to be replanted with new inhabitants. And 
thus much as concerning the cities of the kingdome of 


Of the mountaines belonging to t/te state of Bugia, 

^He territorie of Bugia is full of ragged, high, and 
woodie mountaines : the inhabitants being a noble, 
rich, and liberall people, and possessing great store of 
goats, oxen, and horses, haue alwaies continued in libertie, 
since the time that Bugia was surprised by the Christians. 
The people of these mountaines vse to haue a blacke 
crosse vpon one of their cheekes, according to the ancient 
custome before mentioned. Their bread is made of barly, 
and they haue abundance of nuts and figs vpon those 
mountaines, especially which are neere vnto Zoaoa : in 
jron-mities. somc placcs of thcsc mountaincs are certaine mines of 
iron, whereof they make a kinde of coine of halfe a pound 
weight. They haue also another sort of siluer coine 
weighing fower graines a pecce : these mountaincs yeeld 
abundance of wine and hempe ; but their linnen-cloath that 
they weaue is exceeding course. And these mountaines 
of Bugia extende in length vpon the coast of the Mediterran 
sea almost a hundred and fiftie, and in bredth fortie miles : 
each mountaine containeth inhabitants of a diuers kinred 
and generation from others, whom because they liue all 
after one manner, we will passe ouer in silence.^^ 


Of mount Auraz, 

THis exceeding high and populous mountaine is in- 
habited with most barbarous people, that are wholy 
addicted vnto robberie and spoile. From Bugia it is 
distant fowerscore, and from Constantina almost three- 
score miles. Also being separated from other mountaines 
it extendeth about threescore miles in length. Southward 
it bordereth vpon the Numidian deserts, and northward 
vpon the regions of Mesila, Stefe, Nicaus, and Constantina. 
From the very toppe of this mountaine issue diuers 
streames of water, which running downe into the next 
plaines, increase at length into a lake, the water whereof in 
sommer time is salt. The passage vnto this mountaine is 
very difficult, in regard of certain cruell Arabians.®^ 

Of the mountaine of Constantina, 

A LI the north and west part of the territorie belonging 
to the citie of Constantina is full of high moun- 
taines, which beginning at the borders of Bugia, extend 
themselues to the Mediterran sea, euen as farre as Bona, 
that is to say, almost an hundred and thirtie miles. Their 
fields vpon the plaines are replenished with oliues, figges, 
and all other kindes of fruites, which are carried in great 
quantitie vnto the next townes and cities : all the inhabi- 
tants for ciuill demeanour excell the citizens of Bugia, and 
do exercise diuers manuarie arts, and weaue great store of 
linnen cloth. They are at continuall dissention among 
themselues, by reason that their women will so often 
change husbands. They are exceeding rich, and free from 
all tribute : and yet dare they not till their plaines, both 
• for feare of the Arabians, and also of the gouernours of 
the next cities. Euerie weeke vpon sundry daies heere is 
a market, greatly frequented with merchants of Constan- 
tina, & of other places: and whatsocucr merchant hath no 


friend nor acquaintace dwelling vpon the mountaines, is in 
great hazard to be notablie cozened. Vpon these moun- 
taines they haue nether iudges, priests, nor yet any learned 
men : so that when any of the inhabitants would write a 
letter vnto his friend, he must trudge vp and downe some- 
time twclue, and sometime fifteene miles to seek a scribe. 
Footemen for the warres they haue almost fortie thousand, 
and about fower thousand horsemen. The inhabitants are 
men of such valour, that if they agreed among themselues, 
they woulde soone be able to conquer all Africa.'^ 

Of the mountaines of Bona, 

THe citie of Bona hath on the north part the Mediter- 
ran sea, on the south and west parts certaine 
mountaines adioining almost vnto the mountaines of Con- 
stantina, and on the east side it hath most fruitfull fieldes 
and large plaines, whereupon in times past were diuers 
townes and castles, built by the Romains : the mines 
whereof are now onely remaining, and the names quite 
forgotten. All these regions by reason of the Arabians 
crueltie are so desolate, that they are inhabited in but 
very fewe places ; and there they are constrained to keepe 
out the Arabians by force of armes. The mountaines of 
Bona extend in length from east to west almost forescore 
miles, and in bredth* about thirtie miles. Heere are great 
store of fountaines, from whence certaine riuers issue, 
running through the plaines into the Mediterran sea. 

Of the mountaines standing neere vnto Tunis. 

THe citie of Tunis standing vpon a plaine hath no 
mountaines nigh vnto it, but onely on the west 
side towards the Mediterran sea, where it hath a moun- 
taine like vnto that which enuironeth Carthage. Neere 
vnto Tunis standeth another high and colde mountaine 
called Zagoan : inhabitants heere are none at all but a 


' excellent 


fewe that tende the Bee-hiues, and gather some quantitie 
of barly. Vpon the toppe of this mountaine the Romaines 
built certaine forts, the ruines whereof are yet to be seene, 
hauing epitaphes engrauen vpon them in Latine letters. 
From this mountaine vnto Carthage, water is conueighed 
by certaine passages vnder the ground.^ 

Of the mountaines of Beni Tefren and Nufusa, 

THese high and colde mountaines are distant from the 
desert, from Gerbi, and from Asfacus almost thirtie 
miles, and yeelde very small store of barly. The inhabi- 
tants being valiant, and renouncing the law of Mahumet, 
do follow the doctrine of the patriarke of Cairaoan in most 
points, neither is there any other nation among the 
Arabians that obserue the same doctrine. In Tunis and 
other cities these people earne their lining by most base 
occupations, neither dare they openly professe their 

Of mount Garian. 

THis high and cold mountaine containing in length 
fortie & in bredth fifteene miles, and being 
separated from other mountaines by a sandie desert, is 
distant from Tripolis almost fiftie miles. It yeeldeth 
great plentie of barly and of dates, which vnlcsse they 
be spent while they are new, will soon prooue rotten. 
Heere are likewise abundance of oliues : Wherefore from 
this mountaine unto Alexandria and other cities there 
is much oile conueighed. There is not better saffron to Afost excellent 


be found in any part of the world besides, which in regard 
of the goodnesse is solde very deere. For yeerely tribute 
there is gathered out of this mountaine threescore thousand 
ducates, and as much saffron as fifteene mules can carrie. 
They are continually oppressed with the exactions of the 
Arabians, and of the king of Tunis. They haue certaine 
base villages vpon this mountaine.®^ 


Of mount Bent Guarid, 

THis mountaine being almost an hundred miles distant 
from Tripolis, is inhabited with most valiant & 
stout people, which Hue at their owne libertie, and are 
at continual war with the people of the next mountaines, 
& of the Numidian desert.^ 

Of the castle called Casr Acmed. 

THis castle builte vpon he Mediterran sea by a 
captaine which came with an armie into Africa, 
standeth not farre from Tripolis, and was at the last laide 
waste by the Arabians.* 

O^ the castle of Subeica. 

THe castle of Subeica erected about the same time 
when the Mahometans came into Africa, was in 
times past wel furnished with inhabitants, being afterward 
dcstroied by the Arabians, and nowe it harboreth a fewe 
fishers onely.^ 

0/ the castle ccdled Casr Hessin, 

THis castle was founded by the Mahumetans vpon 
the Mediterran sea, and was afterward destroyed 
by the Arabians.^^ 

Here endeth the fifth booke. 


( I ) Bujaia, Bejaia, the modem Bugia, or Bougie, an ancient kingdom 
now part of Algeria, Its history is identical with that of the city of 
same name, which was for so long its capital and a seat of the Arabic 
learning. One of the most beautifully situated spots in the world, it 
seems to have been occupied at a very early date. The Carthaginians 
had an emporium here, and a colony was established in this place by 
Augustus, under the name of Saldae, or, according to an inscription, 
Colonia Julia Augusta Saldantum. For a time it was part of the 
suflfragan kingdom of Juba II, and until ruined by the Arab invasion 
must have been an important centre. In a.d. 484 Paschasin, its 
bishop, took part in the Council of Carthage convoked by Hunerik. 
Even after the Vandals captured it, Guraia (mountain), as they 
re-named it (and the name is still retained for a hill in the vicinity), 
remained their capital until the taking of Carthage. £n-Naser 
(A.H. 460, A.D. 1067- 1068), called it (according to Ibn Khaldoun) 
after himself, £n-Naceria, after he made it his capital, though all 
the world spoke of it as " Bedjaia, the name of a tribe". His 
son, El-Mansur, by the help of 1,100 artizans sent here by the Pope, 
with whom he was on excellent terms, still further beautified "the 
mountain" city. Under the Almohades, Beni-Hafs, Beni-Merini, Beni- 
Zeiyan, and again under the Beni-Hafs (who held it until 5th January 
1 5 10, when Pedro Navarro captured it). Bougie enjoyed a chequered 
prosperity. After the repulse of Charles V at Algiers (1545), the 
Algerines, under Saleh Reis, so far took courage as to compel the 
Spaniards to surrender (1555). After this Bougie continued in their 
hands, gradually decaying, until on the 29th Sept. 1833, *t was easily 
occupied by the French. The King of Tunis who recovered Bougie 
from the Beni-Zeiyan of Tlemsen was Abu Fares (p. 691), who died 
A.H. 837 (A.D. 1414). The division of his empire among three sons is 
mentioned by Marmol, copying Leo. These sons were Abu Abd 
Allah Abd el- Aziz (" Habdulhaziz") — who, according to El-Kairouini 
(Hist, de PAfrique^ trans. Pellissier et R^musat, p. 260), succeeded 
him in the government of Tunis, no mention being made of the civil 
wars— Othman (" Hutmen"), and Omar (" Hammare"), who was 
captured in Sphax (" Asfacos"). It was not Othman, but Abd er- 
Rahman, a descendant of that Prince, who had to surrender to Pedro 
Navarro in 1 5 10, though in reality his nephew, Abd Allah, who had 



been dethroned by his uncle, was the legitimate sovereign. — Pellissier, 
"Memoires historiquesetg^graphiques s\xx\Ps\%€x\€^(^ExpLscienHfigue 
de PAlgMe^ t. vi, pp. 14, 22, 84) ; Lapene, Vingt-six mots d Bougicy 
ou Collection de Mdtnoires sur sa ConquUe^ etc., pp. 4-7 ; Feraud, 
" Histoire de Bougie", Rec. de Not. et Mint. Soc, Arch. Consiantinej 
1869, pp. 85-408, etc. ; Letter of Ferdinand the Catholic to Count 
Don Pedro Navarro, Captain-General in Africa, De la Primaudace, 
Hist, de P occupation Espagnole en AJrique (1506- 15 74), p. 14. 

(2) This was probably the fort erected by En-Naser and destroyed 
by the Spaniards. Its former name was Borj el-Ahmar — " the red 
fort'*. At a later date it was re-erected and called Borj bu-laila, that 
is, the fort erected in a single night. The ground in the vicinity is 
covered with stones and earth of a brownish-red colour, testifying to the 
origm of its primitive name. In the Azuagues, whom Marmol speaks 
of as the Berbers in the vicinity of Bougie, Feraud recognises the 
Bene-Azak (lazaguen), Revue Africainey t ii, 458, t iii, 45, 296. 

For "plaster work", mosaics (musaiche) is the proper rendering. 
" Stufe", stove rooms (baths), is omitted in the translation. 

(3) The date of Pedro Navarro capturing Bougie is given by Leo as 
A.H. 917, and Marmol affirms that the town was thirty-five years "in 
the power of the Kings of Castile". In reality, both dates are wrong, 
for the Spaniards, as we have seen, took Bougie in 15 10, and lost it in 

(4) Jcjel, Jijelly, built on the site of the Roman Colonia Igilgilis. 
—Feraud, " Hist, de Gigelli", Rec. de Not. et Mint. Soc. Arch. Const., 
voL xiv, p. I. 

(5) M'sila, the Messeelah of Shaw, on the southern skirts of El- 
Huthna. It is the El-Mesila of Abu-1-feda, who says that it was "a 
modem town built by the Fatimites of Egypt". El-Azzi asserts that 
its founder was Kiim-Billa, the Fatemite (a.h. 315), who called it El- 
Mohammadiyya. According to him it was a " superb city", plentifully 
supplied with water. Hence its name, M^sila, which means " watered 
by a stream". El-Bekri is equally lavish in his praise of M'sila, 
and speaks of the beauty of the peach, apricot, and other fruit-tree 
gardens around it. Though the climate was too cold for dates, cotton 
was grown. Ibn Haukel gives Wad Seker as the name of the river 
by which it stands, and also notes cotton, wheat and barley among its 
crops, adding that horses, cattle, and sheep were very plentiful on the 
mountain pastures. The Algerines kept a small garrison here. — 
Dureau de la Malle, Province de Constantine; Recueil de Renseigne- 
ments pour VexpMtion ou Pdtablissement des Francois dans cette 
par tie de PA/rique septentrionale (1837), p. 73. 


(6) Setif, the Setifis Colonia of the Romans, and the capital of 
Mauritania Setifensis. Recently disinterred inscriptions show that it 
was also called Augusta Martialis, and Colonia Nerviana. It was the 
seat of a bishop. Though frequently plundered by the Vandals and 
Arabs, and in 419 almost ruined by an earthquake, of which St. 
Augustine takes notice, El-Bekri described the city of his day as 
well populated and flourishing. The present town, which lies 3,573 feet 
above sea level, is entirely modem. 

(7) Nekaus, Nigaous, Mgaous, Nic-kowse of Shaw, " Ben-cowse 
as the Turks call it, where there is a garrison of one Suffrah [a com- 
pany of about twenty], a mud-walled rampart, and three pieces of 
cannon". Their patron saint was, and is, Sidi Laifan, in that day so 
popular that out of the revenues of his sanctuary two hundred Talibs 
were supported. The rivulet (Wad Barika) which runs past is so 
impregnated with nitrous particles from the soil, as to be unfit for 
domestic purposes. A rival to the Rusgunia (p. 698) tale of the 
Seven Sleepers is pointed out here in the shape of a ruined city — out 
of the pillars of which they build houses— and the actual tombs of the 
legendary youths, the Mosque of the Seven Sleepers, is divided 
by three lines of columns, two of which bear inscriptions. 

Mannert considered the ruins from which these columns were taken 
to be those of Ad oculum Marinum. The shade of trees and beautiful 
fountains of Nekaus impart to it the materials for an attractive town, 
built for the most part of " tob" or sun-dried bricks. 

(8) Collo, El-Kollo, the Kollops Magnus (KouXXou or K6XXo-^ A^fya;) 
of Ptolemy, the Chulli municipium of the Antonine Itinerary^ the 
Colonia Minervia Chullu and Colonia Chullitana of inscriptions 
found here. Pliny and Solinus write the name Cullu, and in the 
list of bishops the same orthography is used. — Mercelli, Africa 

The Arab historians refer to the Mersa el- Collo, the Ancollo of the 
older geographers. 

The town is now an unimportant native trading place of 2,000-3,000 
inhabitants. It was at Collo that Pedro of Aragon landed, on the 
28th June 1282 (A.H. 681), nominally to help Abu Bekr Ibn Uizer, 
governor of Constantine,in his war against his brother, the King of Tunis 
— though actually to mask his own designs against the House of Anjou 
^Ei'Katroudniy pp. 249 etseq. Pellissier, MJm, hist, et ^dographiques 
sur rAlgMe^ pp. 5-6 ; Zureta, Annates d^Aragon^ 1. iv, etc. Solinus 
mentions Culla as a flourishing centre for purple-dyeing, a prosperity 
which it maintained in wax and leather to the Middle Ages, when the 
Pisans and Genoese did a great traffic with the mountain Berbers and 
plain Arabs, who met here on neutral ground. As late as 1684- 168 5, 

3 B 2 


it was one of the principal posts of the French African Company, but 
it never recovered from the rise of Philippeville. 

(9) Skidda, the ancient Rusicada, the modem Philippeville. The 
ancient city appears to have been dedicated to Venus, and the 
name to have been derived from the Phoenician Rus Cicar, or 
Rus Saddeh (the Cape of the Plain), from which comes the 
Arabic Ras Skidda. Scylax, however, speaks of Tapsus, a Phoenician 
town, having preceded the Roman one. In that case the etymology 
given above is scarcely acceptable.- Possibly, however, the Saf-saf 
River, which falls into the sea at this point, may be a corruption of 
Tapsus ? Sucaicada may be Suk el-Ahda — the Sunday market ? — 
Playfair, Algeria^ p. 119 ; Piesse, AlgMe^ p. 247. The archaeological 
treasures discovered are numerous and of great interest. 

(10) Constantine (Cugtin of Marmol) — the Kosantina or Kostantina 
of the Arabs, which name it owes to Flavins Constantinus, who, after 
the town had been wrecked in a.d. 311 in the war of Maxentius 
against Lucius Domitius Alexander, restored and embellished it, is 
perhaps to the historian and archaeologist the most interesting town 
in Algeria, and has had such full justice done as to make any general 
note upon it superfluous. 

It was the Kerth of the Massylanean kings, and up to 311 theCerta 
Sitianorum, or Cirta Juliana, of the Romans. The "blacke stones" 
which Leo described as embedded in the walls of Constantine, and 
as paving the road between that city and Philippeville, must have 
been slabs of the volcanic rock of the Hamman Meskutin, which 
stretches to Constantine. — Shaw, Travels^ p. 127 ; Poiret, Voyage en 
Barbarie^ t. i, p. 166 ; De la Malle, Constantine^ p. 46. 

(11) The Rummel. The Sufegmare is also called the Sufmare. 
Both names are variants of the Arab Sufjim-mar. — De la Malle, 
Constantine^ pp. 25, 35, 45 ; Hebenstreit, Nouv. ann. des Voyages^ 
t. xlvi, p. 64. 

Marmol calls the river the Sufegmar or Bumarzoc. There is a 
Wad Ramleh, pronounced indifferently Wad Rummel, near Taguira 
or Tripoli. It means, according to the Beecheys, " sandy river or sandy 
valley". — Proceedings of the Expedition to explore the Northern 
Coast of Africa^ p. 41, with Corpus Inscrip, Lat (1881), vol. vii, and 
BoxssxQxe^ L^ A IgMe Romaine^ 2 vols. {iZZ^\ passim^ iov the Roman 
antiquities of Algeria. 

(12) The King of Tunis "that now is" must have been Mulai 
Mohammed, who reigned from a.d. 1488 to a.d. 1526. Marmol, who 
copies Leo's account of the transactions described, adds in a note 
that he was the grandfather of Mulai Hassan. This could not be j 


for Mulai Mohammed succeeded his cousin, and Mulai Hassan 
succeeded his father Mohammed, whose reign extended over more 
than the entire period of which Leo had any personal knowledge. 

(13) The "strong castle" strengthened by El-Kaid Nabil was the 
old Kasba which dates back to the Romans, and, though rebuilt, is 
still the French citadel. 

(14) The ruins of this arch were standing at the time Shaw wrote : — 
" Among the ruins to the south-west of the bridge, upon the narrow 
strip of land just now described, we have the greatest part of a 
triumphal arch called The {Cassir Goulah) Castle (as they interpret it) 
of the Gianty consisting of three arches, the middlemost of which is the 
most spacious. All the Mouldings and Frizes are curiously embellished 
with the Figures of Flowers, Battle Axes, and other Ornaments. The 
Corinthian Pilasters, erected on each side of the grand Arch, are 
panelled, like the side-posts of the Gates of the City, in a Gusto^ as 
far as I have observed, peculiar to Certa ; but the Pillars of the same 
Order, which supported the Pediment, are broken down and defaced." 
— Travels, etc, ist ed., p. 128. The Ksar Gula, or "giant's castle", 
was perhaps part of the hippodrome, the remains of which were cleared 
away when the railway station was built. 

(15) This passage is extremely absurd in Por/s translation. For 
the word " tartarughe" (turtles, Clemmys leprosa (Schweigger) the 
common little fresh-water species of Barbary) is Englished " snailes", 
though Florianus translates " infinita quantitk di tartarughe" as 
" testudinum copia". Probably neither Florian nor Pory ever saw a 
tortoise or turtle. The turtles are still found in the hot water pools, 
though, since most of these have been utilised for baths, no longer as 
plentifully as before. Shaw described the " Kabat beer a-haal" — a 
" neat transparent fountain" — as " full of tortoises". The superstitions 
described were commoner in his day, but are not yet extinct. 

(16) This building does not now exist, having apparently, like so many 
Roman and Arab works, been destroyed to furnish materials for the 
rococo ()alaces of the Turkish beys. — For historical notes, cf, Feraud, 
Rec. de Not. et Mint, Sac, Arch, Constantine^ vol. xiii, p. i, etc. 

(17) Mila, the Roman colony of Milevum or Milev — "Colonia 
Samenis" (from the river Samus close by) " Milevitana". El Bekri 
described it as one of the principal towns of the province of Zab, and 
in other respects gave much the same information as Leo. Edrisi 
also refers to the trees and forests in the Mila gardens. Ibn Khaldoun 
mentions it among the towns belonging to the powerful Berber tribe 
of Ketama. As the residence of Saint Optat, an eminent father of the 
African Church, " Milevin" enjoyed a prominent position during the 


early days of Christianity, and within its walls councils were held in 
402 and 406. The Roman fountain, bubbling up in the centre of the 
town into a square basin, is still one of the sights of the place. The 
fruits, especially the pomegranates, are so fine that it is thought the 
town derived its name from them. Constantine is still largely supplied 
with vegetables and fruit from Mila— now a French city with a Berber 
quarter. — Tissot, Giog. Comp. de la Province Romaine d^Afrique^ 
t. ii, pp. 406, 407. 

(18) Annaba, Bona, Hippo Regius, Hippene, hence Bone, the modem 
name. A Berber village rose on its ruins, which in the time of El- 
Bekri bore the name of Medina Zaui. But the same geographer 
refers to it as Bona, and mentions that the place had received the 
designation of Bonat el-Jadida (the New Bona). Bled el-Anab, or 
Annaba, seems to dale from the sixteenth century. There is some 
foundation for the belief that the city was the still more ancient Aphro- 
disium, which some Arabic writers call Bouna. Ibn Haukel, writing 
in A.D. 970, describes it as having many bazaars, fine gardens, and 
abundance of everything, including mines of iron ; so that by attaching 
the Berbers to his person, the governor of the town was independent ; 
it was not, however, walled until a.d. 1058. Bone was a seat of some 
early Berber dynasties, which probably gave it the name of royal — 
"et antiquis dilectus regibus Hippo" {Silius Italicus^ iii, v, 259)^ 
The Vandals do not appear to have ruined it, for Procopius refers 
to it in 534 as a strong place. By the time the Byzantine historian 
took notice of it, the second word seems to have become part of the 
name — *\inrwi^i^i<;, — Temple, Excursions ytXjc,^ vol. i, pp. 64-80. 

(19) In 1152-53 a fleet sent by King Roger of Sicily, under the 
command of Philip of Mehedia, captured Bone and reduced the 
inhabitants to slavery. In A.D. 1249 the town was in the hands of the 
Hafsidi Sultan of Tunis, and a century later fell to Abu-1- Hassan, the 
Merinide (Beni-Merini). Towards the beginning of the sixteenth 
century the Tunisians again recovered it. In 1535 Kheir ed-Din 
garrisoned it, but the Turks evacuated the place on the capture of 
Tunis by Charles V. A Genoese garrison under Alvar Zagal took their 
place. But these free-lances, after having destroyed the fortifications, 
retired on the death of their commander, when the Tunisians once 
more entered, only in their turn' to give way to the Algerine Turks. 
After the French obtained possession of Algiers in 1830, the people of 
Bone threw off their allegiance to the Bey of Constantine, and became 
subject to France. 

Obhman, the third Khalif, completed what the Vandals (Goths) left 
undone. Leo only refers to St. Augustine as having been Bishop of 
Hippo. But here also he died in 431, during the long siege of the city 


by the Vandals, and in the Basilica of the city where he had resided 
for thirty-five years he was buried. Removed to Cagliari, his remains 
lay there for 223 years, until they were transferred to Pavia, where, 
with the exception of an arm which was taken to Bone in 1842, they 
still lie. 

(20) The town is now well supplied with water from the Jebel 
Edough, though, as the remains of the cistern and aqueduct show, 
the Romans had tapped the same sources. 

(21) Coral fishing is one of the most ancient industries of the coast. 
La Calle — Borj el-Kala — a short distance from the Tunisian frontier, 
was frequented for this purpose as early as a.d. 960 ; and, as Pliny 
mentions the rich coral fisheries hereabouts, it was, no doubt, still 
earlier a seat of this trade. The Bastion de France was built in a little 
bay west of the town for the convenience of the industry, and about as 
absolutely unscrupulous a set of scoundrels were engaged in it as can 
well be imagined. — Flayfair, A /^eria and Tunis, pp. 126, 127, and The 
Scourge of Christendom, pp. 239-241 ; Poiret, Voyage en Barbarie,\. i, 
pp. 6-24 ; Du Thiers Lacaze, HisL Nat, du Coraii; organisation, 
reproduction, piche en Algdrie et industrie (1864) ; De Cuverville de 
Cavalier, " La p^che du coraii sur les cotes de PAlg^rie" {Rev, 
Maritime ei Colon., 1875, pp. 404-43 J PP* 657-87), etc. The locality 
referred to by Iieo was probably the same — the Mers el-Jun of Edrisi, 
the Mers el-kharaz of El-Bekri, noted by both authors as seats of the 
coral fishery. The spot is close to Cape Rosa, still, or until very 
recently, noted for the beauty and abundance of its coral. — Shaw, 
Travels, p. 98 ; De la Malle, Constantine, p. 100. 

(22) Tifesh, the Tefacet of the Arabs, the ancient Tipasa referred 
to by El-Bekri as a place of great antiquity, containing many ancient 
ruins. It resisted the Arab invaders of Africa for a long time, but was 
finally ruined and rebuilt later. Musa en-Naser destroyed it a second 
time, and after rising from its ashes it fell, a.d. 1057, under the dis- 
pleasure of Mulai Nazer, son of the King of Tunis. — Tissot, La 
Province Romaine dAfrique, t. ii, pp. 387, 389. 

(23) A Roman station at least as early as the reign of Vespasian, 
when it was called Theveste (Civitas Thevestinorum). It was one of 
the earliest seats of an African bishopric, and here Saints Maxi- 
milian and Crispin suffered martyrdom. An Arab tradition says that 
Tebessa was taken by Okba in a.h. 45. At present the numerous 
Roman remains, scattered in or about the town, are its chief sources 
of interest It is watered by a tributary of the Wad Chabroa, the 
" great river" of Leo, which in its turn is an affluent of the Wad 
Meskiana. The modem town is really contained within the ancient 
Byzantine citadel, the walb of which, as described by Leo are still in 


tolerable preservation, though Playfair considers — ^justly, no doubt — 
built of still older materials. — Playfair, Travels in the Footsteps of 
Bruce^ pp. 103, 399 ; S^riziat, " Etudes sur Tebessa et sfes environs*', 
Bull, de r Acad. d'Hippone, No. 22 (1887), PP- 27-66. 

The chastisement described was inflicted in a.d. 15 10, and therefore 
in the reign of Mulai Abu Abd Allah Mohammed of Tunis. It is 
not mentioned by El-KairouAni. 

(24) Urbs is perhaps a misprint, or a misreading of the editor 
for El-Orbes (El-KairouAni, p. 249, etc), the ancient Lares 
(ablative Laribus), the Laribus of Procopius {De Bello Vandalico^ 

Edrisi also refers to Arbes, />., Loribus, or Laribus, or Lares, and 
Ebn Haukal writes of Obba (the modern Ebba), and Al-Orbos. — 
Marmol, LAfrique^ t. ii, 449 ; Mannert, Gdog, Ancienne des Etats 
Barbaresques (ed. Marcus et Duesberg), pp. 394, 687, 688 ; Gu^rin, 
Voyage Archdologique dans la Rdgence de Tunis^ t. ii, pp. 86, 87 ; 
Tissot, La Province Romaine, t. ii, 454, 459. 

(25) Beja, El-Beja, the Roman Vacca, or Vaga, was as early as 
Sallust's day a busy mercantile centre. It is the Baya of Procopius 
(the /3 pronounced as the V in Latin), the Oppidum Vagense of Pliny, 
the Colonia Septima Vaga of the inscription on a stone built in the 
mosque of Sidina ATssa ("Our Lord Jesus"), formerly a Christian 
basilica. Edrisi speaks of it as a great com market, and El-Bekri 
declares that it took 1,000 camels and other beasts of burden to carry 
off the surplus grain offered for sale in Beja. It was the seat of a 
bishop. — Gu^rin, Voyage Archiologique dans la R^gence de Tunis ^ 
t ii, pp. 38-49 ; Tissot, La Province Romaine, t. ii, pp. 6, 302 ; Playfair, 
Travels in the Footsteps of Bruce^ pp. 232-237. Cagnat, Revue 
Archiologiquey t. i, pp. 39-46, etc. 

(26) Perhaps Ain Samsed — cold spring. Destroyed in Leo's day, 
its site cannot now be identified. 

(27) Kasba=" the castle". 

(28) Destroyed before Leo's day. It cannot now be identified with 
any certainty. The name of " Coros" seems to have vanished. 

(29) Bizerta, a corruption of the Arabic Benzert, which appears 
again to be derived from Hippo Zarytus, or Diarrhytus, its name 
during its period as a Roman colony, to distinguish it from Hippo 
Regius (p. 750) — " Col. ivliae. Hipp. Diarr.", according to an inscrip- 
tion on a stone built into the wall of the Bordj Sidi Bu Hadid or 
" Spanish fort". Before this it was a Tyrian colony. The "lake" 
(Mazuka of the Arabs, Hipponitus Pallus of the Romans) still teems 
with fish, as it did in Leo's day. The exclusive right of fishing here. 


at Colette, and at Porto Farina, is let by the Tunisian government for 
a large annual rent. In two days Sir Lambert Playfair saw 10,000 
dorados, weighing about ten tons, and worth about £^00 in Tunis, 
taken from the outer lake, and 5,000 large mullets, worth £100, caught 
in the Tinja Channel (Wad Tinja) between the two lakes. 

(30) From what Leo says it would seem that four centuries ago 
there was still some of Carthage standing. El-Bekri describes the 
cisterns, the gymnasium, the aqueduct, the theatre, and the port 
as still in existence or easily traceable. Edrisi, a century and 
a half later, notices the same monuments of the city's greatness. 
But in addition vast ruins everywhere met the eye. For though 
Hassan ben el-Numan, a general of the Kalif Abdul Melik, is said to 
have entirely destroyed it in a.d. 706 (a.d. 689, or a.d. 694, according 
to other versions), that was a figure of speech. It was not in the 
f>ower of anyone, far less the Arabs of twelve centuries ago, to have 
as completely effaced the Roman Carthage as the Romans razed 
the Punic city which preceded it. They simply burnt what would 
bum, and gutted temples and private houses. But for generations 
subsequently the Arabs pulled down walls and dug out cellars in 
search of hidden treasure, of which to this day amazing oriental tales 
are told (Davies, Carthage, pp. 38, 41). Indeed, until the crusade in 
which St Louis fell in 1270, the ruined town was not abandoned by 
Arabs of a higher type than the j)Oor wretches who live and stable 
their cattle in the cisterns at Malka. Even in Leo's day there were 
500 houses, and about 25 shops, a mosque and a school. Yet down 
to a comparatively recent date, the ruins of Carthage formed 
an unexhausted mine of wrought marble for the Tunisians, the 
Pisans, and the Genoese. They provided, for instance, a store of 
materials for Ahmed Bey's palace at Constantine. Scarcely a ship 
came to Goletta but it carried off a load of the marble out of which so 
much of Carthage had been built. When Bruce visited it in 1765 
little remained except " the cisterns, aqueduct, and a magnificent flight 
of steps up to the temple of -/Esculapius". At present the two first of 
these objects are all that appear above ground, and the many excava- 
tions have not of late revealed much more under the surface. 

(31) " Lago della Goletta", erroneously translated " Lake of Tunis", 
is the ancient Stagnum. The Gulf of Tunis proper is the old Sinus 
Carthaginensis. A canal is now cut through the shallow lake (El- 
Bahira) from Goletta (Halk el- Wad) to Tunis. Pory has added 
" 1 526 " as the date when Leo wrote this brief description of Carthage. 
He must, however, have been there some time before 1520: for 1526 is 
simply the date of his Italian MS., which was written some years 
after he had been in Rome (see Introduction), 


(32) Here a characteristic trait of the Barbary sovereigns is omitted 
in the translation. For Leo explains that the reason for the Carthage 
College having no pupils was that the revenues might go to the 
king's court — " dimodoche Tentrata h della Camera del r^". He adds, 
in mentioning the exactions of the king on the residents of Carthage — 
"che niuno pu6 esser padrone di dieci ducati : la cui ingiuztizia a 
tutti h nota". The injustice of the king, and the difficulty of anyone 
becoming master of ten ducats, are old tales in Tunis. 

(33) This statement, which is also made by Edrisi (ed. Hartmann, 
p. 264), is evidently a fable due to the error of some copyist who has 
altered "Tounes" into "Tharsis" or Larsio. Such blunders are easily 
ipade in Arabic. — Castiglioni, M/m. Giog. et Numismatique sur la 
Partie Orientale de la Barbaric^ etc., p. 37. 

(34) Kairwan was founded by Okba ben Nafi ben Abdullah ben 
Kais el-Fahri, A.D. 675 (a.h. 55). The passage is obviously mistrans- 
lated. It is in the original **un Capitano detto Ucba di Utmen 
quarto pontefice". Okba was not a khalif, but as the text quite 
accurately states, a captain of Othman, the third Khalif. 

(35) Yussuf Ibn Tashfin, A.H. 453 (a.d. 1061). 

(36) Abd el-Mumen took Mehdia from Roger II of Sicily in A.D. 
1 160 (A.H. 555), leaving Ifrikia to the feeble Hassan Ibn Ali, the last 
prince of the Beni-MenAd Senhaja, whom he re-established as his 

(37) These sovereigns were : Abu Yakub Yussuf (Joseph) and Abu 
Yussuf Yakub (Jacob). El-Mansur was Jacob. His son was Moham- 
med en-Naser (Mahomet Ennasir). The blunder is in Leo's original 
Italian, "e i discendenti Giacob e Mansor*'. Yussuf el- Mostansir was 
the son, not the brother, of En-Naser. 

(38) Abu Mohammed Abd el-Wahed ben Abu Hafs. 

(39) Abu Zakaria Yahia (a.d. 1228). He built the Kasba and its 
mosque in Tunis. 

(40) Abd Allah Mohammed el-Mustamer. His father had in 
reality (a.h. 639, A.D. 1242) made himself master of Tlemsen during 
the reign of lagnum ben-Zeiyan (El-Kairouini, p. 220). 

(41) Bab Suwaika — in original Beb Suvaica — on the north, leading to 
Susa and the coast. 

(42) Beb el-Manera in the original. It does not now exist, or at 
least not under that name. 

(43) Bab el-Bahr, on the east —the " sea gate" proper, opening to 
the lake—" lago della Goletta", not " Gulf of Tunis" as translated. 


The other gates are the Bab el-Hathera, the Bab Abd er-Salem, 
and the Bab es-Sajen, the Bab Sidi Abdullah, and the Bab Sidi Alewa, 
leading to Zaghuan. 

The Bab es-Silsah, near the Kasbah, under which it was death for 
a Christian to pass, is now closed. 

(44) Textile work is still the chief manufacturing industry of Tunis. 
The kind of spinning described may still be occasionally seen in the 
old Moorish streets. 

(45) Besis, el-Bezin, Zumeita, Mogatta, Dweeda, Fetaat, etc., are 
dishes of which the chief ingredient is flour or some other form 
of &rina. They are still commonly used among the Arab and 
Berber races. The making of Bezin (Bazeen, in Fezzan called 
Aseeda) is minutely described by Lyon, Travels in Northern AfricUy 
pp. 49-50. 

(46) The description given by Leo still applies ; though the occu- 
pation of Tunis by the French has naturally altered the city, the 
court, and in many respects the habits of the people, etc. 

" Lhasis" {ihasis in the original Italian) is " hashish", or Indian 

(47) " II ducato d'oro." 

(48) " Dobble'', dobla — a pistole. For Tunisian weights, measures, 
and com, cf. Dusgato, Notice sur les poids^ mesures, et monnaies de 
Tunis {iS^2), 

(49) Napoli in the original Italian, Nabel, a corruption of the 
Arabic Nabel el-Kedima (the old Nabel), the Neapolis (NfctTroX/;) 
noticed by Thucydides, Strabo, Scylax, Diodorus Siculus, Pliny, and 
Ptolemy ; the Colonia Julia Neapolis of inscriptions. It was captured 
by Agathocles in a.d. 309. It seems from the ruins, however, to have 
been previously a Carthaginian station. It is now a town of 5,000 
people, mostly occupied in making the pottery for which it is famous. 
Under the Romans it seems to have been a place of some importance ; 
but it early began to decay, for Edrisi notes that in his day it was of 
little account. 

(50) Kamart, where there are several Arab country houses, amid 
olives and gardens, and a ruined palace. Close by is Cape Kamart. 

(51) Now a collection of villas and gardens belonging to the 
Consuls and other well-to-do residents of Tunis, with a few caffs, etc. 
Near this quarter was one of the principal necropoles of ancient 
Carthage. Hartmann (Edrisi, Africa^ p. 273) imagines it to be a 

(52) At present merely a village, notable for its villas belonging 


to wealthy Arabs and Europeans connected by business with Tunis, 
and for its pretty gardens — Whence the name " Reihan*' (the Sweet- 
smelling). The locality in the vicinity of Carthage mentioned by 
Procopius (De Bello VandaHco^ I, liv) as Ad Decimum, must, 
Mannert considers, have nearly covered the site of Ariana (Mannert, 
Giog. Anc., ed. Marcus et Duesberg, p. 685). But Tissot contends 
very positively, though not very satisfactorily, that this spot was in 
the defile of Sidi Fathallah— the scene of the first victory of Belisarius 
over the Vandals. 

(53) Arab Hamm&ma. The town does some trade in lemons and 
olive oil. 

(54) Hergla, Herkla, the Heraclea of the lower Empire : not the 
Hadrumetum, as Shaw " conjectured", but the Horrea Caelia, of the 
Antonine Itinerary, 

(55) Susa or Suse, a former Carthaginian station, the Roman 
Hadrumetum. It was destroyed by the Vandals, restored by Justinian, 
and ruined a second time by Okba, who used the material for the 
construction of Kairwan. The Aghlabites restored the place, which 
was attacked by Charles V in 1537 and by Andrea Doria in 1539. It 
is now one of the most flourishing towns of Tunisia. Leo wrongly 
describes it as built on a plain : its site is a slope, rising to the 
plain through which Kairwan is reached. 

(56) Monastir, Mistir (the Roman Rushina, the 'Foutnrsya of Ptolemy, 
the 'Poutfw/^ov of Strabo) is a pleasant place embosomed amid olive 
groves, which impart a dark green shade to the shore. Davis {Ruined 
Cities within the Numidian and Carthaginian Territories^ p. 321), 
in adopting Castiglione's and Banks's idea that Monastir was built by 
Christians, and was a site of one of the monasteries (/iKJvafrij/^/oi'), 
which the Arabs transformed into " Mahres" or " rabat", is most likely 
in error. El-Bekri attributes the foundation of the part-Roman town 
to Harthema ibn Aien (a.h. 180, A.D. 796, 797), and notes that in 
his day it was a favourite place of retirement for holy men. Hence 
the number of tombs of saints within and without its walls— a circum- 
stance which led En-Naser to call Monastir "the best of sepulchres 
and the worst of habitations". — Gubematis, Letiere sulla Tunisia^ 
pp. 191, 192 ; Barth, KUstenldnder des Miitelmeeres^ p. 159 ; Gu^rin, 
Voyage ArcMologique^ t. i, pp. 119, 124. 

(57) Teboulba, Tbourba, the Thuburbo minus, Thuburbi minus of 
the Tabula Peuiingeriana (ed. G. Harini, 1654), Tuburbo minus of the 
Antonine Itinerary, The orthography Thuburbo is according to an 
inscription. This little Arab town does not occupy more than a small 
part of the old site. It was founded towards the close of the fifteenth 


century by a colony of expatriated Spanish Moors. — Tissot, La 
Province Romaine^ vol. ii, pp. 247, 248 ; Barth, Kiislenldnder des 
Mittelmeeres^ p. 349 ; Gu^rin, Voyage ArchSologique^ t. i, p. 129. 

(58) Mehediyya (variously spelt Mehdia, Mehedia, Mahdia, Mahadia, 
El- Medea) was a Phoenician emporium, as the many tombs to the north 
of the town demonstrate. It was founded, according to the current 
belief, as his maritime capital, by the founder of the Obeidite empire 
— Obeid Allah el-Mahdi (a.h. 300, a.d. 912-913), who gave it his own 
title. But the defaced capitals and other pieces of ancient masonry 
show that Obeld was really built on a Roman site. This place may have 
been Alipota (or Salipota), and not Sullectum, or Salecto, which must 
be sought for at Salekta. But either there or at Mehdia was the 
Turns Hannibalis, where Hannibal embarked after his flight from 
Carthage. Shaw (p. 193), who was the first to make this suggestion, 
founded his identification on a passage in Livy (xxxii, xlviii), " postero 
die mane inter Achollam [El- A lea] et Thapsum [Henchir ed-Dimas] 
ad suam-turrim pervenit". 

Davis {Ruined Cities^ etc., p. 302) imagines — " proves", he contends 
— that Mehdia was Thapsus. 

(59) Sigelmessa (Sijilmassa) was at that period (a. d. 909) the seat 
of EMsia, the sovereign of the petty kingdom of the Beni-Medran, 
which exercised authority over the Meknasian tribes of the upper 
Muluia. — Foumel, Berbers, t ii, pp. 30-98. 

(60) Abu Yezid, son of Makled ben Keidad, a Zeneta of the tribe of 
Beni-Ifren, a mulatto who had studied under the Mokaddem of the 
Abu Ammar at Takius and Tuzer. His revolt in Ifrikia was in 
A.D. 942, when El-K^im was Khalif, and not El-Mahdi as the text 
implies. But Abu Yezid was finally crushed and slain (a.d. 947) in 
the reign of El-Kiim's successor Ismail el-Mansur. 

(61) Mehdia was captured by Roger II of Sicily in a.d. 1147, and 
recaptured by Abd el-Mimien in 1 160. 

(62) In the reign of Richard II (1390), the Duke of Bourbon, who 
(as Froissart and Holinshed tell) was accompanied by several English 
knights, laid siege to it, but disease breaking out, he returned without 
taking "Africa", as Mehdia was often called. In 15 19 Pedro Navarro 
also made a fruitless attempt on it ; but in 1 55 1 Charles V, aided by the 
Knights of Malta, seized the place. — Stella, De Aphrodisio expugnato 
quod vulgo {Aphricam) vocant, Commentarius (1552); Nucula, De bello 
Aphrodisiensiy 1552 (the former idea being that Mehdia was the ancient 
Aphrodisium) ; Salazar, Historia de la Guerra y presa de Africa, 
1 552, etc ; Rerum a Carolo VCcesare Augusto in Africa bello gestarum, 
etc; 1155 (several narratives). 


A tomb of one of the knights who died here still exists. It is, 
however, curious that until lately the Mehdia people buried all their 
dead at Monastir. El-Bekri and Edrisi praise the splendours of Mehdia. 
The French have much improved the place (both from a sanitary 
and a commercial point of view), but of ancient glories there are few 
traces.— Gu^rin, Voyage Archiologique^ t. i, pp. 131 - 144 ; Tissot, La 
Province Romaine^ t. ii, pp. 176-178 ; Castiglioni, Mimoire sur 
Afrikia, pp. 5-29 ; Piesse, AlgMe et Tunisie^ pp. 451, 453. 

(63) Sfax, or Sfakes, " the city of cucumbers", the ancient Taphura, 
or Taparura, the seat of a bishop — the Episcopus Taprurensis. It is 
now a prosperous town of more than 32,000 people, and certainly more 
deserving of the praise bestowed upon it by El-Bekri and Edrisi than 
in Leo's day. — De Clam, Pastes Chronologiques de la ville de Sfaks 
(1890); Lafitte et Servonnet, Golfe de Gabes en 1888, pp. 12-87; 
Graham and Ashbee, Travels in Tunisia (1887), pp. 92-95, etc. 

(64) Kairwan, Kairawan, Kairouan, Kerouan, "Carvan, named 
properly in Arabic Cayraven" (Marmol), was often confounded by the 
older writers with Cyrene, a place more than 600 miles to the east, 
and occupying a site now called Grenna. The reason is that it was 
called Kuren, which is the same word as " Cairoan", pronounced with 
the first vowel short, according to the vulgar accent, and with the 
guttural sound of qdfy approaching that of g^ before the letter r. 
— Castiglioni, Mtfmoire^ etc., p. 30. 

Kairwan (to use the English pronunciation) is, however, now a well- 
known city, though until the French occupation of it in 1881, iadu to 
Jews and Christians, except with a special permit from the Bey ; and 
even then the curious visitor had to run the risk of rough treatment in 
this holy city of Islam. Now it is possible to visit it without any 
difficulty, and even to trundle from Susa over a tramway built for the 
use of the military authorities. 

Abd er- Rahman Ibn Abd el-Hakem, the oldest historian of the 
Arab invasions of Northern Africa, credits Moawiya ibn Hodeij with 
having founded the city, and Okba ben Nefa with having enlarged it. 
For "here", he exclaimed, "will be our Kairwan!" — or caravan 
station. But En-Nuairi and most other chroniclers attribute its 
foundation to Okba, A.H. 50 (a.d. 669-70), in the Khalifate of 
Moawiya I, in the presence of eighteen "Companions" of the Prophet, 
who, St. Patrick-like, ordered all snakes and wild beasts to disappear 
from the spot : a mandate indifferently obeyed, since the plain is not 
free from either. 

In all likelihood, however, the Arabs merely built on a Roman 

The Vicus Augusii, one of the episcopal cities of Byzacena, must 


have been almost on this spot, while Hauch-Sabra, two miles to the 
south, has been claimed, and with greater probability, by Berbrugger 
and Lapie as the site of that station. Nuairi, indeed, speaks of a 
castle built by the Greeks and called Kamunea, being on the site 
chosen for Kairwan, thus by no means confirming the Arab legend 
about its being all desert. The material of these buildings most 
probably served for building Okba's new city — the pillars and the 
mosques being evidently Roman or Byzantine. — Temple, ExcursionSy 
etc., vol. ii, pp. 92-102 ; Cagnat, Explorations^ t. iii, p. 21 ; Pellissier, 
Description dela Rdgencede Tunisie^ p. 279 ; Gudrin, Voyage Archdolo- 
giqtUy t. ii, pp. 324-327; Playfair, Travels^ etc., pp. 167-171 ; Broadley, 
TuniSy Past and Present^ vol. ii, p. 127 : Rae, The Country of the 
MoorSy pp. 215-313, etc. For some anachronisms in Leo and Marmol, cf. 
Castiglioni, Mim, Giog. et Numismatique^ pp. 32, 72. 

(65) Okba had been deprived of his government of Ifrikia (Muchauia 
= Mauretania) by Moawiya I, and Dinar Abu el-Mohijer had been 
appointed in his place. He was restored by Yezid I, on the death 
of Moawiya in A.D. 680. He retained his position, according to Leo, 
until the reign of El-Walid I, son of Abd el-Melik, when he was slain 
by the Berbers who had taken Kairwan : but seeing that El-Walid 
did not succeed until a.d. 705, and that Okba, by the best accounts, 
died in 683, that is, during the reign of Abd el-Malik, there is a 
confusion in Leo's chronology, 

(66) Musa ben Noseir, who arrived at Kairwan a.d. 705 as governor 
of Ifrikia. What follows refers to the conquest of Spain by Musa and 
Tarik (governor of Tangier), and the death of Roderic, King of the 
Goths, A.D. 7 10- 1 1. For the history of this last, cf. Al-Makkari, Hist, 
of Mohammedan Dynasties in SpcUn^ vol. i, pp. 288 et seq, 

(67) Musa reached Egypt at the close of a.d. 714, when he received 
this warning from Hisbim (" Hescian"). He came to Damascus two 
and a half months later, just before the death of El-Walid and the 
succession of Sulaiman. This Khalif accusing Musa — no doubt with 
good reason — of peculation, had him beaten with rods, fined him 100,000 
pieces of gold, and confiscated all his goods, while Musa's son, 'Abd ul- 
Aziz (who had been left governor of Spain, and had married Egilone, 
widow of King Roderic), was put to death, and his head sent to his 
father. Tarik after this disappears from history. Taking warning by 
the fate of his colleague and jealous rival, the shrewd Berber seems 
to have letired into private life. Mohammed ben Yezid ("lesul") 
succeeded Musa as governor of Ifrikia. Leo is too sweeping when 
he says that the rest of the Ommcydd governors were related to 
each other. 


(68) The Abasside general, El-Aghlab (" Elagleb"), took possession 
of Kairwdn in the name of the Eastern Khalif. But, as Leo says, " il 
quale domin6 a guisa di signore" — he ruled after the fashion of a 
prince ("not ... as a Califa") — and founded the dynasty of the 
Aghlabites. Abu Jafar el-Mansur founded Baghdad, and made it the 
capital of the former Khalifate of Damascus. 

(69) Obeid Allah, a.d. 903. 

(70) En-Nueiri (pp. 424 et seq.) says that this great castle — not town — 
of Rakkada, situated in a very healthy place, four miles from Kairwan, 
was built during the government (or reign) of Ibrahim ben Ahmed 
(a.d. 875). When the free negioes rebelled and interrupted communi- 
cation between Rakkada and Kairwan, they were crucified or put to 
death in ways equally horrible (Mercier, Hist, de VAfrique Sept.^ t i. 
p. 290). Rakkada occurs frequently in the history of £l-Kairouini, 
who wrote about A.D. 1691. But both the name and the building 
seem now to have disappeared. It was Ibrahim ben Ahmed who 
completed the conquest of Sicily, begun in 827 a.d. by Ziadet 
Allah, when the Kadi Ased ("one Ased") was sent with a fleet 
and army at the request of Euphemios, or Euthymeos of Syracuse 
(who had rebelled against Michael the Stammerer, and was defeated 
by an imperial army). 

(71) Alcamo, on the post road from Palermo to Calatafimi. Ciullo 
d'Alcamo, one of the earliest Sicilian poets, was a native of the town. 

(72) "Gueflet" is almost certainly Jebel Ouslet, and the Roman 
remains, those of Aqvae Regiae, close at hand ; though little now 
remains to justify their identification except Leo's description. — Tissot, 
La Province Romaine^ t. ii, pp. 586-588. 

(73) The history of Kairwan, subsequent to a.d. i 500, it is unneces- 
sary to follow. It varied with the fortunes of the Tunisian dynasties, 
until Tunis became a protectorate of France, since when, curiously 
enough, the most fanatical city in the Regency has become the only 
one in which an infidel can enter a mosque. It has no resources, and 
lives by its traditions and the souls of its prophets. 

(74) Kabes, Gabes, Kapes, Gabs, the ancient Tacape, Tacapa, 
Tacapae, Tacapas. Leo simply 'repeats the description of El-Bekri, 
who describes it as a large town surrounded by a high wall of massive 
stones of antique construction, with a strong castle, several suburbs, 
bazaars, and caravanserais, a great mosque, and many baths, the whole 
within a deep ditch, which in case of need could be flooded. Finally, 
it had three gates. Edrisi says much the same. Nowadays it consists 
of several villages, scattered over a beautiful oasis of date palms and 


olives. Sidi Bu-1-Baba is perhaps the village which occupies the site 
of Tacape ; like most of the other villages (particularly Menzel and 
Dhara) it is built of the remains of the Roman town which preceded it. 
But with the exception of a few mosaics, capitals of columns, and 
other carved stones, little remains to mark the spot where stood a 
Carthaginian emporium, a Roman city, and, in the Christian epoch, 
the residence of the Episcopus Tacapitanus, Strabo refers to Tacape 
as an important entrep6t of the Lesser Syrtes. — Playfair, Travels^ etc., 
p. 269 ; Y^i^'^x^x^ Revue Archiologique^ 1847, p. 395 ; Gu^rin, Voyages 
Arch^ologiques^ t. i, p. 196 ; Moulezun, Bull, Arch, du Comitd des 
iravaux historiquesy 1885, p. 126; Tissot, La Province Romainey t. ii, 
p. 196 ; Shaw, Travels ^ p. 209 ; Temple, Excursions^ vol. ii, pp. 133, 
134 ; Lafitte et Servonnet, Le Golfede Gabh en 1888, pp. 216-269. 

(75) This is not quite correct, though repeated on p. 334 ; for the 
water is both cool and sweet. There is, however, salt and warm water 
not fer away (note Tj), The walls have now disappeared. 

(76) As far as I can learn, the " habhaziz" (habb ^aziz " the beloved 
beny) is the ground or pea-nut. But, apart from its not being dug, 
it is difficult to imagine this fruit being beloved by anyone. The 
jujube {Zisyphus lotus) grows abundantly in the vicinity. 

{77) £1-Hamma or El-Hammat el-Kabes, "the warm fountain of 
Kabes" (Gabes), so called to distinguish it from another Hamma near 
Tozer, the ancient Aquae Tacapitanae, the Arab name being thus an 
exact translation of the ancient one. It is situated in the Hamma 
Oasis, exactly eighteen Roman miles from Gabes, which is the distance 
given in the Antonine Itinerary. 

Shaw, who was the earliest writer to identify the site, mentions that at 
the date of his visit the hot baths were frequented by invalids from all 
parts of Tunis. The baths were sheltered from the weather by 
thatched huts, while in the basins, which are about 12 feet square and 
4 feet deep, there were benches of stone for the bathers to sit upon. 
One of the baths was called the Bath of the Lepers. Below it the 
water stagnates and forms a pool, which seems to be the Lake of Lepers 
(lago de' Leprosi) mentioned by Leo. The water supplying the baths 
forms a small rivulet, which, after running through various gardens 
and the palm groves, and the " Eastern extremity of the Lake of 
Marks (Melrir) . . . , loseth itself, at a few Miles Distance, in the 
Sand".— 7V^^/^/^, etc., pp. 213, 214. 

The ruins of the old town display a few marks of antiquity, 
such as carved stones, but the inscriptions noted by Leo had already 
disappeared in 1739. Nowadays scarcely a relic remains, the stones 



of Aquae Tacapitanae having been utilised for building the modem 
villages in the oasis, and the Borj el-Hamma, the fort erected here. 
The temperatures of the hot baths vary from 45° C. to 34° C. 

Leo's data are, however, not quite accurate, for, instead of the water 
" tasting like brimstone", it is perfectly sweet, and when cool is drunk 
with avidity. Leo, in fact, seems to have depended too much on his 
memory in describing these hot springs. — Playfair, Proc. JR.G.S, 
(1890), p. 625 ; Gudrin, Voyage Archdologique^ t. i, pp. 235, 269, 
270 ; Tissot, La Province Romcdney t. ii, pp. 654, 699 ; Temple, 
Excursions y vol. ii, p. 149. 

(78) Mahres, Mahares, Maharess of Shaw, a large fishing village at 
the southern point (Pt. Mahares) of the Bay of Sfax. It bears distinct 
evidence of having been a much larger place. But Shaw {Travels^ 
p. 195) is, I believe, wrong in regarding it as the Macomades minores 
(" Macodama"), an ancient Roman municipium ; though it is still an 
open question whether M. Tissot is much more correct in finding the 
latter at Henchir Oghelt el-Khififa. There are ruins there— that is all. 
--Revue Africaine^ t. i, pp. 194-196; La Province Romcdney t ii, 
pp. 191, 192. The discovery of inscriptions could alone settle the 
point.— Lafitte et Servonnet, /> Golfe de Gabh en 1888, pp. 160-163. 
There was at one time a Sultan of Mahres. It is not " almost fiue 
hundred miles distant from the isle of Gerbi", but about fifty— (circa 
a cinquanta miglia). The castle of which Leo speaks is now half 

(79) Gerbo in the original Italian, the Bracheon of Scylax, the 
Meninsc, or Meniks (M^wy^), of Strabo, who used the name then 
applied to it by the natives, though Ptolemy makes Menensc only one of 
two towns on the " Island of the Lotophagi" (fj Awro0ay«v KJjiJot 
Awro0a7/r/f) of Homer, an identification now generally accepted. 
Meninx, probably El-Kantara, seems from its ruins to have been a 
large city. The island was afterwards called Girba, and Aurelius 
Victor notes that two Emperors — Trebonianus Gallus and his son 
Voluscanes (a.d. 252-254) — were both raised to the Imperial dignity 
here — " creati in insula Meninge quae nunc Girba dicitur" (EpHomCy 
etc., chap. xlv). It is the modem Gerba or Jerba (to use the pro- 
nunciation of the people of the island, mostly Berbers), and the Gelves 
or Xerves of the Spanish historians. 

(80) Humt es-Suk is now the trading quarter, and corresponds to this 
description. The Kaid, who is responsible for the government, has 
his residence at Humt-sedrien near at hand. 


(81) Roger de Loria conquered the island in 1284, and received it in 
fief from Peter of Aragon. He erected the great fortress called Borj 
el-Kebir, which still stands. In 131 5, it was made over by Roger III 
(de Loria's descendant) to Frederick of Sicily. In 1333, the island 
recovered its independence ; but in 1431 it was subdued by Alfonso V 
of Aragon, who had made an attempt on it in 1424. He is said to have 
built El-Kantara— not the town, but the causeway from the island to 
the mainland and the Borj.Castel. This is perhaps the invasion and 
conquering of the island by Christians to which Leo refers : though if 
he, and not the Aragoneseof 1284, constructed the works mentioned, 
this shows that the recovery of Jerba by the King of Tunis was not 
so rapid as the Arab historians whom Leo follows are fond of 
imagining : unless, indeed, between the invasion of Alfonso V in 1432, 
and that of Ferdinand the Catholic in 15 10, there was an evacuation 
and a renewed attempt to gain possession. In any case, the date was 
not about fifty years before Leo wrote, but nearer ninety. It also 
appears that it is to this date that must be attributed the famous 
Borj er-Ru'us (or Tower of Skulls), twenty feet high and ten feet 
broad, which up to 1848 stood near the Humt es-Suk. Sir Grenville 
Temple saw it in 1832. " No tradition", he tells us, "is preserved 
of its origin, except that the skulls are those of Christians. I think it 
probable that they are remnants of the Spanish soldiers, who, under 
the command of the Duke of Alva, landed at Jerbeh during high 
water, were attacked and defeated by the Moors, and obliged to fall 
back upon their boats ; but these, unfortunately for them, were now 
high and dry, the tide having during the action receded, and the ships 
and transports, to avoid the same predicament, had stood out to sea. 
The heavily-accoutred Spaniards tried to regain them, but while 
floundering in the mud and weeds, were shot or speared by their 
exasperated and more lightly-accoutred enemies, who, it is probable, 
erected with the dead bodies this tower in commemoration of their 
victory and deliverance from foreign invasion. To preserve it, it is 
occasionally covered with a coat of mortar ; when I saw it, a great 
part of this had fallen down, and exposed to view the ghastly 
grinning skulls."— j5';rr«/r^/V7/w, vol. i, pp. 157, 158. This expedition 
was in 15 10. The view more generally adopted is that the skulls 
were the ghastly memorials of the expedition sent in 15 59- 1560 
by Charles V under the command of Juan de la Cerda, Duke of 
Medina-Cceli, Viceroy of Sicily, which was massacred by Dragut. 
But this is mere speculation. The native historians, like El- 
Kairouini, have nothing to say to this effect. On the other hand, 
in a curious little account of Jerba written by Mohammed En- 
Naser, it is expressly noted that it was in a.h. 835 (a.d. 1432), 
in the reign of Abu Fares, that the tower was constructed out 

3 C 2 


of the bodies of the slaughtered Spaniards. " The Jerbians", he tells 
us, " cut off the heads of the Spaniards slain in the combat, and in 
constructing a tower employed the arms and legs to intercalate with 
the heads. This tower, which still exists [t.e.j at the time he wrote, 
A.D. 1797], is situated in the north on the sea-shore, between the 
Borj el-Kebir and the place of embarcation : it attains a height 
of sixteen cubits, and four in breadth." 

In 1848 the representative of Monseigneur Sutter (Vicar- Aposto- 
lic of Tunis), Padre Giuseppe de Maria, and the foreign consul 
Ahmed Bey, gave orders for the removal of the hideous trophy and 
the burial of the bones in the cemetery of Humt es-Suk. This decree 
was carried out, though not without furious opposition on the part of 
the Jerbians. 

(82) The people of Jerba have been frequently in rebellion, not only 
against their foreign conquerors but also against their native nilers. In 
1 5 10, there was an invasionof Spaniards, nominally under Garcia Alvarez 
de Toledo, Duke of Alva, and father of the more celebrated duke of 
that name, though actually under Pedro Navarro. It is the one 
described by Sir Grenville Temple {u^ sufird). In 1520, Charles V 
sent a more successful expedition under Hugo de Moncada (a " Rhodian 
Knight of the Order of Saint John de Messina") and Diego de 
Vera, who granted peace to the Sheikh of the island on his agreeing 
to pay an annual tribute of five thousand golden dinars (two thousand 
crowns = twelve thousand francs), and pledging himself to deny asylum 
to pirates. As Leo was writing a year or two after this compact, " to 
this day " meant little. Actually the Spaniards had scarcely turned 
their backs before the treaty was regarded as waste paper, and the 
island was used as an arsenal, first by Barbarossa (1524), and a little 
later by the redoubtable Dragut. This brought Andrea Doria with 
a fleet to Jerba in 1551, when Dragut escaped by cutting a channel 
for his ships through the sandbanks into Bu Giara,and capturing several 
galleys sent for the reinforcement of Doria's squadron. In 1599, 
Felipe II sent Juan de la Cerda on the unfortunate expedition 
above mentioned. 

After this, Jerba was permitted to remain masterless, so far as any 
European power was concerned, until in 1881 it quietly accepted 
the French protectorate. The quarrels of the Jerbians, between 
the death of Dragut before Valetta in 1565 and the present year, 
have been family differences or struggles between Algerines, 
Tripolitans, and Tunisians. — Description et histoire de Pile de 
DjerbUy traduite du manuscrit^ du Cheikh Mohammed Abou 
Rasse Ahmed ertrNaceur, par Eriga dit Kayser, Interpr^te Mili- 
taire Auxiliaire de i*^« Classe (Tunis 1884). This valuable brochure. 


with a facsimile of the original Arabic, is scarcely known in Europe. 
I obtained my copy in Sfax. — Lafitte et Servonnet, Le Golfe de 
Gabh en 1888, pp. 270-314; Brulard,ZV^/^^Zy^^a(Besan9on, 1885). 
For antiquities, Tissot, Lm Province Romaine, t i, pp. 190-200 ; t. ii, 
7%%, 790, 820 ; Galindo y de Vera, Hist. Vicissitudes y folitica 
tradicional de Espaha respecto de sus posesiones en las castas de Africa^ 
pp. 74, 100, 120, etc. The Jerba dialect referred to by Leo is treated 
of by Basset in his Notes de Lexicographie Berblre^ 1883 ; while many 
curious facts about Jerba and its Christian enemies may be found in 
De Mas Latrie's Relations et Commerce de VAfrique Sept, avec les 
Nations Chritiennes^ 1866. 

(83) Zavia, Soirah, or Soirih, properly Zuagha, or SoAga 
(Earth, Wanderungen durch die Kiistenldnder des MittelmeereSy pp. 273, 
274, 288, 289). The Zuigha Berbers figure in El-Bekri, and the 
Jerba wars are described by En-Naceur. The place is called 
Zudghat esh-Sherkiyya, to distinguish it from another Zuagha. 
Delia Cella refers to the salt deposits of "Zoara, about four 
leagues west of Tripoli" {^Narrative of an Expedition from Tripoli in 
Barbary^ etc., Aufr^re's trans., p. 76). It also appears on the Catalan 
Portulan as Zoyara. A little north of Zuighat esh-Sherkiyya are the 
ruins of a large town which the Arab authors of the middle ages 
called Sabra (Et-Tij^i, p. 175). "Not far from Zuigha on the sea 
shore, we see the ruins of an ancient city called Sabra (Ibn Haukal, 
Joum, AsiatiquCy February 1842, p. 166 ; El-Bekri, p. 44, cf Tissot, 
p. 210), which is the ancient Sabrata, Sabaratha, Sabathra, Saratha, 
etc. It sometimes appears on old charts as " Tripoli vecchia", or Old 
Tripoli, from forming one of three old Byzantine cities called Tripolis 
(see the Beecheys* Report of the Expedition to explore the Northern 
Coast of Africa from TripoliSj etc., pp. 25 ^/ seq,), Leo refers to it 
under that name. The identity of Sabrata with the Abrotonum 
(aPpot6vo¥) of Scylax, Strabo, and Pliny, has now been satisfactorily 
traced (Barth, Miiller, Vivian Saint-Martin, Tissot), so that the learning 
which placed it at Tajuira (Delia Cella) or at Tripoli (Beechey) was 
thrown away. 

It was at "Soara" that, on the i6th of August 1 551, the Knights of 
St John (of Malta) under Leon Strozzi were defeated. This affair, 
and the poor success which attended their possession of Tripoli, no 
doubt determined the order to refuse Charles the Fifth's offer of 
Mehdia, which they had helped to capture. The Knights had no 
stomach for more of Africa. 

(84) Lepede in original, Lebida, Lebda, or Lepda, the ancient 
Leptis (jj Af wTig) Magna. The ruins (extensive, "but all in bad taste : 


chiefly done in the time of Aurelian — indeed very bad " in the opinion 
of Bruce) are yearly vanishing, oinng to the fine granite and marble 
pillars being exported for the vilest uses, such as the manufacture of 
mortars and oil mills.— Playfciir, Mediterranean^ p. 45 ; Rae, The 
Country of the Moors ^ pp. 45-48. * 

Leo is in this passage labouring under an error. Leptis was 
originally a Sidonian settlement (Sallust, Jugurtha^ cap. 80), and 
flourished under the rule of Rome, though to the last markedly 
Phoenicianised, owing to the marriage and intercourse of the colonists 
with the neighbouring Numidians speaking the Berber language. 
During the Vandal occupation, Genseric, adopting his usual policy of 
destroying the fortifications of African cities, razed those of Leptis, 
with the result that the town was so subject to Barbarian inroads, that 
many of the inhabitants deserted it. Justinian, therefore, on the 
citizens adopting Christianity, rebuilt the walls both of Leptis and the 
neighbouring city of Sabrata (Procopius, De Edificiis^ lib. vi, 
cap. iv). During the reign of Constans II (a.d. 647-8), the Levatae, a 
well-known Berber tribe, from whom in RennelPs opinion the word 
Libya was derived, again invested the place. These inroads, 
combined with the drifting sands of the desert, made Leptis so 
uncomfortable a place of residence that it was gradually abandoned 
for Tripolis, built on the site of the ancient Gea. Then the barbarians 
poured in, so that when Abd Allah's Arabs arrived, there must have 
been comparatively little to destroy, and that little — together with the 
ruins of Sabrata— may possibly have been employed in the rebuilding 
of the Roman town of Tripoli, the modem Tripoli of Barbary, the 
Tarabolus (Trabilis) al-Gharb of the Arabs, (to distinguish it from 
Tripoli in Syria). Tarabolis is simply Tripoli Arabised. Leptis is 
referred to by Scylax, Strabo, Ptolemy, Pomponius Mela and other 
writers, as Neapolis (NtawoX/g), which was, perhaps, as Bartil 
suggested, a particular quarter of the city. The fevourable situation 
for commerce — far more so than Tripoli— made the citizens so 
wealthy, that at the time the city was part of the Carthaginian 
territory, they were assessed at a tribute of one talent (more than 
£122) a day (Livy, xxxiv, 64). Even after it came under Roman 
rule, the Leptis people paid annual taxation amounting to 300,000 
pounds of oil, keeping their Punic constitution so far as to be 
governed (an inscription shows) by Suffetes as late as the first 
century of our era. The last mention of Leptis is in an ecclesiastical 
textof A.D. 482. 

(85) Tripoli Vecchia— Gld Tripoli, or Sabrata (note 83). Gea, 
Sabrata, and Leptis Magna constituted a feudal union, and the 
district of the Three Cities governed by a Concilium Annum was called 


Libya Tripolitana. This name has been reserved for Oea, after it was 
occupied by Greek-speaking colonists. Oea (Mela and Pliny) 'Ewa 
(Ptolemy), Occa (of the Antonine Itinerary)^ Osa (in the Peutinger 
Itinerary)^ Ocea in some old geographical treatises by the blunder of 
copyists — was founded by the Romans at a date which from lack of 
material evidence we cannot yet settle, and peopled partly by 
colonists from Sicily and partly by the more civilised Libyans. 

(86) By this is meant, not as sometimes supposed Oea, on the 
site or out of the ruins of which the present city is built, but («/ supra) 
" Tripoli Vecchia", or Sabrata. The walls of Tripoli now standing 
are said to have been constructed, with other fortifications, by Dragut, 
(the corsair chief, whose Kubba, or tomb, is one of the most venerated 
in the city), and, though now decaying, show signs of very solid work- 
manship ; not agreeing, therefore, with Leo's description of their being 
high and beautiful but " not verie strong''. Leo and Dragut were not 
contemporaries — Dragut being the later of the two — so that the present 
walls may have been built or strengthened after the former visited 
Tripoli. The date-palms are still as plentiful as ever, the sandy plain 
of which our traveller speaks being thickly dotted with them. But 
nowadays, at least, the houses bear no comparison with those of 
Tunis. Tunis, indeed, until the French conquest gave an impetus to 
Algiers, was the most civilized of all the Barbary cities. — Borsari, 
Geografia etnologica e storica della Tripolitania Cirenaica e Fezzan 
(1868), pp. 102-126. 

(87) This theory of the inroads of the sea cannot be entirely accepted. 
The sea on all this part of the coast is shallow — at ebb-tide it is 
possible to wade from Jerba to the mainland by Tank el-Jemel, 
" the cameFs way*' — mainly because it is constantly being shoaled 
by the drifting into it of the desert sands, which the wind sweeps 
seaward, now more than ever since the scantiness of cultivation has 
interposed fewer obstacles against the encroachments of the Sahara. 
The result of the soil not being bound together by plants, is that the 
desert has in places encroached to the very walls of Tripoli, and has 
no doubt covered what in former days was cultivated ground. This 
portion of the ancient ruins does not quite support the popular view of 
the encroachment of the sea, or the sinking of the land. 

In Tripoli few memorials of the past have survived the 
wreck wrought by the Arab invaders — nomads, and, like 
the Saxon invaders of England, haters of towns and town 
life, until effeminacy, the love of trade, and the necessity of 
possessing strongholds compelled them to build castles and 
walled collections of houses, or to reconstruct after their own 


taste the ruins of the Roman cities which they had sacked and left to 
the jackals. But one, now jammed in among poor houses near the sea 
gate (Bab el-Bahr) is sufficiently notable to make some amends for the 
absence of others. This is the splendid quadri -frontal white marble 
arch which, as an inscription on it records, was reared by the Consul 
Scipio itfritus, in the reign of Antoninus Pius, and subsequently 
dedicated to Marcus Aurelius and Lucius AureliusVerus, his successors. 
This triumphal arch proves (i) that the coast cannot have undergone 
much change in level since the seventh century ; and (2) that, 
contrary to the notion of Leo and his copyists, the present city of 
Tripoli is erected on much the same site as the Roman one. The 
latter, no doubt, covered a greater space of ground, and may have 
extended, as Leo contends, a little further north ; but it could not have 
gone far, even admitting the sinking of the land, for the depth soon 
sinks to six or seven fathoms, and a depression to this extent must 
have overwhelmed the entire site. Moreover, to the eastward is a 
tract of rocky and elevated ground, on which was the ancient Roman 
cemetery, where many sepulchral urns have been found. — Beechey, 
Proceedings of the Expedition to explore the North Coast of Africa^ 
etc., pp. 15, 19). The arch is well figured in Bruce's drawings on 
Plates xxvii and xxviii of Playfair's Travels^ etc., and in Lyon's 
Travels^ etc., p. 18. It is also referred to but not figured in Tull/s 
Narrative of a Ten Years' Residence at Tripoli in Africa (pp. 8, 9), a 
valuable work, though full of historical inaccuracies. 

The scarcity of com is due partly to the limited amount of agricultural 
land, and partly to the uncertainty of the rain-fall. In good seasons 
Tripoli still exports grain, but in dry ones it does not grow enough for 
the use of the people in the Vilayet. At the same time, the sandy 
plain to the S.W. is in part occasionally flooded during the prevalence 
of strong northerly gales, and there is marshy ground to the 
westward of the town between these celebrated places and the 

Captain (afterwards Admiral) Beechey, in commenting on Leo's 
assertion about the old com lands being under the sea, remarks : — 
" From this account, contrasted with the actual appearance of the 
place in question, we must either suppose that the level of the lands 
here alluded to, which are those in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Tripoly, is higher at the present time than it was in the age of Leo, or 
that the sea has retired since that period. For although the soil of 
Tripoly still continues to be sandy, there is now no part of it over- 
flowed to the southward of the town." This, an examination by the 
editor, bears out, and it is possible that, since Leo's day, earthquake 
movements may have altered the level of this part of the Barbary 


(88) Abu-1-Hassan went to war against Abu Hafez Omar in A.H. 748 
(a.d. 1348), the latter not fleeing to the desert as Leo has it, but, 
according to El-Kairouini, to Gabes, where he was slain by the 
partisans of Abu-1-Hassan. But the latter, having suffered a great 
disaster before Kairwan, had to return to save his Moroccan and 
other western dominions, where his son Abu Einan had raised a 
rebellion, and various subject cities had revolted. Then Abu el- 
Abbis of Tunis recovered the throne of the Beni- Hafez of Tunis. 
Abu Einan, in A.D. 758, forced Abu Ishak Ibrahim of Tunis to 
evacuate his capital and take refuge in Mehdia, where nearly all 
central Maghrebs recognised the conqueror ; but a mutiny of his troops 
compelled Abu Einan to repair to Fez without consolidating the 
advantages gained. Then Abu Ishak Ibrahim was therefore permitted 
to return to Tunis. El-Kairouini says nothing about his being 
imprisoned at Ceuta and restored by Abu Selim. On the contrary, 
he is said to have died twelve years after his restoration, though the 
native historians differ as to the exact date, which El-Kairouini gives 
as A.H. 779 (A.D. 1369). 

In the original the names of Abu-1-Abbis (" Abulabbis"), King of 
Tunis, and Abu Einan ("Abuenan"), King of Fez, are given. 
Florianus omits them in his translation, and Pory follows suit. 

(89) This seizure of Tripoli was made in 1355 by Philip Doria, Admiral 
of the Republic of Genoa, who acted without the authorisation of his 
government. The latter being at peace with Tripoli, and fearing the 
consequences to their merchants in Tunis and other Barbary ports, 
disallowed the act. Yet the filibusters, after remaining four months 
in Tripoli, plundering freely, were permitted to return to Genoa 
laden with loot, and received only a nominal punishment. A ransom 
is said to have been negotiated through Ibn Mekki, the ruler of 
Gabes. The date is given in a footnote to El-Kairouini's history as 
1342. But as El-Kairouini himself gives it as 1355 (A.H. 756), which 
corresponds to that stated by Genoese historians, MM. Pellissier and 
R^musat must have made a slip of the pen. — Istorie di Maiteo 
Villaniy c. 47, 48, 49, 60; El-Kairouini, pp. 248, 249, Ibn Khal- 
doun ; Hist, des Berbires^ t. iii, pp. 49, 51, 52, 164, 173, De Mas- 
Latrie ; Traites de paix^ etc., pp. 224 et, seq. ; Wailles, Bibliography in 
Bull, de Correspondance Africcdne (1884), pp. 227-237 ; and Playfiair, 
Supp. Papers R.G,S, (1889), pp. 559-614, for fuller references and 
titles of works briefly cited. 

(90) This portion of Leo's history is very confused and inaccurate. 
Pedro Navarro captured Tripoli in 15 10. For a long time pre- 
viously it had been governed by the Beni-Amer. Abu Fares, King of 


Tunis, had conquered the last prince of that dynasty. But at the 
time when Navarro attacked it, the city and neighbouring territory 
was governed by an independent Sheik, some of whose predecessors 
are named by Leo. The place was stubbornly defended, street by 
street, house by house. But though it was much knocked about, and 
many of the inhabitants and Genoese merchants, impoverished by the 
sack — in which enormous booty was obtained— deserted it, Tripoli was 
not, as Leo and Marmol declare, " destroyed by the Christians". On 
the contrary, Diego de Vera, being appointed governor, made it 
stronger than ever. Indeed, Leo, while previously describing the walls 
as not very strong, now notes them as " most strong*'. Jayme de 
Requesens, for long the successor of de Vera, carried on the 
work of the latter ; while Guillem de Moncada, brother of Hugo de 
Moncada, Viceroy of Sicily, also continued to repair the damages 
committed during Pedro Navarro's assault. 

In 1530 Charles V gave Tripoli and Malta to the Knights of 
St. John, who had just then lost Rhodes. But in 1551 (according 
to Marmol) they were expelled by Sinan Pasha and Dragut. After 
this the place continued, with brief intervals, in Turkish hands. The 
piracies of the Tripolitans were, however, so notorious that again and 
again was the city bombarded by European fleets. The Bashawi also 
became independent. After 17 14 Ahmed Pasha Karaminli and his 
descendants ruled the city and province as a dynasty, owning allegiance 
to the Sultan of Turkey, just as the Beys of Tunis did— that is, in the 
most nominal way. But in 1835 the Sultan, taking advantage of one 
of the many Arab outbreaks, reasserted his authority, and has ever 
since ruled Tripoli as a vilayet of the empire. 

(91) The Berber girls have still a habit of tattooing crosses on their 
arms and cheeks, though it is only a pious belief that the ornamenta- 
tion has anything to do with their pristine veneer of Christianity, 
which in the inaccessible retreats affected by them might have long 
remained uninfluenced by Islam. It is even possible that some of the 
Roman Christians retreated from the ravaging Arabs to the mountain 
houses of the race with whom they had formed alliances of friendship, 
marriage, and a common faith. 

(92) Aures, properly Auragh, the Audon of Ptolemy, one of the most 
interesting mountain regions in Algeria. Its inhabitants, the Khawia 
or Zenate, a Berber people, who have no doubt Roman blood in 
their veins, are the debris of the Vandal and Byzantine colonists 
who found a refuge here from religious persecution and the harass- 
ment of successive conquerors. Their physiognomy, language, and 
customs bear evidence to this. In youth the women are very beautiful, 


with fine classical features. Latin words occur in the ordinary speech, 
and they observe the 25th of December as a feast under the name of 
Milid (the Birth), and keep three days' festivals both at springtime 
and harvest. They use the solar instead of the Mohammedan lunar 
year, and the names of the months are the same as our own. 
The interesting remains of Timegrad, the ancient Thamugas, are 
in this district, though not noticed by Leo, from which it may be 
inferred that he knew personally little of this region " inhabited by 
most barbarous people". — Playfair, Travels^ etc., pp. 60-68 ; Boeswill" 
wald-Cagnat, Timegad^ une Citd Africaine (1891) ; Masqueray, 
^^ Formation des CiUs chez les Populations Sidentaires de PAlgMe 
(1886), and De Aurasio monte ab initio secundi p, Ch. sceculi usque ad 
Salomones Expeditionem Thesis Facultatis UUerarum in Academia 
Parisiensiy etc. (1886) ; Graham, " Remains of the Roman Occupation 
of North Africa,'* etc. {Trans. Roy. Inst, Brit. Architects vol. i, 
N.S. 1885), etc. 

(93) For notes on this and other early accounts of Constantine, see 
Dureau de la Maille, Province de Constantine^ pp. 167-197, etc. 

(94) Zaghuan, the ancient Zengis, which gave its name to Zengitana 
(Africa propria). On a mountain over one of the springs, the ancient 
Zucchara Civitas (the village of Ben Saida) now supplying Tunis, as of 
old they supplied Carthage, there was in Shaw's day an inscription : — 
"Rorisii totivsque Divinae Domvs ejvs civitas Zvccharia fecit et 
dedicavit" There are many Roman remains in this district. 

(95) Jebel Nefdsa, a name applied by the natives to that part 
of the Tripolitan chain which extends between Wazzen (of Tripoli) 
and Rejban. The Ater mons of the Romans was perhaps the chain 
between Jebel es-S6da and Jebel Nefdsa. — Tissot, La Province 
Romatne^ t ii, pp. 698, 708, 715. 

(96) Jebel Ghurian, an inhabited volcanic mountain district, 2000 ft 
high, due south of Tripoli. Many of the inhabitants, who bear traces 
of Jewish ancestry, Hve in subterranean houses. Their saffron (Crocus) 
plantations are still famous, though under endless tyrannies and oppres- 
sion the population has much decreased. There are many Roman 
ruins in this district. — Lyon, Travels in Northern Africa^ p. 25 ; 
Earth, Travels in North and Central Africa^ vol. i, pp. 48, 49. 

(97) Beni Houarah ? Sir Lambert Playfair suggests to me. 

(98) Ksar Ahmed, possibly named after either Ahmed ben Omar, 
the Aghlabite general, or Ahmed ben Hassan el-Kelbi, both of whom 


would answer to Leo's description. Ksar Ahmed has now disap> 
peared, though a place near Mesurata (Ras Bu Sheifa) is still known 
by that name and marked by a Marabout's tomb. — Delia Cella^ p. 49. 
Not far from this place, on the shores of the Syrtes, lived the robber 
tribe of Uled AH, which as late as 181 5 was exterminated by 
Mohammed Karaminli, eldest son of the Bashaw of Tripoli, an inci- 
dent which may give a clue to the disappearance of tribes before and 
since Leo's day. 

(99) Sueka, the Sudeyca of Marmol, near — according to him — ^to 
Ptolemy's Cape Trieri — the three-pointed. 

(100) Ksar Husn — the Ca^ar Hascen of Marmol, built by the army 
of Okba after the ruin of Old Tripoli. 



the Historic of Africa, and 

of the memorable things 

contained therein. 

Of the village called Gar, 

Auing hitherto intreated of the moun- 
taines, it now remaineth that we 
say somewhat as touching certaine 
villages, hamlets, and territories : 
and afterward we will describe in 
order the cities of Numidia. And 
first the village of Gar, situate vpon 
the Mediterran sea, and abounding with dates, offereth it 
selfe : the fields thereto belonging are drie and barren, and 
yet bring they foorth some quantitie of barley for the 
sustenance of the inhabitants.^ 

Of Garell Care. 

IT is a certaine little territorie or Grange, containing 
caues of a maruellous depth, whence (they say) the 
stones were taken wherewith olde Tripolis was built, 
because it is not far distant from that citie.^ 


Of the village of Sarman. 

His large village standing not farre from old Tripolis, 
aboundeth with dates, but no come will grow there.* 


Of the village called Zauiat Ben larbuJu 

THis village being situate neer vnto the Mediterran sea, 
yeeldeth great plentie of dates, but no come at all 
and is inhabited by certaine religious persons.* 

Of the village of Zanzor, 

THis village also standing neere vnto the Mediterran 
sea, within twelue miles of Tripolis, is inhabited by 
sundrie artificers, and aboundeth with great store of dates, 
pomegranats, and peaches. The inhabitants haue beene 
verie miserable euer since Tripolis was taken by the 
Christians ; and yet they traffique with the citizens of 
Tripolis, and carrie dates thither to sell.^ 

Of the village of Hamrozo, 

IT standeth sixe miles from Tripolis, and the gardens 
thereof bring forth great plentie of dates, and of all 
other kinde of fruits.^ 

Oftheplaine of Taiora. 

THis plaine standing two miles eastward of Tripolis, 
containeth many granges exceedingly replenished 
with dates and other fruits. The surprise of Tripolis was 
verie profitable for this place, for then many principall 
citizens fled hither for refuge. The inhabitants being 
ignorant and rude people, and altogither addicted to theft 
and robberie, build their cottages with the boughes of 
palme-trees. Their food is barley bread, and Bezin before 
described : all round about are subiect vnto the king of 
Tunis and the Arabians, saue those onelythat inhabit vpon 
this plaine.7 


Of the Prouince of Mesellata, 

THis Prouince standing vpon the Mediterran sea about 
fiue and thirtie miles from Tripolis, and being 
fraught with rich villages, castles, and inhabitants, 
aboundeth also with great plentie of oliues and dates. The 
inhabitants being free from all forren authoritie, haue a 
Captaine among themselues, which gouemeth their common- 
wealth, and fighteth their battles against the Arabians : 
and the soldiers of this Prouince are about 5000.® 

Of the Prouince of Mesrata. 

THis Prouince being situate also vpon the Mediterran 
"sea, about an hundreth miles from Tripolis, hath 
manie villages both vpon the plaines and mountaines. 
The inhabitants are rich and pay no tribute at all, and 
exercise traffique with the Venetians resorting to this 
Prouince with their galleies, carrying the Venetian wares 
to Numidia, and there exchanging the same for slaues, 
muske, and ciuet, which is brought thither out of EthiopicU® 

Of the desert of Barca. 

THis desert b^inningat the vtmost frontire of Mestrata, 
and extending eastward as farre as the confines of 
Alexandria, containeth in length a thousand and three 
hundreth, and in bredth about 200. miles. It is a rough 
and vnpleasant place, being almost vtterly destitute of 
water and come. Before the Arabians inuaded Africa, this 
region was void of inhabitants : but now certaine Arabians 
lead here a miserable and hungrie life, being a great way 
distant from all places of habitation : neither haue they 
any come growing at all. But corne and other necessaries 
are brought vnto them by sea from Sicilia, which that 
euerie of them may purchase, they are constrained to lay 
their sonnes to gage, and then goe rob and rifle trauellers 


The Arabians to redeeme them againe. Neuer did you heare of more 

of Barca most - ^ 

crutiiand cruell and bloodie theeues : for after they haue robbed 

bloodie themes. 

merchants of all their goods and apparell, they powre 
warme milke downe their throats, hanging them vp by the 
heeles vpon some tree, and forcing them to cast their 
gorge, wherein the lewd varlets search diligently for gold, 
suspecting that the merchants swallowed vp all their 
crownes before they entred that dangerous desert ^^ 


Of the citie of Tesset in Numidia. 

N the first booke of this present discourse we said that 
Numidia was accounted by the African Cosmographers 
the basest part of all Africa, and there we alleaged certaine 
persons for the same purpose : we signified also in the 
second Booke, writing of the prouince of Hea, that 
certaine cities of Numidia stood neere vnto mount Atlas. 
' Error. Howbcit *Sus, Guzula, Helchemma, and Capes, are within 

the kingdome of Tunis, albeit some would haue them 
situate in Numidia.^^ But my selfe following the opinion 
of Ptolemey, suppose Tunis to be a part of Barbarie. 
Being therefore about to describe all the cities and townes 
of Numidia, I will first begin with Tesset : which ancient 
towne built by the Numidians neere vnto the Libyan 
deserts, and enuironed with walles of sunne-dried bricke, 
deserueth scarcely the name of a towne ; and yet con- 
taineth fower hundred families. It is compassed round 
about with sandie plaines, sauing that neer vnto the towne 
grow some store of dates, of mill-seed, and of barley, which 
the miserable townesmen vse for food. They are 
constrained also to pay large tribute vnto the Arabians 
inhabiting the next deserts. They exercise traffique in the 
land of Negroes and in Guzula, insomuch that they spend 
most of their time in forren regions. They are of a blacke 
colour, and destitute of all learning. The women indeed 
teach their yoong children the first rudiments of learning 


but before they can attaine to any perfection, they are put 
to labour, and to the plough-tayle. The said women are 
somewhat whiter then other women : some of them get 
their liuing by spinning and carding of wooll, and the 
residue spend their time in idlenes. Such as are accounted 
richest in this region, possesse but verie few cattell. They 
till their ground with an horse and a camell, which kinde 
of plowing is obserued throughout all Numidia.^ 

Of the village of Guaden, 

THis village situate vpon the Numidian desert neere 
vnto Libya, is inhabited by most miserable and 
grosse people. Here groweth nothing but dates : and the 
inhabitants are at such enmitie with their neighbours, that 
it is dangerous for them to go abroad. Howbeit they giue 
themselues to hunting, and take certaine wilde beasts Tfu beast 
called Elamth, and ostriches, neither do they eate any other 
flesh. All their goates they reserue for milke. And these 
people also are blacke of colour.^ 

Of the castles of If ran, 

FOwer castles there are called by this name, built by the 
Numidians three miles each from other vpon a 
certaine riuer, which in the heat of sommer is destitute of 
water. Neere vnto these castles are certaine fields greatly 
abounding with dates. The inhabitants are verie rich, for 
they haue trafiique with the Portugals at the port of Gart The port of 

, — . . rr> \ Gart Guessem. 

Guessem, whose wares they carrie to Gualata and Tombuto. 
These castles containe great store of inhabitants, which 
make certaine brazen vessels to bee solde in the land of 
Negros : for they haue copper-mines in sundrie places copper-mines, 
thereabout Euery castle hath a weekly market ; but 
come and flesh are at an extreme rate there. They goe 
decently apparelled, and haue a faire temple to resort vnto, 



and a iudge also that decideth none but ciuill controversies : 
for criminall matters they vse to punish with banishment 

Of the castles of Accfta, 

THree castles of this name built vpon the Numidian 
deserts not far from Lybia were in times past well 
stored with inhabitants, but at length by ciuill wars they 
were vtterly dispeopled. Afterward (all matters being 
pacified) there were, by the meanes of a certaine religious 
man, who gouerned the same people, certaine new colonies 
planted. Neither haue the poore inhabitants any thing to 
do, but onely to gather dates.^^ 

Of the prouince of Dara, 

THis Prouince beginning at mount Atlas extendeth it 
selfe southward by the deserts of Lybia almost two 
hundred and fiftie miles, and the bredth thereof is verie 
narrow. All the inhabitants dwell vpon a certaine riuer 
which is called by the name of the Prouince. This riuer 
sometime so ouerfloweth, that a man would thinkeitto be 
a sea, but in sommer it so diminisheth, that any one may 
passe ouer it on foote. If so be it ouerfloweth about the 
beginning of Aprill, it bringeth great plentie vnto the whole 
region : if not, there followeth great scarcitie of come. 
Vpon the banke of this riuer there are sundrie villages and 
hamlets, and diuers castles also, which are enuironed with 
walles made of sunne-dried bricke and mortar. All their 
beames and planchers consist of date-trees, being notwith- 
standing vnfit for the purpose ; for the wood of date-trees 
is not solid, but flexible and spungie. On either side of 
the said riuer for the space of fiue or sixe miles, the fields 
abound exceedingly with dates, which with good keeping 
will last many yeeres : and as here are diuers kindes of 
dates, so they are sold at sundry prices : for a bushell of 


some is woorth a duckat, but others wherewith they feede 
their horses and camels, are scarce of a quarter so much 
value. Of date-trees some are male and some are female : Ttu strange 

propertie of the 

the male bring foorth flowers onely, and the female fruit \ paime or date- 
but the flowers of the female will not open, vnlesse the 
boughes and flowers of the male be joined vnto them : And 
if they be not ioined, the [dates will prove starke naught 
and containe great stones. The inhabitants of Dara Hue 
vpon barlie and other grosse meate : neither may they eate 
any bread but onely vpon festiuall daies. Their castles are 
inhabited by goldsmithes and other artificers, and so are 
all the regions lying in the way from Tombuto to Fez : in 
this prouince also there are three or fower proper townes, 
frequented by merchants and strangers, and containing 
many shops and temples. But the principall towne called 
Beni Sabih,^^ and inhabited with most valiant and liberall 
people, IS diuided into two parts, either part hauing a 
seuerall captaine or gouernour: which gouernours are 
oftentimes at great dissension, and especially when they 
moisten their arable grounds, by reason that they are so 
skanted of water. A merchant they will most courteously 
entertaine a whole yeere together, and then friendly 
dismissing him, they will require nought at his hands, but 
wil accept such liberalitie as he thinkes good to bestow 
vpon them. The said gouernours so often as they fall a 
skirmishing, hire the next Arabians to aide them, allowing 
them daily halfe a duckat for their pay and somtimes 
more, and giuing them their allowance euery day. In time 
of peace they trim their harquebuzes, handguns, & other 
weapons : neither saw I euer (to my remembrance) more 
cunning harquebuziers then at this place. In this prouince 
groweth great store of Indico being an herbe like vnto indica. 
wilde woad, and this herbe they exchange with the 
merchants of Fez and Tremisen for other wares. Corne 
is very scarce among them, and is brought thither from 

3 D 2 


Fez and other regions, neither haue they any great store of 
goats or horses, vnto whom instead of prouender they giue 
dates, and a kinde of herbe also which groweth in the 
kingdome of Naples, and is called by the Neapolitans 
Farfa. They feede their goates with the nuts or stones 
of their dates beaten to powder, whereby they grow 
exceeding fat, & yeeld great quantitie of milke. Their 
owne food is the flesh of camels and goates, being vnsauorie 
and displeasant in taste. Likewise they kill and eate 
Thefteshofthe ostriches, the flesh whereof tasteth not much vnlike to the 
flesh of a dunghill-cocke, sauing that it is more tough and 
of a stronger smell, especially the ostriches leg, which con- 
sisteth of slimie flesh. Their women are faire, fat, and 
courteous : and they keepe diuers slaues which are brought 
out of the land of Negros. 

Of the prouince of Segelmesse, 

THis prouince called Segelmesse,^^ according to the 
name of the principall citie therein contained, 
beginneth not farre from the towne of Gherseluin, and 
stretcheth southward by the riuer of Ziz an hundred and 
twentie miles, euen to the confines of the Libyan deserts.^* 
The said prouince is inhabited by certaine barbarous 
people of the families of Zeneta, Zanhagia, and Haoara, 
and was in times pastsubiect vnto a certaine prince, which 
bare rule ouer the same prouince onely. Afterward it fell 
into the possession of king Joseph of the Luntune-family, 
and then into the hands of one Muahidin, and not long 
after it was enioyed by the king of Fez his sonne. But 
since that time, the prince of this region was slaine in a 
rebellion, and the citie of Segelmesse was destroied, and 
till this day remaineth desolate. Afterward the inhabitants 
built certaine castles, whereof some are at libertie, and 
others are subiect to the Arabians. 


0/ the prouince of Cheneg, 

THis region^ extending it selfe by the riuer of Ziz 
vnto mount Atlas, containeth many castles, and 
bringeth forth great abundance of dates, which dates are 
but of small value. Their fields are barren and of little 
circuit, saue only betvveene the riuer Ziz and the foote of 
mount Atlas, where some store of barlie vsed to grow. 
The inhabitants are some of them subiect to the Arabians, 
others to the citie of Gherseluin, and the residue Hue at 
their owne libertie. And vnto these the high way leading 
from Segelmesse to Fez is subiect, and they exact great 
tribute of the merchants trauelling the same way. Neere 
vnto the said high way stand three castles, the first whereof 
being situate vpon an exceeding high rocke, seemeth to 
touch the cloudes. Vnder this castle there is a certaine 
house where a garde of soldiers continually stand, who for 
the load of euery camell that passeth by, demand one 
fourth part of a duckat The second castle being fifteene 
miles distant from the first, standeth not vpon an hill but 
on a plaine, and is farre more stately and rich then the 
former. The thirde castle called Tammaracroft is situate 
vpon the common high way about twenty miles southward 
of the second. There are certaine villages also, and other 
castles of meaner account. Corne is maruellous scarce 
among them : but they haue goates great plentie, which in 
winter they keepe in certaine large caues, as in places of 
greatest safetie, whereinto they enter by a most narrow 
passage. Likewise the entrance into this -region for the 
space of fortie miles is so narrow, that two or three armed 
men oncly may withstand mighty forces. 


Of the region of Maigara, 

THis region*^ beginning southward from the region last 
described, containeth many castles built vpon the 
riuer of Ziz, the principal! whereof is called Helel, wherein 
remaineth the gouemour of the whole region being an 
Arabian by birth. The soldiers of this Arabian gouernour 
dwell in tents vpon the plaines : and he hath other soldiers 
attending vpon his owne person also, who will suffer no 
man to passe but vnder safe conduct, without depriuing him 
of all his goods. Here are likewise diuers other villages 
and castles, which not being woorthy the naming I haue 
of purpose omitted. 


Of the territorie ofRetel. 

Etel^ bordering vpon the region last described, 
extendeth also fiftie miles southward along the riuer 
of Ziz, euen to the confines of Segelmesse, It containeth 
many castles, and yeeldeth plentie of dates. The inhabi- 
tants are subiect vnto the Arabians, being extremely 
courteous, and so faint harted, that an hundred of them 
dare scarce oppose themselves against ten Arabians : they 
till the Arabians ground also as if they were their slaues. 
The east part of Retel bordereth vpon a certaine desolate 
mountaine, and the west part vpon a desert and sandie 
plaine, whereunto the Arabians returning home from the 
wilderness, do resort. 

Of the territorie of Segelmesse. 

THis territorie extending it selfe along the riuer of Ziz 
from north to south almost twenty miles, containeth 
about three hundred and fiftie castles, besides villages and 
hamlets : three of which castles are more principall than 
the rest The first called Tenegent, and consisting of a 


thousand and moe families, standeth neere vnto the citie of 
Segelmesse, and is inhabited with great store of artificers. 
The second called Tebuhasan, standeth about eight miles 
to the south of Tenegent, being furnished also with greater 
numbers of inhabitants, and so frequented with merchants, 
that there is not in that respect the like place to be found 
in all the whole regfion besides. The third called Mamun 
is resorted vnto by sundry merchants, both lewes and 
Moores. These three castles haue three seuerall gouernours, 
who are at great dissension among themselues. They will 
oftentimes destroy one anothers chanels, whereby their 
fieldes are watered, which cannot without great cost be 
repaired againe. They will stow the palme-trees also to 
the very stocks : and vnto them a companie of lewd 
Arabians associate themselues. They coine both siluer 
and gold-money : but their gold is not very speciall. Their 
siluer coine weigherh fower graines apeece, eightie of 
which peeces are esteemed to be woorth one peece of their 
gold-coine. The lewes and Arabians pay excessiue 
tribute here. Some of their principall men are exceeding 
rich, and vse great traffique vnto the land of Negros: 
whither they transport wares of Barbarie, exchanging the 
same for gold and slaues. The greatest part of them Hue 
vpon dates, except it be in certaine places where some 
corne grow. Here are infinite numbers of scorpions, but in/nit num- 
no flies at all. In summer-time this region is extremely ^C«f 
hot, and then are the riuers so destitute of water, that the 
people are constrained to draw salt water out of certaine 
pits. The said territorie containeth in circuit about eightie 
miles, all which, after the destruction of Segelmesse, the 
inhabitants with small cost walled round about, to the ende 
they might not be molested by continuall inrodes of horse- 
men. While they lined all at vnitie and concord, they 
retained their libertie : but since they fell to mutuall 
debate, their wall was razed, and each faction inuited the 


Arabians to heipe them, vnder whom by h'ttle and little 
they were brought in subiection.^ 

Of the towne or citie of Segelmesse, 

SOme are of opinion that this towne was built by a 
certaine Romaine captaine, who hauing conducted 
his troupes foorth of Mauritania, conquered all Numidia, 
and marching westward, built a towne, and called it 
Sigillummesse, because it stood vpon the borders of Messa, 
and was as it were the seale of his victories, and afterward 
by a corrupt worde it began to be called Segelmesse. 
The common people togither with one of our African 
Cosmographers, called Bicri^ suppose that this towne was 
built by Alexander the great, for the reliefe of his sicke and 
wounded soldiers. Which opinion seemeth not probable to 
me : for I coulde neuer read that Alexander ^<t great came 
into any part of these regions. This towne was situate 
vpon a plaine neere vnto the riuer of Ziz, and was 
enuironed with most stately and high wals, euen as in 
many places it is to be seene at this present. When the 
Mahumetans came first into Africa, the inhabitants of this 
towne were subiect vnto the family of Zeneta; which 
family was at length dispossessed of that authority by 
king loseph the sonne of Tesfiny of the family of Luntuna. 
The towne it selfe \yas very gallantly builte, and the 
inhabitants were rich, and had great traffike vnto the land 
of Negros. Heere stoode stately temples and colleges 
also, and great store of conducts, the water whereof was 
drawen out of the riuer by wheeles. The aire in this place 
is most temperate and holesome, sauing that in winter it 
aboundeth with ouermuch moisture, which breedeth some 
diseases. But now since the towne was destroied, the 
inhabitarfts began to plant themselues in the next castles 
and villages, as we haue before signified. I my selfe 


aboade in this region almost seuen moneths at the foresaid 
castle of Meniun.** 

Of the castle of Essuoathila, 

THis castle was built by the Arabians in a certaine 
desert place, twelue miles southward of the towne 
last described ; and here they keepe their wares free from 
the danger of their enimies. Neere vnto this castle there 
is neither garden nor field, nor any other commoditie, but 
onely certaine blacke stones and sand.^ 

Of the castle of Humeledegi. 

THis castle was built also by the Arabians vpon a 
desert eighteene miles from Segelmesse, like as was 
the former. Neere vnto it lieth a certaine dry plaine, so 
replenished with sundrie fruits, that in beholding it a farre 
off a man would thinke the ground were strewed with 

Of the castle of Vmmelhesen, 

IT is a forlome and base castle, founded by the Arabians 
also fiue and twentie miles from Segelmesse vpon a 
desert, directly in the way from Segelmesse to Dara. It is 
enuironed with blacke wals, and continually garded by the 
Arabians. All merchants that passe by, pay one fourth 
part of a ducate for euery camels lode. My selfe trauelling 
this way vpon a time in the companie of fourteene lewes, 
and being demaunded how manie there were of vs, we saide 
thirteene, but after I began particularly to reckon, I founde 
the fowerteenth and the fifteenth man amongst vs, whom 
the Arabians woulde haue kept prisoners, had we not 
affirmed them to be Mahumetans : howbeit not crediting 
our words, they examined them in the lawe of Mahumet, 
which when they perceiued them indeed to vrrderstand, 
they permitted them to depart^ 


Of the village of Tebelbelt 

THis village standing in the Numidian desert, two 
hundred miles from Atlas, and an hundred south- 
ward of Segelmesse, is situate neere vnto three castles, well 
stored with inhabitants, and abounding with dates. Water 
and flesh is very scarce amongst them. They vse to hunt 
and take Ostriches, and to eate the flesh of them : and 
albeit they haue a trade vnto the land of Negros, yet are 
they most miserable and beggerly people, and subiect to 
the Arabians.^ 

Of the prouince of Todga. 

THis little prouince standing vpon a riuer of the same 
name, hath great plentie of dates, peaches, grapes, 
and figs. It containeth fower castles and ten villages, the 
inhabitants being either husbandmen or lether-dressers. 
And it standeth westward of Segelmesse about fortie 

Of the region of Farcala, 

IT standeth also vpon a riuer, and aboundeth with dates 
and other fruites, but corne is greatly wanting heere. 
Heere are in this region three castles, and fiue villages. It 
standeth southward of mount Atlas an hundred, and of 
Segelmesse almost threescore miles. The poore inhabi- 
tants are subiect to the Arabians.^ 

Of the region of Teserin, 

THis beautifull region situate vpon a riuer, is distant 
from Farcala thirtie, and from mount Atlas about 
threescore miles. Dates it yeeldeth in abundance, and 
containeth villages to the number of fifteene, and sixe 
castles, togither with the ruines of two townes, the names 
whereof I coulde by no meanes enquire. And the worde 
Teserin in the African language signifieth a towne.'^ 


Of the region called Beni Gumi, 

THis region adioining vpon the river of Ghir, aboundeth 
greatly with dates. The inhabitants are poore and 
miserable, and buie horses at Fez, which they sell after- 
warde vnto merchants that trauell to the lande of Negros. 
It containeth eight castles, and fifteene villages, and 
standeth southeast of Segelmesse about an hundred and 
fiftie miles.^ 

Of the castles of Mazalig and Abuhinan, 

THey are situate in the Numidian desert vpon the 
riuer of Ghir, almost fiftie miles from Segelmesse. 
Inhabited they are by certaine beggerly Arabians : neither 
doth the soile adiacent yeeld any corne at all, and but very 
fewe dates.^ 


Of the towne of Chasair, 
His towne standing vpon the desert of Numidia twentie 

miles from Atlas, hath mines of lead and antimonie Mines of Uad 
neere vnto it, whereby the inhabitants get their liuing ; for 
this place yeeldeth none other commoditie.^ 

Of the region of Beni Besseri. 

THis little region situate at the foote of mount Atlas, 
and abounding with all kinde of fruits saue dates, 
will beare no corne at all. It containeth three castles and 
a certaine iron-mine, which serueth all the prouince oi An iron-mine. 
S^elmesse with iron. Villages heere are but fewe, which 
are subiect partly to the prince of Dubdu, and partly to the 
Arabians ; and all the inhabitants employ themselues about 
working in the foresaid iron-mine.^ 


Of the region of Guachde. 

THis region standing seuentie miles southward of Segel- 
messe hath three castles and sundrie villages situate 
vpon the riuer of Ghir. Dates it yeeldeth great plentie, 
and but very little corne. The inhabitants exercise traffique 
in the land of Ncgros ; and are all subiect, and pay tribute 
to the Arabians.^ 

Of the castles of Fighig, 

THe three castles of Fighig stand vpon a certaine 
desert maruellously abounding with dates. The 
women of this place weaue a kinde of cloth in forme of a 
carpet, which is so fine, that a man would take it to be 
silke, and this cloth they sell at an excessiue rate at Fez, 
Telensin, and other places of Barbary. The inhabitants 
being men of an excellent wit, do part of them vse traffique 
to the land of Negros, and the residue become students at 
Fez : and so soone as they haue attained to the degree of a 
doctor, they returne to Numidia, where they are made 
cither priestes or senatours, and prooue most of them men 
of great wealth and reputation. From Segelmesse the said 
castles are distant almost an hundred and fiftie miles 

Of the region of Tesebit 

THe region of Tesebit being situate vpon the Numidian 
desert, two hundred and fiftie miles eastward of 
Segelmesse, and an hundred miles from mount Atlas, hath 
fower castles within the precincts thereof, and many 
villages also, which stand vpon the confines of Lybia, neer 
vnto the high way that leadeth from Fez and Telensin to 
the kingdome of Agadez and to the land of Negros. The 
inhabitants are not very rich, for all their wealth consisteth 
in dates, and some small quantitie of come. The men of 


this place are black, but the women are somewhat fairer, 
and yet they are of a swart and browne hue.^ 

Of tlie region of Tegorarin, 

THis great and large region of the Numidian desert 
standing about an hundred and twentie miles east- 
ward of Tesebit, containeth fiftie castles, and aboue an 
hundred villages, and yeeldeth great plentie of dates. The 
inhabitants are rich, and haue ordinarie traffique to the 
land of Negros. Their fields are very apt for come, and 
yet by reason of their extreme drouth, they stand in neede 
of continuall watering and dunging. They allow vnto 
strangers houses to dwell in, requiring no money for rent 
but onely their dung, which they keepe most charily : yea 
they take it in ill part if any stranger easeth himselfe 
without the doores. Flesh is very scarce among them : for 
their soile is so drie, that it will scarce nourish any cattell 
at all : they keepe a few goates indeede for their milks 
sake : but the flesh that they eate is of camels, which the 
Arabians bring vnto their market to sell : they mingle their 
meate with salt tallow, which is brought into this region 
from Fez & Tremizen. There were in times past many 
rich I ewes in this region, who by the meanes of a certaine 
Mahumetan preacher, were at length expelled, and a great 
part of them slaine by the seditious people ; and that in 
the very same yeere when the lewes were expelled out of 
Spaine and Sicily. The inhabitants of this region hauing 
one onely gouernour of their owne nation, are notwith- 
standing often subiect to ciuill contentions, and yet they do 
not molest other nations : howbeit they pay certaine tribute 
vnto the next Arabians.^® 


Of the region of Meszab. 

THis region being situate vpon the Numidian desert, 
300. miles eastward from Tegorarin, and 300. miles 
also from the Mediterran sea, containeth sixe castles, and 
many villages, the inhabitants being rich, and vsing traffike 
to the land of Negros. Likewise the Negro-merchants, 
togither with them of Bugia and Ghir make resort vnto 
this region. Subiect they are and pay tribute vnto the 

Of the towne of Techort, 

THis ancient towne of Techort was built by the 
Numidians vpon a certaine hill, by the foote whereof 
runneth a riuer, vpon which riuer standeth a draw-bridge. 
The wall of this towne was made of free stone and lime, 
but that part which is next vnto the mountaine hath 
instead of a wall an impregnable rocke opposite against it : 
this towne is distant fiue hundred miles southward from the 
Mediterran sea, and about 360. miles from Tegorarim. 
Families it containeth to the number of fiue and twentie 
hundred : all the houses are built of sunne-dried brickes, 
except their temple which is somewhat more stately. 
Heere dwell great store both of gentlemen and artificers : 
and bicause they haue great abundance of dates, and are 
destitute of come, the merchants of Constantina exchange 
corne with them for their dates. All strangers they fauour 
exceedingly, and friendly dismisse them without paying of 
ought. They had rather match their daughters vnto 
strangers, then to their owne citizens : and for a dowry 
they glue some certaine portion of lande, as it is accustomed 
in some places of Europe. So great and surpassing is their 
liberalitie, that they will heape many gifts vpon strangers, 
albeit they are sure neuer to see them againe. At the 
first they were subiect to the king of Maroco, afterward to 


the king of Telensin, and now to the king of Tunis, vnto 
whom they pay fiftie thousand ducats for yeerely tribute, 
vpon condition that the king himselfe come personally to 
recehie it The king of Tunis that now is, demanded a 
second tribute of them. Many castles, and villages, and 
some territories there be also, which are all subiect vnto the 
prince of this towne : who coUecteth an hundred and thirtie 
thousand ducates of yeerely reuenues, and hath alwaies a 
mightie garrison of soldiers attending vpon him, vnto whom 
he alloweth very large paie. The gouernour at this present 
called HabduUa^ is a valiant and liberall yoong prince, and 
most curteous vnto strangers, whereof I my selfe conuers- 
ing with him for certaine daies, had good experience.*^ 

Of the citie of Guargala. 

1 ^<y3^^#€^ His ancient citie founded by the Nu- 
m^^\ ^^^K midians, and enuironed with strong 
wals vpon the Numidian desert, is 
built very sumptuously, and aboundeth 
exceedingly with dates. It hath some 
castles and a great number of villages 
belonging thereunto. The inhabitants 
are rich, bicause they are neere vnto the kingdome of 
Agadez. Heere are diuers merchants of Tunis and 
Constantina, which transport wares of Barbaric vnto the 
lande of Negros. And bicause flesh and corne is very 
scarce with them, they Hue vpon the flesh of Ostriches and 
camels. They are all of a blacke colour, and haue blacke 
slaues, and are people of a courteous and liberall disposi- 
tion, and most friendly and bountifull vnto strangers. A 
gouernour they haue whom they reuerence as if he were 
a king : which gouernour hath about two thousand horse- 
men alwaie^ attending vpon him, and collecteth almost 
fifteene thousand ducates for yeerely reuenue.*^ 


Of the prouince of Zeb. 

ZEb a prouince situate also vpon the Numidian desert, 
beginneth westward from Mesila, northward from the 
mountaines of Bugia, eastward from the region of dates 
over against Tunis, and southward it bordereth vpon a 
certaine desert, ouer which they trauaile from Guargala to 
Techort This region is extremely hot, sandie, and destitute 
both of water and corne : which wants are partly supplied 
by their abundance of dates. It containeth to the number 
of fiue townes and many villages, all which we purpose in 
order to describe.** 

Of the towne cfPescara, 

THis ancient towne built by the Romans while they 
were lords of Mauritania, and afterward destroied 
by the Mahumetans at their first enterance into Africa; 
is now reedified, stored with new inhabitants, and enuironed 
with faire and stately wals. And albeit the townesmen 
are not rich, yet are they louers of ciuilitie. Their soile 
yeeldeth nought but dates. They haue beene gouerned 
by diuers princes : for they were awhile subiect vnto the 
kings of Tunis, and that to the death of king Hutmen^ 
after whom succeeded a Mahumetan priest : neither coulde 
the kings of Tunis euer since that time recouer the 
Deadly dominion of Pescara. Here are great abundance of 

scorpions. , , . . 111 « « 

scorpions, and it is present death to be stung by them : 
wherefore all the townesmen in a manner depart into 
the countrey in sommer time, where they remaine till the 
moneth of Nouember.** 

Of the citie of Borgi, 

ANother towne there is also called Borgi, which standeth 
about fowerteene miles eastward of Pescara. Heere 
are a great many of artificers, but more husbandmen. And 


bicause water is very scarce in this region, and yet their 
fieldes stand in neede of continual! watering, euery man 
may conueigh water in his field by a certaine sluce, for 
the space of an hower or two, according to the bredth or 
length of his ground ; and after one hath done watering 
his ground, his next nighbour beginneth, which oftentimes 
breedeth great contention and bloudshed.*^ 

Of the towne of Nefta, 

NEfta is the name of the towne it selfe, and also of the 
territorie adiacent ; which territorie containeth 
three castles, the greatest whereof seemeth by the manner 
of building to haue beene founded by the Romains. Inhabi- 
tants heere are great store, being very rusticall and vnciuill 
people. In times past they were exceeding rich, for they 
dwell neere vnto Lybia, in the very way to the land of 
Negros : howbeit by reason of their perpetuall hostilitie 
with the kings of Tunis, the king of Tunis that now is 
destroied their towne ; and themselues he partly slue, and 
partly put to flight. Likewise he so defaced the wals and 
other buildings, that now a man woulde esteeme it to be 
but a base village. Not farre from hence runneth a 
certaine riuer of hot water, which serueth them both to 
drinke, and to water their fields withall.*^ 

Of the towne of Teolacha, 

IT was built by the Numidians, and compassed with 
slender wals, and hath a riuer of hot water also 
running thereby. The fields adiacent yeeld plentie of 
dates, but great scarcitie of come. The miserable inhabi- 
tants are oppressed with continual exactions, both by the 
Arabians, and also by the king of Tunis. Yet are they 
extremely couetous and proud, and disdainfull vnto 


Of the towne of Deusen, 

DEusen a very ancient towne, founded by the Romains 
in the same place where the kingdome of Bugia 
ioineth to Numidia, was destroied by the Mahometans at 
their first entrance into Africa, bicause of a certaine 
Romaine captaine, which endured the Saracens siege for a 
whole yeere togither ; the towne being at- length taken, 
this captaine and all the men of the towne were put to the 
sword, but the women and children were carried away 
captiue. Howbeit after the towne was sacked, the wall 
thereof remained entire, by reason it was built of most 
hard stone, and that a woonderfuU thicknes, though in 
some places it seemeth to be ruined, which (I thinke) 
might be caused by an earthquake. Not farre from this 
towne are diuers monuments of antiquitie like vnto 
sepulchers, wherein are founde sundrie peeces of siluer 
coine, adorned with certaine letters and hieroglyphicall 
figures, the interpretation whereof I could neuer finde 

Of the prouince of BiUdulgerio. 

FRom the territorie of Pescara this prouince extendetb 
it selfe vnto the Isle of Gerbi, and one part thereof, 
in which Cafsa and Teusar are situate, is almost three 
hundred miles distant from the Mediterran sea. It is an 
extreme hot and drie place, bringing foorth no corne at 
all, but great plenty of dates, which bicause they are 
speciall good, are transported vnto the kingdome of Tunis. 
Here are diuers townes and cities, which we will describe 
in their due place.*® 

Of the towne of Tetisar. 

THis ancient towne built by the Romans vpon the 
Numidian desert, neere vnto a certaine riuer spring- 
ing foorth of the southren mountaines, was enuironed with 


most stately & impregnable wals, and had an ample 
territorie thereunto belonging, but it was since so destroied 
by the Mahumetans, that now instead of the woonted 
sumptuous palaces thereof it containeth nought but base 
cottages. The inhabitants are exceeding rich both in 
wares and money, for they haue many faites euerie yeere ; 
whereunto resort great numbers of merchants from Numidia 
and Barbarie. The foresaid riuer diuideth the towne into 
two parts, one whereof being inhabited by the principall 
gentlemen and burgo-masters, is called Fatnasa : and in 
the other called Merdes dwell certaine Arabians, which 
haue remained there euer since the towne was destroyed 
by the Mahumetans. They are at continuall ciuill wars 
among themselues, and will performe but little obedience 
to the king of Tunis : for which cause he dealeth alwaies 
most rigorously with them.^ 

Of the towne of Caphsa, 

THe ancient towne of Caphsa built also by the Romans, 
had for certaine yeeres a gouernour of their owne : 
but afterward being sacked by one Hucba a Captaine of 
Huttnen Califa^ the walles thereof were razed to the 
ground ; but the castle as yet remaineth, and is of great 
force ; for the wall thereof being fiue and twentie cubits 
high, and fiue cubits thick, is made of excellent stones, like 
vnto the stones of Vespasians Amphitheatre at Rome. 
Afterward the towne- walles were reedified, and were 
destroyed againe by Mansor^ who hauing slaine the 
Gouernour of the towne and all the inhabitants, appointed 
a new Gouernour ouer the same place. Now this towne is 
verie populous, all the houses thereof, except the temple 
and a few other buildings, being verie deformed and base, 
and the streets are paued with blacke stones, like vnto the 
streets of Naples and Florence. The poore inhabitants are 
continually oppressed with the exactions of the king of 

3 E 2 


Tunis. In the middest of the towne are certaine square, 
large, and deepe fountaines walled round about, the water 
whereof is hot and vnfit to bee drunke, vnlesse it be set an 
hower or two a cooling. The ayre of this place is verie 
vnholesome, insomuch that the greatest part of the 
inhabitants are continually sicke of feuers. People they 
are of a rude and illiberall disposition, and vnkinde vnto 
strangers : wherefore they are had in great contempt by 
all other Africans. Not far from this towne are fields 
abounding with dates, oliues, and pome-citrons : and the 
dates and oliues there are the best in all the whole 
prouince : here is likewise most excellent oyle. The 
inhabitants make themselues shooes of buckes leather.^^ 

Of the castles of Nefzaoa, 

THree castles there are of this name being well stored 
with inhabitants, but verie homely built, and oppressed 
with the king of Tunis his continuall exactions. And they 
are distant from the Mediterran sea, about fiftie miles.** 

Of the region of Teorregu. 

THis little territory belonging to the kingdome of 
Tripolis, & bordering vpon the desert of Barca, 
containeth three castles of the same name, which abound 
greatly with dates, but haue no come at all. The 
inhabitants being farre distant from other townes and cities, 
lead a most miserable life.^ 

Of the territorie of lasliten, 

IT lieth vpon the Mediterran sea, and containeth many 
villages abounding with dates. The inhabitants 
because they dwell so neere the sea, haue great traffique 
with the people of Sicilie and Egypt^ 



Of the region of Gademes, 

THis large region hauing many castles & villages 
therin, standeth southward of the Mediterran sea 
almost three hundred miles. The inhabitants being rich in 
dates and all other kinde of merchandise, and trafficking 
into the land of Negros, pay tribute vnto the Arabians ; 
albeit for a certaine time they were subiect vnto the king of 
Tunis, and the Prince of Tripolis. Corne and flesh are 
maruellous scarce here.^ 

Of the region of Fezzen, 

THis ample region containing great store of castles and 
villages, and being inhabited with rich people, and 
bordering vpon the kingdome of Agadez, the Libyan 
desert, and the land of Egypt, is distant from Cairo almost 
threescore dales ioumey : neither is there any village in all 
that desert besides Augela, which standeth in the bounds 
of Libya. This region of Fezzen hath a peculiar gouemour 
within it selfe, who bestoweth the reuenues of the whole 
region according to his owne discretion, and payeth some 
tribute vnto the next Arabians. Of come and flesh heere 
is great scarcitie, so that they are constrained to eat camels 
flesh onely.^ 

A description of the deserts of Libya, and first of 


JAuing hitherto described all the regions 

of Numidia, let vs now proceed vnto 

the description of Libya ; which is 

diuided into fiue parts, as we signified 

in the beginning of this our discourse. 

We will therefore begin at the drie and 

forlorne desert of Zanhaga, which bor- 

deretb westward vpon the Ocean sea, and extendeth 


eastward to the salt-pits of Tegaza, northward it abutteth 
vpon Sus, Haccha, and Dara, regions of Numidia; and 
southward it stretcheth to the land of Negros, adioyning it 
selfe vnto the kingdomes of Gualata and Tombuto. Water 
is here to be found scarce in an hundred miles trauell, 
being salt and vnsauorie, and drawen out of deepe wels, 
especially in the way from Segelmesse to Tombuto. Here 
are great store of wilde beasts and creeping things, whereof 
we will make mention in place conuenient In this region 
there is a barren desert called Azaoad, wherein neither 
water nor any habitations are to be found in the space of 
an hundred miles; beginning from the well of Araoan, 
which is distant from Tombuto about 150. miles. Here 
both for lacke of water and extremitie of heat, great 
numbers of men and beasts daily perish.*^ 

Of the desert inhabited by the people called Zuenziga, 

THis desert beginneth westward from Tegaza, extending 
eastward to the desert of Hair which is inhabited 
by the people called Targa : northward it bordereth vpon 
the deserts of Segelmesse, Tebelbelt, and Benigorai ; and 
southward vpon the desert of Ghir, which loineth vnto the 
kingdome of Guber. It is a most barren and comfortlesse 
place : and yet merchants trauell that way from Telensirt 
to Tombuto : howbeit many are found lying dead vport 
the same way in regard of extreme thirst Within this 
desert there is included another desert called Gogdem, 
where for the space of nine dales ioumey not one drop of 
water is to be found, vnlesse perhaps some raine falleth : 
wherefore the merchants vse to carrie their water vpon 
camels backes.^ 


Of the desert inhabited by the people called Targa, 

THis desert beginneth westward vpon the confines of 
Hair, and extendeth eastward to the desert of 
Ighidi ; northward it bordereth vpon the deserts of Tuath, 
Tegorarin, and Mezab, and is inclosed southward with a 
certaine wildemesse neere vnto the kingdome of Agadez. 
It is a place much more comfortable and pleasant then the 
two deserts last described ; and hath great plentie of water, 
also neere vnto Hair. The ayre is maruellous holesome, 
and the soyle aboundeth with all kinde of herbes. Not 
farre from Agadez there is found great store of Manna, Grecu store of 
which the inhabitants gather in certaine little vessels, 
carrying it while it is new unto the market of Agadez : 
and this Manna being mingled with water they esteeme 
very daintie and pretious drinke. They put it also into 
th^ir pottage, and being so taken, it hath a maruellous 
force of refrigerating or cooling, which is the cause that 
here are so few diseases, albeit the ayre of Tombuto and 
Agadez be most vnwholesome and corrupt. This desert 
stretcheth from north to south almost 300. miles.^® 


Of the desert inhabited by the people of Lentta. 

HE fourth desert beginning at the territorie of Ighidi 
_ and extending to another which is inhabited by the 
people called Berdoa, bordereth northward vpon the 
deserts of Techort, Guarghala, and Gademis, and south- 
ward vpon the kingdome of Cano in the land of Negros. 
It is exceeding drie, and verie dangerous for merchants 
trauelling to Constantina. For the inhabitants chalenge 
vnto themselues the signiorie of Guargala : wherefore 
making continuall warre against the prince of Guargala, 
they oftentimes spoile the merchants of all their goods : 
and as many of the people of Guargala as they can catch, 
they kill without all pitie and compassion.^ 


Oftlie desert inhabited by the people called Berdoa, 

THE fift desert beginning westward from the desert 
last mentioned, and stretching eastward to the 
desert of Augela, adioyneth northward vpon the deserts of 
Fezzen and Barca, and trendeth southward to the desert 
of Borno. This place is extremely drie also, neither haue 
any but the Gademites, which are in league with the 
people of Berdoa, safe passage through it : for the mer- 
chants of Fezzen, so often as they fall into their enimies 
hands, are deprived of all their goods. The residue of the 
Libyan desert, that is to say, from Augela to the riuer of 
Nilus is inhabited by certaine Arabians and Africans com- 
monly called Leuata : and this is the extreme easterly 
part of the deserts of Libya.®^ 

Of the region of Nun, 

THis region bordering vpon the Ocean sea, containeth 
many villages and hamlets, and is inhabited with 
most beggerly people. It standeth betweene Numidia and 
Libya, but somewhat neerer vnto Libya. Here groweth 
neither barley nor any other corne. Some dates here are, 
but very vnsauorie. The inhabitants are continually 
molested by the Arabians inuasions : and some of them 
traffique in the kingdome of Gualata.^ 

Of the region of Tegaza, 

Saltmines, T N this region is great store of salt digged, beeing whiter 
1 then any marble. This salt is taken out of certaine 
caues or pits, at the entrance wherof stand their cottages 
that worke in the salt-mines. And these workmen are all 
strangers, who sell the salt which they dig, vnto certaine 
merchants that carrie the same vpon camels to the king- 
dome of Tombuto, where there would otherwise be extreme 
scarcitie of salt. Neither haue the said diggers of salt any 


victuals but such as the merchants bring vnto them : for 
they are distant from all inhabited places, almost twentie 
daies iourney, insomuch that oftentimes they perish for 
lacke of foode, whenas the merchants come not in due 
time vnto them : Moreouer the southeast winde doth so 
often blind them, that they cannot Hue here without great 
perill. I my selfe continued three daies amongst them, all 
which time I was constrained to drinke salt-water drawen 
out of cfertaine welles not far from the salt-pits.^ 

Of the region of Angela, 

AVgela beeing a region of the Libyan desert, and 
distant fower hundred and fiftie miles from Nilus, 
containeth three castles, and certaine villages. Dates 
heere are great plentie, but extreme scarcitie of corne, 
vnlesse it be brought hither by merchants out of Egypt. 
Through this region lieth the way by the Libyan desert 
from Mauritania to Egypt.*** 

Of the towne of Serte, 

SErte an ancient towne built (according to the opinion 
of some) by the Egyptians ; of others, by the 
Romans ; and (as some others suppose) by the Africans, 
was at length destroied by the Mahumetans, albeit Ibnu 
Rachich affirmeth the Romans to haue sacked it But 
now there is nought remaining but onely a few mines of 
the wall.«^ 

Of the region of Berdeoa, 

BErdepa a region situate in the midst of the Libyan 
desert, and standing almost fine hundred miles from 
Nilus, containeth three castles and fiue or six villages, 
abounding with most excellent dates. And the said three 
castles were discouered eighteene yeeres agoe by one 
Hamar in manner following : the carouan of merchants 


wandering out of the direct way, had a certaine blinde 

man in their companie which was acquainted with all 

AwhcUcaro' those regions: this blinde guide riding foremost vpon 

nan conducted ^, \ , , ^ , f . ,. 

by a blinde his camell, Commanded some sand to be gmen him at 

guide who lead 

them by sent cuery milcs end, by the smell whereof he declared the 

This^fresentthe situation of the place : but when they were come within 

MMTocoare foftie miles of this region, the blinde man smelling of the 

^tt^iA^a^ sand, affirmed that they were not farre from some places 

^^' ^ '^^' inhabited ; which some beleeued not, for they knew that 

they were distant from Egypt fower hundred and eightie 

miles, so that they tooke themselues to be neerer vnto 

Augela. Howbeit within three daies they found the said 

three castles, the inhabitants whereof woondering at the 

approch of strangers, and being greatly astonied, presently 

shut all their gates, and would giue the merchants no 

water to quench their extreme thirst But the merchants 

by maine force entred, and hauing gotten water sufficient, 

betooke themselues againe to their ioumie.^ 

Of the region of Alguechet 

ALguechet also being a region of the Libyan desert, is 
from Egypt an hundred and twenty miles distant. 
Here are three castles and many villages abounding with 
dates. The inhabitants are black, vile, and couetous 
people, and yet exceeding rich : for they dwell in the mid 
way betweene Egypt and Gaoga. They haue a gouemour 
of their owne, notwithstanding they pay tribute vnto the 
next Arabians.^^ 

Here endeth the sixth booke. 


(i) Gar, "a cavern "—perhaps Gheriah, Garria, or Geria, on the 
shores of the Greater Syrtes, but the description is too vague for 
so insignificant a place to be accurately identified {Delia Cella, p. 80). 
Marmol, who seems to have known it, describes Gar as unfortified, 
with a ruined wall and tower, and " what some call the Cistcrne". It 
was inhabited by Berbers subject to the Chief of Tajuira (Tachore). 

(2) The same remark applies to Gar el-Gare, and though the 
quarries ought to afford a clue to the locality, it is not mentioned by 
Marmol, Delia Cella, Barth, the Beecheys, or any other writer known 
to me. The Gara (or Gaia of Ptolemy) is a small islet off Ain Naga, 
close to the shore of the Greater Syrtes (Syrtes Magna). There are 
great quarries at the ruins of Ksar Yahilye (which may be " Garell- 
gare ") to the west of Tripoli, and the sanctuary of " El-Gar " in the 
district of Zenzur is close at hand beside a ruined castle. Caverns 
are frequent along the coast. 

(3) Sarman is described by Marmol as a large open town, well- 
peopled by Hoarsa Berbers, who recognised the Tripoli authorities, 
and who had plenty of dates. It is, in all probability, the modem 
Aserman, a village scattered among the date palms. 

(4) The Zauia, or Sanctuary of Sidi Barhab, near Zenzur, the 
Zaort or Zauit ben Giarbu of Marmol. 

(5) Zenzur— a poor place, still in the rich, well -watered district of the 
same name, which contains four or five thousand people. It is the 
Gienzor of Marmol. 

(6) Hamron of Marmol, an open village in his day. There is a 
market gardeners' village of this name. 

(7) Tajiura, Tajuia, Tadschura, the Tachore of Marmol, Taguira 
of DeUa Cella and the Beecheys ; a series of scattered villages, sur- 
rounded by gardens, date palms and olive groves ; the people are 
occupied in agriculture or market gardening, and in making coarse 
barracans (the representation of the Morocco jellaba), and mats of the 
4ate palm leaves. 


(8) Mecellat of Marmol, the great Plain of Mesellata, still well 
populated and prosperous, and celebrated for the industry of its 
people. The Castle of Mesellata at the northern end of the village 
of Kasabat (" the castle ") was probably erected by the Spaniards, at 
the end of the sixteenth century. — Barth, Travels^ etc., vol. i, p. 77. 

(9) Mesurata, Msarata, Mezrata, a large plain covered with olives 
and date palms, the chief town of which is called Mesurata, about a 
mile from the extremity of Cape Mesurata. It occupies the site of 
the ancient Thubactis municipium. The Mezurateens, who live in 
small detached houses, are mostly agriculturists. But they also 
manufacture carpets, and send caravans to Fezzan and the Sudan. 
They have played a warlike part in the turmoils of Tripoli. 

(10) Barca still bears the name which the Arab invaders adopted 
from the Romans, who are said to have taken it, in turn, from an 
ancient city called "Barce", which was built by Battus, son of Arcesilas, 
King of Egypt, and afterwards destroyed by Amasis. — Herodotus^ 
lib. iv ; StrabOy lib. xvii ; Ptolemy^ lib. iv, c. 4 ; Pomponius Mela^ 
lib. i, c. 8. The promontory of Barca, and the modem El-Mergi or 
El- Medina, recalls the ancient Barca and its port of Ptolemais, the 
modem Tolemeta. This district was the Greek Cyrenaica and the 
country Pentapolis—" the Land of the Five Cities. But Leo is too 
liberal in comprising under Barca all the country between Mesurata 
and Egypt, and in stating, as the natives still do, that the " Desert 
of Barca", was uninhabited until the Arabs came to Africa. In reality, 
here were flourishing Greek and Roman colonies, with cities to whose 
former splendour their ruins attest, and a soil rivalling that of Egypt 
in fertility. Much of it is sandy, and tracts once cultivated are 
now permitted, either from lack of irrigation or the desert encroach- 
ment, to retum to barrenness. But the Barca promontory, instead 
of being "a sandy or rocky waste, with a few rare oases", is described 
by Sir Lambert Playfair as consisting " of a succession of wooded 
hills and smiling prairies, well watered by rain and perennial 
springs : the climate is healthy and cool even during the summer 
months, and the moist sea breezes blowing over it protect the country 
from the devastating wind of the desert". Leo, no doubt, describes 
Serte as an ancient city, the builders of which some believed to be the 
Egyptians and others the Romans, from which {inter^alia) it is clear 
he had not seen the place in question ; otherwise with his Italian 
experience he would at once have seen that the Egyptians could have 
had nothing to do with the sculptures then more in evidence than now. 
He also grossly exaggerates the length and breadth of the region he 
takes to be Barca. It is from this erroneous description of Leo's that 
the persistent modem impression of "the district and desert of 


Barca " has been derived. Yet had Herodotus been accepted as an 
authority, it would be seen that he describes the region as not only 
not barren throughout, but in places remarkable for its fertility. The 
Beecheys indeed characterise the present inhabitants as a healthy, 
good-looking race, though, as their treatment of Rohlfs' expedition 
proved, still as treacherous and predatory as Leo described. — Rohlfs, 
Reise von Tripoli nach Alexandrien (1871) ; Borsari, Geog, etnol. e 
Storica delta Tripolitana, Cyrenaica e Fezzan^ pp. 1 59 et seq, ; 
Beechey, Report^ etc., p. 266. 

(11) There is some slip of the pen here, for Pory rightly marks 
the passage. Sus (p. 248) and Guzula (p. 281) have already been 
described in Morocco. Capes {Gabes^ p. 760) is in Tunis, but " Hel- 
chemna" (Elchemma) is not so clear : it is not mentioned under that 
name in any other part of Leo's narrative. 

(12) Tesserit, Tenzert, or Tichert. Perhaps Tizzert and Tizzut 
are different places. 

(13) For "Elmath", see Edrisi (ed. Hartmann), p. 130. The 
addux antelope is, in the language of the Northern Tuaregs, el- 
mehd, — Duveyrier, Les Totiaregs du Nord^ p. 225. Marmol describes 
Guaden as a large open village, which he visited with the Shereef 
Mohanuned. The people of it trafficked with the Portuguese at 
Arguin, a statement a little difficult to credit, unless the village lay 
much farther south than Leo puts it. The place, if not Wadan 
(Ouadan), a short journey from Arguin, may be Wad Nun — Renou, 
Expl. Scientifique de PAlgMe^ t. ii, p. 281. 

(14) Also called Ofran, Gufran, Gfferan, and under these names 
known to the Morocco traders. Marmol calls it Ufaran. The in- 
habitants traded in Leo's day with Agadir or Gartguessem (p. 253) the 
Carguesse of Marmol. Cochelet enumerates 1 50 houses, the popula- 
tion being half Jewish. — Naufrage du brick franqais La Sophie perdus 
le 30 mai 1819, sur la cSte occidentale d^Afrique^ etc., t. ii, p. 331. 

(15) The Aca of Marmol, the well-known oasis of Akka. Lenz, 
Timbuktu^ vol. i, p. 85, vol. ii, p. 6. 

(16) Dra, Drah, Draa. In summer this river is almost dry, and the 
Debaia, an expansion on its upper course, which has been described 
as a " great lake", becomes a Sebka or marsh. Indeed, it is filled with 
water for only a short period of the year, and at times can be culti- 
vated for quick-growing crops. 

(17) The Beni Sbih, an important place in the district of Ktaua 
visited by Rohlfs. Ktaua is evidently MarmoPs Quiteoa, while Tan- 
zetta is his Tinzeda. He also mentions Taragale, Tinzulin (Rohlfs' 


Tunsulin), Tamegrut, Taberaost (perhaps Taberaoust), Afra, and 
Timesquit (probably Rohlfs* Mesgeta, or Mezquitta, or Tineskit, the 
Berber name for a mosque). Mouette's Lafera, a cavernous mountain 
in the vicinity of Zaimby, called by Marmol Taragale, or Taragalelt, 
or Tareggilet, is the Jebel Sagora. — Rohlfs, Mein Erster Aufenthalt 
in Marokko (Dritte Ausgabe), p. 440 ; De Castries, " Notice sur la 
region de Poued Drai," Bull, de Soc, Gdog, Paris, December i88o, 
p. 497. 

(18) Sigilmdsiyah, Segelmessa, Sigilmassa, Sugulmesse, Sedschel- 
mesa, has been always reckoned as practically synonymous with 
Tafilet, as indeed it is, the place being spoken of long after it was 
destroyed and its successor established in its stead. But, in reality, 
though the area of the modem kingdom of Tafilet — the cradle of the 
present dynasty of Morocco— is nearly coterminous with that of 
Segelmessa, the two towns are quite distinct, as are also the past and 
the present divisions of the country. The history of the town of 
Segelmessa is much the same as that of the country. It was founded, 
according to El-Bekri, not by the Romans, but in A.H. I4o(a.d. 757), at 
the period when the Khalifsof Cordova declared themselves independent 
of the Khalifs of the East, and caused the ruin of the towns of Terra 
(Berah) and Ziz. After being successively under the rule of Yussuf 
Ben Tashfin and Abd el-Mumen, the civil wars during the reign of 
the Beni-Marini ended in the ruin of the city, the inhabitants 
retreating into detached Kusiir (plural of Ksar), which they erected in 
different oases. These really constitute the modem Tafilet. Yet 
long after the place had lost all its former importance and had even 
ceased to exist, Arab and European, writers copying them, spoke of 
Segelmessa as only another name for Tafilet Leo does so, and 
Marmol, after copying all that Leo says about Tafilet, adds that it is an 
ancient Berber town, built on a sandy plain, and of some commercial 
importance. Walckenaer {Recherches^ p. 285), D'Avezac {Eludes , 
p. 162), and Cooley {Negrolandy p. 5) actually contended that the two 
names were really those of the same city. Graberg de Hemso 
{SpecchiOy pp. 63, 64), a most uncritical writer, was in this case more 
accurate. But as late as A.H. 1218 (a.d. 1803) Abu-1-K4sim ben Ahmed 
Ezziini refers to an army under Dahman Essoueda, Amil of the 
Sahara, marching to Segelmessa. Mr. Harris describes the Tafilet 
ksars as large and strongly fortified, and possessing each one a gate 
at which the stranger is keenly scmtinised by the " boab", or door- 
keeper. The ruins of Segelmessa are in the district of Wad Ifii, and 
bear evidence to the city having been a large one. Nothing now 
remains of its former greatness but cmmbling walls, a mosque and 
minaret in tolerable repair, and a broken-down bridge over the Wad 
Ziz. "Tabia" seems to have been chiefly used in its constmction, 


and there are few traces of stone buildings. The very name of the 
town seems to have disappeared with its greatness ; for, though the 
fame of " Segelmessa" is remembered, its ruins are known as 
Medinat ul-'^mira — " the Royal Cit/'. The canal made to carry the 
water supply from the deep river-bed to the town is of such unusually 
good workmanship that the water still flows fast and clear between 
its well-formed banks, and several little bridges in good repair cross 
the ditch. Yet Segelmessa in its lowly condition is still revered 
for what it was ; and twice a year, on the 'Id el-Kebtr and the 
'Id es-Saghir, the two great Moslem feasts, a large concourse 
of people meet to pray at the Musalli, or "place of prayer*' 
near the old mosque, which has been a silent witness of so 
many unwritten events in the lurid history of Morocco. Major 
Raverty tells us that it is mentioned, among other Arabic documents, 
in the Maslik wa Mayndlik^ and about A.D. 950 Ibn Haukal 
[Oriental Geog,^ p. 17) refers to it as distant nearly fifty "merhalah" 
(or days' journey) from Kairwan. Edrisi mentions " Segelmesa", under 
which name it is also referred to by Ibn el-Wardi. Abu-1-feda, 
on the authority of Ibn Said, describes " Sedgelmasah" (Sol vet's ed., 
p. 67 ; Reinaud's ed., t. ii, p. 189) as the capital of a considerable 
province watered by a river bordered with gardens. It had eight 
gates, and by whichever of them the traveller passed out he saw 
the river, date palms, and other trees. A wall of forty miles in 
circumference surrounded city and gardens alike. The Obaidian 
Ismailian, or Fatimite dynasty of Egypt rose to power here (a.d. 909, 
A.H. 296) in the person of Obaid Allah al-Mahdi, who on the 8th 
of Rabi' ul-Awwal, a.h. 297 (November, A.D. 910), was proclaimed 
Khalifa. It is not until early in the sixteenth century that Tafilet is 
generally spoken of by the Moorish historians. In 1530 the Shereefs 
Ahmed and Mohammed occupied Tafilet and left a garrison there. 

Tafilet, Tafilelt, or Tafililt is, however, a comparatively modern 
name, and is said, according to a local legend, to be derived from a 
Shereef who settled here, or at Faja, and taught the Berbers to 
fertilise the dates which had hitherto produced little fruit — a circum- 
stance which gave the Shereefs a monopoly of date-planting. In 
memory of this public benefactor, Faja, even then a considerable 
place, was named Filil, after his birthplace in Arabia, and by Berber 
orthography it became Fafilelt and its inhabitants Fil^i — or Fild el- 
Filili, as they are called in Algeria. The present Imperial dynasty 
is the Filili, its founder having been a Shereef of this still favourite 
retreat of his descendants. This legend is perhaps substantially 
correct, except in ascribing to the Filil Shereef the fecundation of dates : 
for, though he might have introduced some improvement in the culti- 
vation of a fruit which is now the almost sole wealth of the oases, and 
is sent for the most part to England, he could not have quite done 


what the exaggeration of ages attributes to him, since in the neighbour- 
ing countries, well known to the Berbers of this region, the Romans 
grew dates exactly as their successors do at this moment — Renou, 
Exploration Scientifique de PAlgerie^ t. viii, p. 129 ; and in addition to 
Mr. Harris's paper {Geog. Journal^ April 1895, vol. v, pp. 317-336) ; 
Delbrel, " Notes sur le Tafilet*'; Bull. Soc, G^og. Paris^ t. xv (1894), 
pp. 109-227 (with caution) ; De Castries, BulL Soc, Giog, Paris ^ 
April 1867, p. 337 ; Rohlfs, Reise durch MarokkOy etc. (Vierte 
Ausgabe), pp. 60, et seq, ; Caillid, Travels through Central Africay etc. 
(Eng. Trans.), vol. ii, pp. 174, et seq. ; " On the Vicissitudes of Segel- 
messa", Notices et Extraits^ t. xii, pp. 600, etseq, ; and Raverty, Geog. 
foumaly vol. vi (August 1895), p. 189. Major Ravert/s letter contains 
a valuable series of notes on " Sigilmasiyah". But it quotes Leo 
incorrectly in saying that he refers to " Tafilat" as famous for dates. 
Leo does not mention the name. 

(19) In Leo's day, the province of Segelmessa extended from Gher- 
seluin for nearly 120 miles, according to the boundaries he indicates. 

(20) This is a defile "40 miles" long (according to Leo's over- 
estimate) between Tamrakescht (Tamaracrost, Tamaroc of Caillid) 
and Ksar es-Suk, called Kheneg, a name applied to several canon- 
like glens in Southern Morocco. The one under consideration is 
noticed by the " Imam el-'Aiachi" in his journey made in a.d. 1662-63 
{Expl, Scientifique de VAlgMe^ vol. ix, p. 6). It is also mentioned 
in the native itineraries printed by D'Avezac, Etudes de Giog, critique 
sur une partie de TAfrique Sept.^ p. 160. 

(21) Medrara, Metrara, Mdaara, Mdaghra,or Medgharah (///>?^rar^ 
of Ahmed el-Melsyuni ; D'Avezac, Etudes de Giog. critique^ etc, p. 60), 
a well-known oasis with about forty ksars. — De Foucauld, Recon- 
naissance au MaroCy pp. 227, 233, etc. 

(22) Reteb, Reseb, or Ertib. It is noticed under that name by 
El-'Ai'achi {lib, cit.^ p. 9) as early as 1662, and in D'Avezac's native 
itineraries (Etudes de Giog. critique^ p. 160). Marmol calls it Retel, 
or Arratane, and remarks that it was inhabited by the " Antgariz " 
Berbers, who spoke a corrupt dialect of the Berber language. 

(23) In the Tafilet country "castles" or ksars — that is, fortified 
villages — are very numerous, as noticed by El-'ATachi more than two 
centuries ago — that voyager, however, still describing the country as 
Segelmessea (^Expl, Scient. de VAlgirie^ t. ix, pp. xxxi, 9, 10). Tene- 
gent (Teneguent), Tebru'acant (Tebuhasan of Leo, Tebuagant of 
Marmol), and Mimum, misprinted " Meniun", ut infra (Ksar el- 
Mimun), are all known from native itineraries or by actual observation. 


M. Delbrel describes the ksars and dwellings of Tafilet as all "built 
by earth mixed with dung" — a kind of " tabia'' or concrete. 

(24) There is no proof that the Romans had anything to do with 
Segelmessa. But in quoting El-Bekri ("Becri") for the first time 
Leo is incorrect, as that historian puts its foundation in a.d. 757. 
" The common people " who are fond of attributing works to the 
"Two-Homed Isckander" (Alexander), may, however, have enter- 
tained the absurdity mentioned ; see note 18. 

(25) This is, perhaps, " Zuaihila"; but it is not now known to be in 
existence. It is the Suahyla of Marmol {LAfrique^ t. iii, p. 22), who 
describes it as close to the River Ziz, which forms a large lake in the 
Sahara sands. This "sebka" forms at times (under the name of Daia 
et Daura), but is not constant. 

(26) (H)umeledgr is not now known to be in existence. 

(27) Umelhefet, as the name probably was, is not known to any 
traveller, or to any visitor whom I have had an opportunity of 
questioning. Marmol, who calls it Vmelhefel, and repeats Leo's 
description, mentions that it was garrisoned by the Shereef 's people, 
who levied a quarter of an escu (crown) for every camel, and from the 
Jews who visited the place the same taxes as they were accustomed 
to pay when the Ksar was under an Arab Sheikh. This is, however, a 
mere variation of Leo's account. 

(28) Tebelbelt is mentioned in the Itinerary of Mohammed, a 
Shereef of Feda, as three days' journey from that place, and one from 
Tidelkelt, the principal place in the Tuat oasis. Caillid also notes 
"Tabelbat" as six days' journey east of Mimsina {Journal (Tun 
Voyage^ etc., t. iii, p. 54). — Renou, Expl. Scientifiqtie de rAlgirie^ 
t. viii, p. 142. 

(29) Todgha, or Todga district, and the Wad Todgha, or Todra (as 
De Foucauld spells it), are both well known. — Reconnaissance au 
Maroc^ p. 223, etc Mr. Harris visited the locality in 1893. — Geog. 
Journal^ vol. v, pp. 327, 328. 

(30) The modern Ferkla, on the Wad Todgha (Map 16 of De 
Foucauld, Reconnaissance au Maroc^ pp. 223, 224, 356, etc.). 

(31) Tazarin, on a tributary of the Draa. The district is an oasis, 
larger and better peopled than Todgha. Its ksars are inhabited by 
Sheila Berbers. There are no Jews in the district, but a ruined 
Mellah at AU Abbariul is a proof of their former residence. (De 
Foucauld, Reconnaissance^ etc., p. 364.) It is the Tezerin of Marmol, 
who adds that here were the ruins of two towns destroyed by the first 



Arab hordes who entered Africa : but their name was not known. 
This, too, is a mere variation on Leo*s account Tezzerin is not an 
uncommon name in Barbary. 

(32) Beni Gumi, according to Marmol, had eight ksars and fifteen 
open villages, the inhabitants of which were poor and sought employ- 
ment in Fez, where they filled the humblest offices. No locality 
bearing that name is known in the vicinity of the Wad Gir ; and it is 
scarcely permissible to accept Quatrem^re's suggestion that the 
" Tenhhayimyn" of El-Bekri {Notices et extraits^ etc., p. 173) is really 
" Bendjamin", which by another corruption became Beni Gumi. Besides, 
the one name is as little known as the other at the present day. 
Marmol makes the blunder of putting the distance of. the Beni 
Gumi as 50 leagues, instead of 150 miles, to the south-east of Segel- 

(33) These ksars cannot be satisfactorily identified, and, like many 
similar wasps*-nests in this region, may very probably have been 
destroyed since Leo's day. The Uled Bu Anan country is on the 
upper Ghir in the vicinity of El-Bahariat. 

(34) Perhaps Ksar, the castle or fortified place (?) The presence of 
antimony and lead mines ought to help us to identify the locality. 
Antimony (kohl) is commonly sold in Fez, and is described as being 
brought from beyond the Atlas. But the exact spot, either through 
ignorance, or quite as likely unwillingness to impart information, 
could never be ascertained by me. 

(35) The situation of Beni-Besseri is still very uncertain, in spite of 
its iron mine. 

(36) Guachde or Gualde of Marmol cannot now be identified. 

(37) The oasis of Figig, or Figiug, is well known ; it is likely 
to figure extensively in the political complications of the future as 
a point whence a force could advance from Algeria upon Fez. — 
VexxoX^ Bull, de Soc, G^og. Paw (October, 1881), p. 273, and map; 
/^/V/., January, 1872 ; Castries, Ibid,^ 1882, 2€ trimestre, p, 401 (with 

(38) Tesebit, Tecevin of Marmol, is the Teqdbet of El-'Aiachi. 

(39) "Tegorarin" (Tigurdrin) is in El-Aiachi's Itinerary written 
Tedjourarin. Tegoririn is the ancient Berber name of Gurira, a 
well-known town and district. — Bissuel, Le Sahara Fran^ais {i%()i\ 
p. 13, et seq, : Carette, Exfil. Scientifique de tAlgMe^ t. ii, pp. 102-3, 
etc. M. Carette, and M. Renou following him, affirms that Tegoaren 
is the Berber plural of Gurira. In reality the plural is Grain — 
Deporter, Extrhne Sud de TAlgMe (1890), p. 105. 


In A.H. 989 (a.d. 1581-82), though De Slane translating the same 
passage makes the event to have happened in A.H. 998 (a.d. 1588-89). 
Abu-1-AbbAs Ahmed el-Mansur (Ahmed Sherif) sent an army under 
the Kaids Ahmed ben Barka (Bereka) and Ahmed ben El-Haddid 
El-Ghamri El-MaAkili to subdue Tiguririn and Juat— De Slane, 
" Conqu^te du Soudan par les Marocains en Pan 998 (i 588-89 de J.C.)*'; 
Revue Africainey N0.I4, t i, p. 288 ; ILXonh^XyNosketElhddi, pp. 154, 
155, 173. 

(40) The M'zab country consists of fiw^ oases, and contains about 
40,000 people, owning 200,000 date palms. In 1882 the country was 
annexed to Algeria. Gurira or Guerara, a prosperous — almost 
luxurious — Saharan town, is included in the M'zab (note 39). — Tris- 
tram, Tke Great Sahara^ p. 195. 

(41) Tuggurt, a prosperous town, built for the most part of sun- 
dried bricks, still bears traces of its former connection with Tunis. It 
is now part of Algeria, but of the population of 8,000 very few are 
Europeans. ' Tuggurt (Tougourt, Tekkert, Ticart, Ticurti, Techor, 
Tacort, Teggourt, Ticarte, Tuggart), the capital of the Wad Rir, was 
formerly under the family of Yussef Ibn Obeid Allah, and until lately 
under that of the Beni-Jellib, who were related to the Beni-Marini. 
In A.D. 1341-42, Mohammed Ibn Hakim, the Beni Hafs general, 
after putting Biskra under tribute, sacked and, it is believed, 
destroyed Tuggurt, the site of which was more than a mile 
from the present town. Ha6do tells us that in 1552 Salah Reis 
of Algiers took "Ticart", plundered it, and sold 12,000 of the 
inhabitants into slavery. Two hundred years later (1789) Sallah, 
Bey of Constantine, after a six months* siege, only spared it from 
destruction on Sheikh Ferrates payment of a heavy ransom. In 1821, 
the Tuggurt people, not paying their tribute regularly, were besieged 
by Ahmed el-Mameluk, Bey of Constantine, who was, however, 
repulsed. After the capture of Biskra in 1844, Tuggurt recognised the 
French authority, and, with the exception of revolts in 1854 and 1870, 
" the belly of the desert" has since then remained sulkily faithful to the 
masters of Algeria. — Piesse, AlgMe^ p. 322 ; Tristram, The Great 
Sahara^ p. 268, et seq, ; Duveyrier, Comptes rendus de la Soc. Gdog. 
Paris (1886), No. i, p. 26. The Kasba is built of dressed stone, which is 
by some antiquaries taken as a proof of its Roman origin, in fact of 
its being the Turaphylum of Ptolemy ; but there is no evidence for 
this theory. Leo — probably following the Arab maxim that in the Sahara 
" he who is not reaped by the sword sees days without end" — says 
nothing about the marshes and salt lakes near Tuggurt, which in April 
give rise to a most malignant fever. 

(42) Wargla (Ouargla), Guerguela and Guerguelen (Marmol), 
Huerguela (Haedo), Ouirkelin (Edrisi), Vareklan (Hartmann), Ouir- 

ly 2 


quelan (El-Bekri), Wurglah (Shaw), Wargalah (Shales), Wurgelah 
(Hodgson), Guargala or Huerguela (Gramaye, according as he copies 
Leo or Haedo), Ouergelah (D'Avezac, Etudes de Giog, Critique^ p. 27). 
This is an old town ; its citizens, indeed, declare it to be the oldest 
in the Sahara. Ibn Khaldoun mentions that Ibn Yezid, the Nekanti, 
took refuge here in A.H. 325 (a.d. 957), and in a,d. 1372 the re- 
bellious Abu Zeiyan made a stand in Wargla. Abu Zekeria, of 
the Beni-Hafsi, was amazed at the prosperity of the town, and reared 
in it a mosque which bears the name of its founder, and which, 
when El-ATachi visited the town in A.D. 1663, was the most notable 
object in it. Many M'zab inhabit the city, but none are found in the 
Beni-Braham quarter, all those who lived there having been massacred 
in one night (1652). — Colomieu, Tour du Monde (1863), pp. 161-208 ; 
Demaeght, Bull, Soc, Giog, Oran^ vol. i, p. 82 ; Rolland, Revue 
Scientifique, January 6th, 1883, etc. 

(43) Zab, or Zibin, a number of oases, consisting in Ibn Khaldoun's 
day of Zab Shergi, Zab Gebli, and Zab Dahriwi{in, respectively 
on the East, South, and North. Urbain, "Les Zibans — Oases du 
Sahara Algerien", Revue de P Orient^ 1844, t. v, pp. 316-19 ; Rasch, 
Nach den Oasen von Seban in der grossen Wiiste Sahara (1866) ; 
Piesse, "Voyage aux Zibans", Bull Trim, de Giog, Oran (1885), 
pp. 66-78. 

Ziban is pi. of Zab, from the Roman Savus, the Wad Jedi, " the 
river of the Kid" (of Shaw), flowing from W. to E. from El-Aghut 
towards Biskra (Play fair, Bib, of Algeria^ No. 4391). Zab was the 
Zebe or Zabe of the ancients, once a part of Mauritania Sitifensis 
(Procopius, De Bello Vandalico^ lib. xi, c. 20). 

(44) Biskra, Biscara of Shaw, Biskra en-Nokkel (Biskra among 
the Palms) of the Arabs, a well-known oasis, becoming rapidly a 
favourite watering-place. Biskra was the Ad Piscinam of the 
Romans. In Ibn Khaldoun's day it was the capital of the Zab, and 
El-Bekri describes it as rich in dates and olives, surrounded by a wall 
and ditch, and containing many mosques and baths. Ibn Said, 
according to the information communicated to Abu-1-feda, mentions 
its trade in dates with Tunis and Bougie. Edrisi also takes note of it 
as a central spot, from and to which he reckons the distances of other 
places. Scorpions and other venomous animals are by no means 
unknown in the oases, but are not so troublesome as in Leo's day ; and 
the " Biskris" are celebrated as snake-charmers, though most of the 
performers come from El-Faid and Chegga to the south. 

(45) Borgi, or Bourg of the " Carte des Rdgences d'Alger et de 
Tunis", attached to Macarth/s French translation of Shaw ( Voyage 
dans la R^gence d* Alger ^ etc., 1830). 


(46) Nefta, an oasis town of Tunis, with 9,000 inhabitants, occu- 
pied in the growth of splendid dates, oranges, figs, and other fruits, 
and the weaving of wool into gauzy " sefsars", etc An ancient city 
which preceded Nefta, but is now buried under the sands, may be the 
Aggar Selnepte, or Aggarsel-Nepte of the Peutinger Table, mentioned 
as the Episcopus Neptitanus, or Neptensis. Nefta is sometimes called 
Mersat es-Sahira (the Desert Port), and a Kadi of Jerid declared to 
M. Tissot in 1853 that towards the close of the last century the 
remains of a ship had been found at Ghalt{in esh-Shurafi, the spot 
which tradition assigns for the port of Nefta on the Shatt el-Jerid. 
The barrage of the Wad Nefta is built of Roman hewn blocks of 
stone. Temple regarded Nefta as the Negeta of Ptolemy. — Temple, 
Excursions, etc., vol. ii, pp. 172, 173 ; Tissot, La Province Romaine, 
t. ii, 685, 686 ; Piesse, AlgMe et Tunisie, p. 448. 

(47) This place is mentioned by Edrisi (Dozy and de Goeje's edition, 
p. 124) as Louhaca ; by Ibn Haukal as Li{^ha, or Li{ija, and by £1-Bekri 
as Tiilka. But the difference is not great in reality, for the letter /, 
by which the name is begun by El-Bekri and Leo, is doubtless the 
Berber article. It is the Tulgah of Shaw, and the Taolgha of D'Avezac, 
who cites "Thoulqah" as El-Bekri's orthography. — Etudes de Giog. 
Critique, etc., p. 74. 

(48) Dousan of Shaw. 

(49) Biledulgerio is a misprint for Biledulgerid, which, again, is a 
rude spelling of Bilid el-Jerid —the Dry Country. 

(50) Tozer, a Tunisian oasis town embosomed in date-palms, 
which form the chief source of the wealth of the 7,000 inhabitants. It 
occupies the site of Ptolemy's Tisurus (T/Vouf'df), the Thusurus of the 
Peutinger Table, In El-Bekri's day it was a fine town, with many 
mosques, bazaars, strong walls, and several gates. In one quarter 
Roman remains are often found. Wells, a basilica with several rows of 
columns, the base of a minaret, etc., are among the most prominent 
remnants of antiquity in a town which Shaw (who never saw it) 
declared would dissolve and drop to pieces were it subjected to a 
tolerably heavy shower of rain (see Introduction), This is, however, 
an exaggeration ; for though mud hovels are plentiful, the town con- 
tains some really substantial and even handsome houses. — Temple, 
Excursions, etc., vol. ii, p. 272. 

(51) Kafsa, Gafsa, the Capsa in which Jugurtha took refuge, and 
out of the materials of which ancient town the modem one is largely 
built. " Built of clay ... no antiquities" was about all that Bruce 
found to say about this town, which lies near the Wad Baiach. 
But since then some inscriptions have been found, and from Leo's 
description it would seem that in his day the Roman pavement was in 


existence. But nothing now remains of the marble porticos described 
by El-Bekri {Description de VAfrique^ p. 113). The bad character 
which Leo attributes to the citizens is taken from a libellous 
rhyming proverb of the Bilid el-Jerid : " Kafsa is miserable — its in- 
habitants are weary — its water blood — its air poison — you stay there a 
hundred years without making a friend/' The place must, however, have 
always been of strategic importance, and from its position commercially 
advantageous. Taken by El-Mansur in the war which he carried on 
against Ishak el-Mayorki, it was dismantled after having arisen from 
the ruin which had more than once previously — notably when 
Marius wreaked his vengeance— overtaken it. The walls, then 
levelled, have not been rebuilt, but its citadel, one of the most curious 
specimens of ancient Arab architecture, still remains. — Tissot, La 
Province Romainey t. ii, pp. 664-673 ; Gu^rin, Voyage Archdologiqucy 
t i, p. 272 ; Tour du Monde^ 1885, t. ii, p. 415 ; 1886, pp. 193, 195, 
197 ; Cagnat, Explorations^ t. iii, p. 66 ; Playfair, Travels in the Foot- 
steps ofBrucey p. 267. 

(52) A group of little oases — NefeAwa. 

(53) Teggery of Lyon {Travels in North Africa^ p. 239), the most 
southern town in Fezzan, is the Teg^rri of Barth {Travels^ etc., vol. v, 
p. 442) ; a poor place, scarcely more than a village. 

(54) Yaslite of Marmol. As early as the seventh century the Ben 
Isliten were a Nefziwa tribe of Berbers, who had their home in the 
eastern part of Barbary. The Beni Isliten were also a division 
of the Ursettif, a great family of western Berbers. Many tribes 
mentioned by Ibn Khaldoun are now entirely extinct, or have co- 
alesced with others. The lasliten of Leo were likely the first men- 
tioned, and lay west of the Nefzdwa country already mentioned. 

(55) Ghadames (the Cydamus of Pliny, according to an identifica- 
tion of D'Anville and Mannert) is still a great place of trade. 
Merchants from Timbuktu and Tuat meet here, and inhabitants of 
the town may be found at these places and at Kano, Katsena, and 
other centres in the Sudan. 

(56) Fezzan, the ancient Phazania or country of the Garamantes, 
now a Kdimakdmlik of the Vilayet of Tripoli, but, at the time Leo wrote, 
it was an independent state under the dynasty of Uled Mohammed. 
The last of the Uled Mohammed Sultans was killed in i8ii by El- 
Mukkeni, a lieutenant of Yussuf Pasha, the last sovereign of the 
KaramAnli dynasty of Tripoli. After being for twenty years under 
El-Mukkeni, Abd el-Jelil usurped the throne and kept the country 
in a ferment, until Bakir Bey of Tripoli defeated and slew him, and 
annexed Fezzan to the Ottoman empire. Muzuek is the present 


capital of the Kdimakdmlik. There is little trade, though until 
recently many slaves passed through the country to be surreptitiously 
sold in Tripoli and Tunis, and to reach Egypt through Augila 
(Angela). Indeed, only lately there were reports of slaves having 
come by way of Fezzan to Bengazi. Dates form the staple food ; 
camels are commonly eaten in this region, though too valuable to be 
utilised as an article of diet, if cheaper supplies can be obtained. 

(57) Gualata is Walita, the position of which puzzled the geo- 
graphers of eighty or ninety years ago. The Desert of Zanhaga 
is the country of the Zenega or Zanzaga of some early native 
itineraries. The desert, which Leo thus divides up after his usual 
plan of geographical nomenclature by the tribes inhabiting it, 
is, of course, the Sahara ; though, unlike some of his successors, he 
was well aware that it was not all sand nor even all desert. All he 
could have intended to indicate by the " Desert of Zanhaga '' was that 
the section of Berbers so-called extended at the time he wrote over 
the region of which the bounds were noted. — Renou, Expl. Scienti- 

fique de VAlgirie^ t. ii, pp. 291, 292 ; Barth, Travels^ etc., vol. iv, 
pp. 591-594, V, 486. 

(58) Gogadem appears in Edrisi (ed. Jaubert, p. 260) as Qocaden in 
the Gerewah or Upper Nile. Mr. Cooley considers that the desert 
and town may have derived their name from Goghedem in the Atlas. 
In reality, the desert described by Leo seems to be the well-known 
drifting sands of Igidi, lying in the caravan route from Morocco to 
Timbuktu. The desert of Ghir may be Ibn Batuta's Kahir ; in any 
case, it is no doubt the desert country south of the Gir river. Guber 
is, as we shall see in Book vii, G6ber. 

(59) Targa, the now familiar Tuaregs or Tuariks, the roaming 
" pirates of the desert*', a Berber race. Targa is the name of their 
country, Targi of the inhabitants — fern., Targiyya. Tuireg is the plural 
of Targi. So Leo Africanus speaks of these tribes of the 4esert as "Tar- 
gha Popolo" — Richardson, Travels in the Great Sahara Desert^ vol. ii, 
p. 139. Richardson — who, however, spoke of Agades simply from 
hearsay — rightly characterises Leo's account of this part of Africa as 
extremely meagre and unsatisfactory. No mention is made of the 
Tuiregs of Ghat, and "the story about the abundance of manna 
gathered in the districts of Aheer seems to have been inserted to 
please the Christian doctors of Rome ; at any rate, nothing of the kind 
is now seen or known at Aghadez. But with respect to foreigners who 
visit Aheer and Aghadez enjoying good health, I have no doubt the 
renegade is correct, for I have not heard of either of these places being 
imhealthy, their salubrity arising, we may imagine, from the elevation 
at which they are placed" {Ibid.^ vol. ii, p. 146). Leo's description may 


nevertheless be approximately correct, the desert whirlwinds not 
unfrequently strewing p>ortions of Central Africa with lichen torn from 
the mountains ; and it has been suggested that these constitute the 
manna which is described as falling in the desert of the Exodus. The 
min which exudes from the tamarisk of the Sinai Peninsula, and has 
generally been accepted as the manna of the Exodus, is still an article 
of commerce. " Fura", or ** Ghusub", water drunk or supped, may be 
the " daintie and pretious drinke" described (Barth., Travels^ etc., vol. i, 
p. 414). But it is not made with manna, but by water being poured 
on Ghusub grain, after the grain — a species of millet {Panicum millia- 
ceum) — has been parboiled or otherwise prepared. A milky substance 
oozes from the kernels, and makes a very pleasant beverage, greatly 
esteemed for its cooling quality in summer. Sometimes a few dates 
are pounded with the ghusub. Gusub (Gue^ob) is, however, a sort of 
generic name applied by the Arabs to several plants. "Tuath" is 
Tuat, the oasis of that name. — Duveyrier, Z^s Touareg du Nord^ 
p. 207. 

(60) The Lemta were in the middle ages a very powerful Berber 
race, and from them sprung the Lemtuna tribe, who gained for the 
Almoravides the throne of Morocco and much of the rest of North 
Africa. The Lemta occupied originally the western part of the 
Sahara contiguous to the Atlantic, their country extending from 
Morocco to the Niger. Splitting into a number of tribes, the area of 
the section bearing their name seems to have shrunk in Leo's days, 
though it was still very large. — Carette, ExpL Scientifique de ^AlgMe^ 
t. iii, chap. v. 

(61) Berdoa is generally regarded (as D'Anville and Delisle 
suggested) as the same as Burgu or Burku ; as such it appears on 
RennelPs map attached to YiormmsLViS Journal of Travels from Cairo 
to Mourzouk (1802), p. 158. In reality, it is a little further .east near 
the Libyan desert, though the Berdoa (Bardoa, Birdeva, Berdeva) 
divide with the Touareg the distinction of being the nomads of the great 
African desert. They are of the Tibbu stock, or, as they call them- 
selves, Tedd, of which they are the most easterly branch. — Nachtigal, 
Sahara und Sudan, vol. ii, pp. 187- 191. 

(62) The Wad Nun country on the Atlantic, Leo havmg a habit of 
jumping about rather suddenly in the region which he is describing. 
Guaden we have tentatively identified as the town of Wad Nun. 

(63) Tegazza or Teghiza. Rennell suggested that it might be 
Tishit, where there are salt mines. Teghiza is described by 
El-Bekri {Not et Ext., p. 436) as being two days from the 
Great Desert, over which passes the road from Ghinah, and 
twenty from Segelmessa. Though there are many "salines" in 


that country, Cooley considers that Ghaza (at which the Morabite 
general, Abu Bekr ben Omar, purchased negro slaves, whom he sent 
to Spain in exchange for European slaves to recruit his army), was 
merely Teghiza, mutilated by the Spanish writers (Conde, Historia de 
la dominacion de los Arabes en Espana, etc., vol. ii, p. 86). When 
Ibn Batuta visited it in a.h. 753 (a.d. 1352) he found it a poor place, 
with no culture and few resources. The houses and mosque were 
built of blocks of salt-stone and roofed with camels' skins. There was 
no cultivation around the town ; all was sand, in which lay the salt 
mine (Ibn Batuta, ed. Defr^mery et Sanguinette, t. iv, p. 377). It 
is generally accepted that the wells called by Caillid {Journal d^un 
Voyage^ etc., t. ii, p. 417) Trarzas, or Trasas, mark the site of Teghiza, 
though Cooley, with characteristic love of contradiction, inclines to 
think that they owe the name to the tribe which dug them. In all this 
region, on the caravan road through the desert to Morocco, there are 
many ruined towns, deserted owing to the decay of the salt trade. 

(64) Augila (Auy/Xa) was known to Herodotus as the centre of a 
district in which the Nasamones from the shores of the Great .Syrtis 
gathered dates (Herodotus, iv, chap, clxxii). It is curious to find that 
when Pacho visited it in 1825, the nomades from the same district 
came in autumn to lay in a supply of dates at " Audjelah", just as 
their forefathers had done five hundred years B.C., and no doubt a great 
deal earlier (Voyages dans la Cyrinaique^ p. 263). Abu-1-feda (ed. 
Solvet, p. 29) simply mentions " Audjalah " (spelt with a jim and 
a ldm\ as an isle with dates and springs in the midst of the 
sands between Maghreb and the Wahat. Edrisi goes further, and 
characterises it as a populous little town, most of the inhabitants of 
which were merchants doing business with Negroland. Horniman, 
who was the first European to visit it in modern times, though he left 
but a meagre account, described the place as consisting (in 1798) of 
badly-built limestone houses of one story, lighted by the doors, and 
generally arranged round a small courtyard. The inhabitants for the 
most part follow sedentary occupations, though some travel with the 
caravans between Cairo and Murzak, in Fezzan. Round the town the 
sandy soil (being well watered) is tolerably fertile. But, as Leo says, 
com is so scarce as not to suffice for the people's wants, their supply 
being obtained by bartering sheep for it with the Bengazi Arabs. See 
also Beaufoy, Proc, African Assoc, chap. v. 

(65) This place is mentioned by Edrisi (ed. Hartmann, pp. 135, 
294, 295, 296, 304, 305) as Sort, 246 geographical (230 Arabic) 
miles from Tripoli, which would place it near either Mahad Hassan 
or at Zaffian, or perhaps at Jedid, at all of which places there are 
piles of ruins. One of these is evidently Leo's Sert, though his 


details do not admit of localising it in a country full of the vestiges 
of vanished cities. Abu-1-feda (ed. Solvet, p. 141) also describes 
the remains of Sort as east of a gulf called Rodaik, or Rodakiah, the 
Zadic Sinus of Edrisi, a bay too loosely indicated to admit of its 
identification. El-Bekri {Not. et ExiraitSy^tc^t. xii, p. 45o)also notices it 
The term Sort, or Sert, is not now applied by the Arabs to any town, 
but is merely used to designate the tract of country which lies between 
Suleb and Barca. Within this district are the ruins of Medina, "M^ 
cit/', which also puts in a claim to be Sert. — Beechey, Proceedings^ 
etc., 150-154. Barth identifies it with Medinet Sultan, Wanderungen^ 
etc., pp. 334, 388. 

(66) This method of the guides piloting the " akkabaahs" or caravans 
across the desert by smelling the earth is described by Pellow 
{Adventures^ etc., p. 198) and ]2iQ\ison {Account of MoroccOy p. 295). 
And Ibn Batuta, a much greater traveller than any of his successors, 
notes how on his journey into the Sudan, the conductor of the caravan 
with which he travelled, though more than half blind, never mistook 
the road. 

(67) The true orthography of " Alguechet" is Al Wehet— or Wahat 
— " the oasis". It is difficult to identify it with any of the Egyptian 
oases already noticed. 



the Historic of Africa, and 

of the memorable things 

contained therein. 

Wherein lie intreateth of the land of Negros, and of 
the confines of Egypt 

^y a o Q Q o g oo ^^ Vr ancient Chroniclers of Africa/ to wit, 
^'' ^*^^^==^^^^^'*^^ Bichri and Meshudi knew nothing 
of the land of Negros but onely the 
regions of Guechet and Cano : for 
in their time all other places of the 
land of Negros were vndiscouered. 
But in the yeere of the Hegeira 
380, by the meanes of a certaine Mahumetan which came 
into Barbarie, the residue of the said land was found out,^ 
being as then inhabited by great numbers of people, which 
liued a brutish and sauage life, without any king, gouer- 
nour, common wealth, or knowledge of husbandrie. Clad 
they were in skins of beasts, neither had they any peculiar 
wiues : in the day time they kept their cattell ; and when 
night came they resorted ten or twelue both men and 
women into one cottage together, using hairie skins instead 
of beds, and each man choosing his leman which he had 
most fancy vnto. Warre they wage against no other 
nation, ne yet are desirous to trauell out of their owne 
countrie. Some of them performe great adoration vnto 


the sunne rising : others, namely the people of Gualata, 
worship the fire : and some others, to wit, the inhabitants 
of Gaoga, approch (after the Egyptians manner) neerervnto 
'^i^t^nto ^^ Christian faith. These Negros were first subiect vnto 
^AifriKo^^^^ king loseph the founder of Maroco, and afterward vnto the 
fiue nations of Libya; of whom they learned the Ma- 
humetan lawe, and diuers needfull handycrafts : a while 
after when the merchants of Barbarie began to resort vnto 
them with merchandize, they learned the Barbarian lan- 
guage also. But the foresaid fiue people or nations of 
Libya diuided this land so among themselues, that euery 
third part of each nation possessed one region.^ Howbeit 
Abuacreiz' xSx^ kj^g of Tombuto that now raigneth, called Abuacre 
Izchia^ is a Negro by birth : this Abuacre after the decease 
of the former king, who was a Libyan borne, slue all his 
sonnes, and so vsurped the kingdome. And hauing by 
warres for the space of fifteene yeeres conquered many 
large dominions, he then concluded a league with all 
nations, and went on pilgrimage to Mecca, in which 
iournie he so consumed his treasure, that he was con- 
strained to borrow great summes of money of other 
princes.* Moreouer the fifteene kingdomes of Negros 
knowen to vs, are all situate vpon the riuer of Niger, and 
vpon other riuers which fall thereinto. And all the land 
of Negros standeth betweene two vast deserts, for on the 
one side lieth the maine desert betweene Numidia and it, 
which extendeth it selfe vnto this very land : and the south 
side thereof ad ioineth vpon another desert, which stretcheth 
from thence to the maine Ocean : in which desert are 
infinite nations vnknowen to vs, both by reason of the huge 
distance of place, and also in regarde of the diuersitie of 
languages and religions. They haue no traffique at all 
with our people, but we haue heard oftentimes of their 
traffique with the inhabitants of the Ocean sea shore. 


A description of the kingdome of Gualata. 

THis region in regarde of others is very small : for it 
containeth onely three great villages, with certaine 
granges and fields of dates. From Nun it is distant south- 
ward about three hundred, from Tombuto northward fiue 
hundred, and from the Ocean sea about two hundred miles. 
In this region the people of Libya, while they were lords of 
the land of Negros, ordained their chiefe princely seate : 
and then great store of Barbarie-merchants frequented 
Gualata : but afterward in the raigne of the mighty and 
rich prince Heli^ the said merchants leauing Gualata, began 
to resort vnto Tombuto and Gago, which was the occasion 
that the region of Gualata grew extreme beggerly. The 
language of this region is called Sungai, and the inhabi- 
tants are blacke people, and most friendly vnto strangers. 
In my time this region was conquered by the king of 
Tombuto, and the prince thereof fled into the deserts, 
whereof the king of Tombuto hauing intelligence, and 
fearing least the prince would returne with all the people of 
the deserts, graunted him peace, conditionally that he 
should pay a great yeerely tribute vnto him, and so the 
said prince hath remained tributarie to the king of 
Tombuto vntill this present. The people agree in manners 
and fashions with the inhabitants of the next desert Here 
groweth some quantitie of Mil-seed, and great store of a 
round & white kind of pulse, the like whereof I neuer saw t'Aw round 

and white pulse 

m Europe ; but flesh is extreme scarce among them. Both i^ called Mais 
the men & the women do so couer their heads, that al their indies. 
countenance is almost hidden. Here is no forme of a 
common wealth, nor yet any gouernours or iudges, but the 
people lead a most miserable life.* 



A description of the kingdome of Ghinea, 

'His kingdome called by the merchants of our nation 
Gheneoa, by the natural inhabitants thereof Genni, 
and by the Portugals and other people of Europe Ghinea, 
standeth in the midst betweene Gualata on the north, 
Tombuto on the east, and the kingdome of MelH on the 
south. In length it containeth almost fiue hundred miles, 
and extendeth two hundred and fiftie miles along the riuer 
of Niger, and bordereth vpon the Ocean sea in the same 
place, where Niger falleth into the saide sea. This place 
^^^uu!of exceedingly aboundeth with barlie, rice, cattell, fishes, and 
Ghinea, cotton : and their cotton they sell vnto the merchants of 

Barbaric, for cloth of Europe, for brazen vessels, for armour, 
and other such commodities. Their coine is of gold with- 
out any stampe or inscription at all : they haue certaine 
iron-money also, which they vse about matters of small 
value, some peeces whereof weigh a pound, some halfe a 
pound, and some one quarter of a pound. In all this 
kingdome there is no fruite to be found but onely dates, 
which are brought hither either out of Gualata or Numidia. 
Heere is neither towne nor castle, but a certaine great 
village onely, wherein the prince of Ghinea, together with 
his priestes, doctors, merchants, and all the principall men 
of the region inhabite. The vvalles of their houses are 
built of chalke, and the roofes are couered with strawe : the 
inhabitants are clad in blacke or blew cotton, wherewith 
they couer their heads also : but the priests and doctors of 
their law go apparelled in white cotton. This region 
during the three moneths of lulie, August, and September, 
is yeerely enuironed with the ouerflowings of Niger in 
manner of an Island ; all which time the merchants of 
Tombuto conueigh their merchandize hither in certaine 
Canoas or narrow boats made of one tree, which they 
rowe all the day long, but at night they binde them to the 


shore, and lodge themselues vpon the lande. This king- 
dome was subiect in times past vnto a certaine people of 
Libya, and became afterward tributarie vnto king Soni 
Hell, after whom succeeded Soni Heli Izchia^ who kept the 
prince of this region prisoner at Gago, where togither with cMne^k^pt^'^ 
a certaine nobleman, he miserably died. ^Uchia^^^ 

Of the kingdome of Melli, 

THis region extending it selfe almost three hundred 
miles along the side of a riuer which falleth into 
Niger, bordereth northward vpon the region last described, 
southward vpon certaine deserts and drie mountaines, 
westward vpon huge woods and forrests stretching to the 
Ocean sea shore, and eastward vpon the territorie of Gago. 
In this kingdome there is a large and ample village con- 
taining to the number of sixe thousand or mo families, and 
called Melli, whereof the whole kingdome is so named. 
And here the king hath his place of residence. The region 
it selfe yeeldeth great abundance of come, flesh, and 
cotton. Heere are many artificers and merchants in all 
places: and yet the king honourably entertaineth all 
strangers. The inhabitants are rich, and haue plentie of 
wares. Heere are great store of temples, priests, and pro- 
fessours, which professours read their lectures onely in the 
temples, bicause they haue no colleges at all. The people 
of this region excell all other Negros in witte, ciuilitie, and 
industry; and were the first that embraced the law of 
Mahumet, at the same time when the vncle of Joseph the 
king of Maroco was their prince, and the gouernment re- 
mained for a while vnto his posterity: at lenciii lochia The prince 0/ 

, , , f .^ & Melli subdued 

subdued the pnnce of this region, and made him his by luhia. 
tributarie, and so oppressed him with greeuous exactions, 
that he was scarce able to maintaine his family.® 


Of the kingdome of Tombuto, 

coT^JT^ T^His name was in our times (as some thinke) imposed 
the king of X vpon this kingdome from the name of a certain 

Maroco 1589. *• " 

from whence he x,o\^Xi^ SO Called, which (they sav) king Mense Suleiman 

hath for yeerly \ J J y t> 

tribute mighHe founded in the yeere of the Hegeira 610/ and it is situate 

summes of gold. . . i /- ■•.r- it « 

withm twelue miles of a certame branch of Niger, all the 
houses whereof are now changed into cottages built of 
chalke, and couered with thatch. Howbeit there is a most 
stately temple to be seene, the wals whereof are made of 
stone and lime ; and a princely palace also built by a most 
excellent workeman of Granada.® Here are many shops of 
artificers, and merchants, and especially of such as weaue 
linnen and cotton cloth. And hither do the Barbarie- 
merchants bring cloth of Europe. All the women of this 
region except maid-seruants go with their faces couered, 
and sell all necessarie victuals. The inhabitants, & 
especially strangers there residing, are exceeding rich, 
*i5a6. insomuch, that the king that* now is, married both his 

Thekingof daughters vnto two rich merchants. Here are many wels, 

Tombuto his ^ ^ * 

daughters mar- con\.dAX\\v\g vciost swcete Water; and so often as the riuer 

Tied vnto two __. n y % • 1 1 1 #- 1 

richmerchants, Niger ouerfloweth, they conueigh the water thereof by 

certaine sluces into the towne. Corne, cattle, milke, and 

Great scarcitie butter this region yeeldeth in great abundance: but salt 

huu>, which^' IS vcrie scarce heere ; for it is brought hither by land from 

might besup- Tegaza, which is fiue hundred miles distant. When I my 

^E^giishmer- selfe was here, I saw one camels loade of salt sold for 

'vmpe'c^Jbu'' ^o. ducates. The rich king of Tombuto hath many plates 

gaine, and sccpters of gold, some whereof weigh 1300. poundes : 

and he keepes a magnificent and well furnished court 

When he trauelleth any whither he rideth vpon a camell, 

which is lead by some of his noblemen ; and so he doth 

likewise when hee goeth to warfar, and all his souldiers ride 

Reuerence used vpon horses. Whosocuer will speake vnto this king must 

of ^ombuto!*^ first fall downe before his feete, & then taking vp earth 


must sprinkle it vpon his owne head & shoulders : which 

custom is ordinarily obserued by them that neuer saluted 

the king before, or come as ambassadors from other 

princes. He hath alwaies three thousand horsemen, and a 

great number of footmen that shoot poysoned arrowes, 

attending vpon him. They haue often skirmishes with ^^^^^^^ ^- 

those that refuse to pay tribute, and so many as they take, 

they sell vnto the merchants of Tombuto. Here are verie 

few horses bred, and the merchants and courtiers keepe 

certaine little nags which they vse to trauell vpon : but 

their best horses are brought out of Barbaric. And the 

king so soone as he heareth that any merchants are come 

to towne with horses, he commandeth a certaine number to 

be brought before him, and chusing the best horse for him- 

selfe, he payeth a most liberall price for him.® He so 

deadly hateth all lewes, that he will not admit any into his 

citie: and whatsoeuer Barbaric merchants he vnder- 

standeth haue any dealings with the lewes, he presently 

causeth their goods to be confiscate. Here are great store 

of doctors, iudges, priests, and other learned men, that are 

bountifully maintained at the kings cost and charges. 

And hither are brought diuers manuscripts or written 

bookes out of Barbaric, which are sold for more money 

than any other merchandize.^® The coine of Tombuto is ^f^fi^ vsedfor 

^ "Zotne Itke as tn 

of gold without any stampe or superscription : but in /A<r kingdoms 

of Congo, 

matters of smal value they vse certaine shels brought hither 
out of the kingdome of Persia, fower hundred of which 
shels are worth a ducate : and sixe peeces of their golden 
coine with two third parts weigh an ounce. The inhabi- 
tants are people of a gentle and chereful disposition, and 
spend a great part of the night in singing and dancing 
through all the streets of the citie : they keep great 
store of men and women-slaues, and their towne is 
much in danger of fire : at my second being there halfe 
the town almost was burnt in fine howers space. With- 



out the suburbs there are no gardens nor orchards at 

Of the towne of Cobra. 

THis large towne built without walles in manner of a 
village, standeth about twelue miles from Tombuto 
vpon the riuer Niger : and here such merchants as trauel 
vnto the kingdomes of Ghinea and Melli embarke them- 
selues. Neither are the people or buildings of this towne 
any whit inferiour to the people and buildings of Tombuto ; 
and hither the Negros resort in great numbers by water. 
In this towne the king of Tombuto appointeth a judge to 
decide all controuersies ; for it were tedious to goe thither 
so oft as need should require. I my selfe am acquainted 
with Abu Bacr, sirnamed Pargama, the kings brother, who 
is blacke in colour, but most beautifull in minde and con- 
ditions. Here breed many diseases which exceedingly 
diminish the people ; and that, by reason of the fond and 
loathsome mixture of their meats ; for they mingle fish, 
milke, butter, and flesh altogither. And this is the ordi- 
narie food also in Tombuto.^^ 

Of the towne and kingdofne of Gago, 

THE great towne of Gago^* being vn walled also, is 
distant southward of Tombuto almost fower hundred 
miles, and enclineth somewhat to the southeast. The 
houses thereof are but meane, except those wherein the 
king and his courtiers remaine. Here are exceeding rich 
merchants: and hither continually resort great store of 
Negros which buy cloth here brought out of Barbarie and 
Europe. This towne aboundeth with corne and flesh, but 
is much destitute of wine, trees, and fruits. Howbeit here 
is plentie of melons, citrons, and rice : here are many 
welles also containing most sweete and holesome water. 
Here is likewise a certaine place where slaues are to be 
sold, especially vpon such daies as the merchants vse to 


assemble ; and a yoong slaue of fifteene yeeres age is sold 

for sixe ducates, and so are children sold also. The king 

of this region hath a certaine priuate palace wherein he 

maintaineth a great number of concubines and slaues, 

which are kept by eunuches : and for the guard of his owne 

person he keepeth a sufficient troupe of horsemen and 

footmen. Betweene the first gate of the palace and the 

inner part thereof, there is a place walled round about 

wherein the king himselfe decideth all his subiects con- 

trouersies : and albeit the king be in this function most 

diligent, and performeth all things thereto appertayning, 

yet hath he about him his counsellors & other officers, as 

namely his secretaries, treasurers, factors, and auditors. It 

is a woonder to see what plentie of Merchandize is dayly 

brought hither, and how costly and sumptuous all things 

be. Horses bought in Europe for ten ducates, are here 

sold againe for fortie and sometimes for fiftie ducates a 

piece. There is not any cloth of Europe so course, which ^ich sale for 

will not here be sold for fower ducates an elle, and if it be 

anything fine they will giue fifteene ducates for an ell : 

and an ell of the scarlet of Venice or of Turkie-cloath is 

here worth thirtie ducates. A sword is here valued at 

three or fower crownes, and so likewise are spurs, bridles, 

with other like commodities, and spices also are sold at an 

high rate : but of al other commodities salt is most ex- 

tremelie deere. The residue of this kingdome containeth 

nought but villages and hamlets inhabited by husbandmen 

and shepherds, who in winter couer their bodies with beasts 

skins ; but in sommer they goe all naked saue their priuie 

members : and sometimes they weare vpon their feet 

certaine shooes made of camels leather. They are ignorant 

and rude people, and you shall scarce finde one learned man 

in the space of an hundred miles. They are continually 

burthened with grieuous exactions, so that they haue scarce 

any thing remaining to Hue vpon. 



Of the kingdome of Guber, 

IT standeth eastward of the kingdome of Gago almost 
three hundred miles ; betweene which two kingdomes 
lieth a vast desert being much destitute of water, for it is 
about fortie miles distant from Niger. The kingdome of 
Guber^ is enuironed with high mountaines, and containeth 
many villages inhabited by shepherds, and other herdsmen. 
Abundance of cattell here are both great and small : but 
of a lower stature then the cattell in other places. Heere 
are also great store of artificers and linnen weauers : and 
heere are such shooes^* made as the ancient Romans were 
woont to weare, the greatest part whereof be carried to 
Tombuto and Gago. Likewise heere is abundance of rice, 
and of certaine other graine and pulse, the like whereof I 
neuer saw in Italic. But I thinke it groweth in some 
Their maner placcs of Spaine. At the inundation of Niger all the fields 

of sowing come 

at the inunda- of this rcgion are ouerflowed, and then the inhabitants cast 

tion of Niger. , . , . , , ^ • . . « . 

their seede mto the water onely. In this region there is a 
certaine great village containing almost sixe thousand 
families, being inhabited with all kinde of merchants, and 
here was in times past the court of a certaine king, who in 
^btr^^^u "^^ *^"^^ ^^ slaine by Izchia the king of Tombuto, and 
by Izchia. his sonncs were gelt, and accounted among the number of 
the kings eunuches. Afterward he sent gouernours hither 
who mightily oppressed and impouerished the people that 
were before rich : and most part of the inhabitants were 
carried captiue and kept for slaues by the said Izchia. 

Of the citie and kingdome of Agadez, 

THe citie of Agadez^^ standing neere vnto Lybia was 
not long since walled round about by a certaine 
king. The inhabitants are all whiter then other Negros : 
and their houses are stately built after the fashion of 
Barbarie. The greatest part of the citizens are forren 


merchants, and the residue be either artificers, or stipen- 
daries to the king. Euery merchant hath a great many of 
seruants and slaues, who attend vpon them as they trauell 
from Cano to Bomo : for in that ioumey they are ex- 
ceedingly molested by certaine theeues called Zingani, Zingani. 
insomuch that they dare not trauell the same way vnlesse 
they be well appointed : in my time they vsed crosse* 
bowes for their defence: when the said merchants be 
arriued at any towne, they presently employ all their 
slaues about some busines, to the end they may not Hue 
in idlenes : ten or twelue they keepe to attend vpon them- 
selues and their wares. The king of this citie hath alwaies 
a notable garde about him, and continueth for the most 
part at a certaine palace in the midst of the citie. He 
hath greatest regarde vnto his subiects that inhabite in the 
deserts and fields : for they will sometime expell their king 
and choose another: so that he which pleaseth the in- 
habitants of the desert best is sure to be king of Agadez. 
The residue of this kingdome lying southward is inhabited 
by shepherds and herdsmen, who dwell in certaine cottages 
made of boughes, which dottages they carrie about vpon 
oxen from place to place. They erect their cottages 
alwaies in the same field where they determine to feede 
their cattell ; like as the Arabians also doe. Such as 
bring merchandize out of other places pay large custome 
to the king : and the king of Tombuto receiueth for Agadex tnbu- 
yeerely tribute out of this kingdome almost an hundred >b«^^/r<ww- 
and fiftie thousand ducats.^^ 

Of the prouince of Cano. 

THe great prouince of Cano^^ stadeth eastward of the 
riuer Niger almost fiue hundred miles. The greatest 
part of the inhabitants dwelling in villages are some of 
them herdsmen and others husbandmen. Heere groweth 
abundance of corne, of rice, and of cotton. Also here are 


many deserts and wilde woodie mountaines containing 
many springs of water. In these woods growe plentie of 
wilde citrons and limons, which differ not much in taste 
from the best of all. In the midst of this prouince standeth 
a towne called by the same name, the walks and houses 
whereof are built for the most part of a kinde of chalke. 
The inhabitants are rich merchants and most ciuill people. 
Their king was in times past of great puissance, and had 
mighty troupes of horsemen at his command ; but he 
hath since beene constrained to pay tribute vnto the kings 
Th€kin^of of Zegzeg and Casena. Afterwarde Ischia the king of 
Casena, and ofTomhwto faining friendship vnto the two foresaid kings 

Cano subdued , , , 1 « a 1 « t « 

by izchia the trechcrously slew them both. And then he waged warre 
buto. against the king of Cano, whom after a long siege he 

tooke, and compelled him to marie one of his daughters, 
restoring him againe to his kingdome, conditionally that 
he should pay vnto him the third part of all his tribute : 
and the said king of Tombuto hath some of his courtiers 
perpetually residing at Cano for the receit thereof. 

Of the kingdome of Casena. 

CAsena bordering eastward vpon the kingdome last 
described, is full of mountaines, and drie fields, 
which yeeld notwithstanding great store of barlie and mill- 
seed. The inhabitants are extremely black, hauing great 
noses and blabber lips. They dwell in most forlome and 
base cottages : neither shall you finde any of their villages 
containing aboue three hundred families. And besides 
their base estate they are mightily oppressed with famine : 
Ischia. a king they had in times past whom the foresaid Ischia 

slew, since whose death they haue all beene tributarie vnto 


Of the kingdome of Zegzeg, 

THe southeast part thereof bordereth vpon Cano, and 
It IS distant from Casena almost an hundred and 
fiftie miles. The inhabitants are rich and haue great 
traffique vnto other nations. Some part of this kingdome 
is plaine, and the residue mountainous, but the mountaines 
are extremely cold, and the plains intolerably hot^® And 
because they can hardly indure the sharpnes of winter, 
they kindle great fires in the midst of their houses, laying 
the coles thereof vnder their high bedsteads, and so be- 
taking themselues to sleepe.^ Their fields abounding with 
water, are exceeding fruitful, & their houses are built like 
the houses of the kingdom of Casena. They had a king of 
their owne in times past, who being slaine by Ischia (as is izchia. 
aforesaid) they haue euer since beene subiect vnto the said 

Of the region of Zanfara, 

THe region of Zanfara bordering eastward vpon Zegzeg 
is inhabited by most base and rusticall people. 
Their fields abound with rice, mill, and cotton. The in- 
habitants are tall in stature and extremely blacke, their 
visages are broad, and their dispositions most sauage and "^^^^I , 
brutish. Their king also was slaine by Ischia. and them- h fzchia, and 

^ ^ * the people made 

selues made tributarie.^* tributaHe. 

Of the towne and kingdome of Guangara, ' 

TYixs kingdome adioineth southeasterly vpon Zanfara, 
being very populous, and hauing a king raigning 
ouer it, which maintaineth a garison of seuen thousand 
archers, and fiue hundred horsemen, and receiueth yeerely 
great tributes. In all this kingdome there are none but 
base villages, one onely excepted, which exceedeth the rest 
both in largenes and faire building. The inhabitants are 


very rich, and haue continuall traffique with the nations 
adioining. Southward thereof lieth a r^on greatly 

Gold. abounding with gold But now they can haue no traffique 

with forren nations, for they are molested on both sides 
with most cruell enemies. For westward they are oppressed 

ischia. by IschtUy and eastward by the king of Bomo. When I 

my selfe was in Bomo, king Abraham hauing leuied an huge 
armie, determined to expell the prince of Guangara out of 
his kingdome, had he not beene hindred by Hamar the 
prince of Gaoga, which began to assaile the kingdome of 
Bomo. Wherefore the king of Bomo being drawne home 
into his owne countrie, was enforced to giue ouer the 
conquest of Guangara. So often as the merchants of 
Guangara trauell unto the foresaid region abounding with 
gold, because the waies are so rough and difficult that their 
camels cannot goe vpon them, they carrie their wares 
vpon slaues backes ; who being laden with great burthens 
doe vsually trauell ten or twelue miles a day. Yea some 
I saw that made two of those iourneies in one day : a 
woonder it is to see what heauie burthens these poore 
slaues are charged withall ; for besides the merchandize 
they carrie victuals also for their masters, and for the 
soldiers that goe to garde them.** 

Of the kingdome of Bomo. 

THe large prouince of Borno bordering westward vpon 
the . prouince of Guangara, and from thence ex- 
tending eastward fiue hundred miles, is distant from the 
fountaine of Niger almost an hundred and fiftie miles, the 
south part thereof adioining vnto the desert of Set, and the 
north part vnto that desert which lieth towards Barca. 
The situation of this kingdome is very vneuen, some part 
thereof being mountainous, and the residue plaine. Vpon 
the plaines are sundry villages inhabited by rich merchants, 
and abounding with corne. The king of this region and 


all his followers dwell in a certaine large village.^ The 
mountaines being inhabited by herdesmen and shepherds 
doe bring foorth mill and other graine altogether vnknowen 
to vs. The inhabitants in summer goe all naked saue 
their priuie members which they couer with a peece of 
leather: but al winter they are clad in skins, and haue 
beds of skins also. They embrace no religion at all, being 
neither Christians, Mahumetans, nor lewes, nor of any 
other profession, but liuing after a brutish manner, and 
hauing wiues and children in common : and (as I vnder- 
stood of a certaine merchant that abode a long time 
among them) they haue no proper names at all, but euery 
one is nicknamed according to his length, his fatnes, or 
some other qualitie.** They haue a most puissant prince, 
being lineally descended from the Libyan people called 
Bardoa. Horsemen he hath in a continuall readines to 
the number of three thousand, & an huge number of foot- 
men ; for al his subiects are so seruiceable and obedient 
vnto him, that whensoeuer he commandeth them, they wil 
arme themselues and follow him whither he pleaseth to 
conduct them. They paye vnto him none other tribute 
but the tithes of all their come : neither hath this king 
any reuenues to maintaine his estate, but ouely such 
spoiles as he getteth from his next enimes by often in- 
uasions and assaults.*^ He is at perpetuall enmitie with a 
certaine people inhabiting beyond the desert of Sew f-^ The desert of 
who in times past marching with an huge armie of footemen 
ouer the said desert, wasted a great part of the kingdome of 
Bomo. Whereupon the king of Borno sent for the mer- 
chants of Barbary, and willed them to bring him great 
store of horses : for in this countrey they vse to exchange 
horses for slaues, and to giue fifteene, and sometime twentie Fifteene or 

. ^ , A t 1 « • t twentie slaues 

slaues for one horse. And by this meanes there \^exe exchanged for 
abundance of horses brought : howbeit the merchants were 
constrained to stay for their slaues till the king returned 


home conquerour with a great number of captiues, and 
satisfied his creditors for their horses. And oftentimes it 
falleth out that the merchants must stay three months 
togither, before the king retumeth from the warres, but 
they are all that while maintained at the kings charges. 
Sometimes he bringeth not home slaues enough to satisfie 
the merchants: and otherwhiles they are constrained to 
awaite there a whole yeere togither ; for the king maketh 
inuasions but euery yeere once, & that at one set and 
appointed time of the yeere. Yea I my selfe met with 
sundrie merchants heere, who despairing of the kings 
paiment, bicause they had trusted him an whole yeere, 
determined neqer to come thither with horses againe. 
And yet the king seemeth to be marueilous rich ; for his 
spurres, his bridles, platters, dishes, pots, and other vessels 
wherein his meate and drinke are brought to the table, are 
all of pure golde : yea, and the chaines of his dogs and 
hounds are of golde also. Howbeit this king is extreamely 
couetous, for he had much rather pay his debts in slaues 
than in gold. In this kingdome are great multitudes of 
Negros and of other people, the names of whom (bicause I 
tarried heere but one moneth) I could not well note. 

Of the kingdome of Gaoga. 

GAoga bordering westward vpon the kingdome of 
Borno, and extending eastward to the confines of 
Nubia, adioineth southward vnto a certaine desert situate > 
vpon a crooked and winding part of Nilus, and is enclosed 
northward with the frontiers of Egypt It stretcheth from 
east to west in length fiue hundred miles, and as much in 
bredth. They haue neither humanitie not learning among 
them, but are most rusticall and sauage people, and 
especially those that inhabite the mountaines, who go all 
naked saue their priuities : their houses are made of 
boughes & rafts, and are much subiect to burning, and 


they haue great abundance of cattel, whereunto they giue 
diligent attendance. For many yeers they remained in 
h'bertie, of which libertie they were depriued by a certaine 
Negro slane of the same region. This slaue lying vpon a "^^f^^^^^ 
certaine night with his master that was a ^^^X^x^ siaine his Lord 

grew to great 

merchant, & considering that he was not far from his might and 


natiue countrey, slue his saide master, possessed his goods, 
and returned home : where hauing bought a certaine 
number of horses, he began to inuade the people next 
adioning, and obtained for the most part the victorie : for 
he conducted a troupe of most valiant & warlike horsmen 
against his enimies that were but slederly appointed. And 
by this means he tooke great numbers of captiues, whom 
he exchanged for horses that were brought out of Egypt : 
insomuch that at length (the number of his souldiers in- 
creasing) he was accounted of by all men as soueraigne 
K. of Gaoga. After him succeeded his son, being no whit 
inferiour in valour & high courage vnto his father ; who 
reigned for the space of fortie yeeres. Next him succeeded 
his brother Moses, & after Moses his nephew Honiara, 
who beareth rule at this present. This Honiara hath 
greatly enlarged his dominions, and hath entred league 
with the Soldan of Cairo, by whom he is often 
presented with magnificent gifts, which he most bounti- 
fully requiteth : also diuers merchants of Egypt, and diuers 
inhabitants of Cairo present most pretious and rare things 
vnto him, and highly commend his surpassing liberalitie. 
This prince greatly honoureth all learned men, and especi- 
ally such as are of the linage of Mahumet. I my selfe 
being in his court, a certaine noble man of Damiata brought 
him very rich and roiall gifts, as namely, a gallant horse, a 
Turkish sworde, and a kingly robe, with certaine other 
particulars that cost about an hundred and fiftie ducates at 
Cairo : in recompence whereof the king gaue him fiue 
slaues, fiue camels, fiue hundred ducates of that region, and 
an hundred elephants teeth of woonderfull bignes.^ 


Of the kingdome of Nubia, 

NVbia bordering westward vpon the kingdome last 
described, and stretching from thence vnto Nilus, is 
enclosed on the southside with the desert of Goran,*® and 
on the north side with the confines of Egypt. Howbeit 
they cannot passe by water from this kingdome into 
TTuHuerof Egypt : for the riuer of Nilus is in some places no deeper 

NUui not 

nauigabu be- then a man may wade ouer on foote. The principall towne 
and Egypt, of this kingdome called Dangala is exceeding populous,^ 
and containeth to the number of ten thousand families. 
The wals of their houses consist of a kinde of chalkc,^ and 
the roofes are couered with strawe. The townesmen are 
exceeding rich and ciuill people, and haue great traffike 
with the merchants of Cairo & of Egypt : in other parts of 
this kingdome you shall finde none but villages and hamlets 
situate vpon the riuer of Nilus, all the inhabitants whereof 
The rich com- are husbandmen. The kingdome of Nubia is most rich in 

modities of 

NuHa, come and sugar, which notwithstanding they knowe not 

how to vse. Also in the citie of Dangala there is great 
plentie of ciuet and Sandall-wood.*^ This region aboundeth 
with luory likewise, bicause heere are so many elephants 

Most strong taken. Heere is also a most strong and deadly poison, one 
graine whereof being diuided amongst ten persons, will kill 
them all within lesse then a quarter of an hower : but if one 
man taketh a graine, he dieth thereof out of hand. An 
ounce of this poison is solde for an hundred ducates ; 
neither may it be solde to any but to forraine merchants, 
& whosoeuer buieth it is bound by an oath not to vse it in 
the kingdome of Nubia. All such as buy of this poison 
are constrained to pay as much vnto the king, as to the. 
merchant : but if any man selleth poison without the 
princes knowledge, he is presently put to death.*^ The 
king of Nubia maintaineth continuall warre, partly against 
the people of Goran (who being descended of the people 


called Zingani, inhabite the deserts, and speake a kinde of Zin^ani. 
language that no other nation vnderstandeth) and partly 
against certaine other people also dwelling vpon the desert 
which lieth eastward of Nilus, and stretcheth towards the v' 
red sea;* "being not farre from the borders of Suachen. 
Their language (as I take it) is mixt, for it hath great 
affinity with the Chaldean toong, with the language of 
Suachen, and with the language of Ethiopia the higher, 
where Prete Gianni is said to beare rule : the people them- prete Gianni. 
selues are called Bugiha, and are most base and miserable, Bugiha. 
and liue onely vpon milke, camels-flesh and the flesh of 
such beasts as are taken in those deserts. Sometimes they 
receiue tribute of the gouernour of Suachen, and sometimes 
of the gouernours of Dangala. They had once a rich 
towne situate vpon the red sea called Zibid, whereunto 
belonged a commodious hauen, being opposite vnto the 
hauen of Zidem, which is fortie miles distant from Mecca. 
But an hundred yeeres since it was destroied by the Soldan, 
bicause the inhabitants receiued certaine wares which 
should haue beene carried to Mecca, and at the same time 
the famous port of Zibid was destroied, from whence 
notwithstanding was gathered a great yeerely tribute. 
The inhabitants being chased from thence fledde vnto 
Dangala and Suachin, and at length being ouercome in 
battaile by the gouernour of Suachin, there were in one 
day slaine of them aboue fower thousand, and a thousand 
were carried captiue vnto Suachin, who were massacred by. 
the women and children of the citie.** And thus much 
(friendly reader) as concerning the lande of Negros : the 
fifteene kingdomes whereof agreeing much in rites and 
customes, are subiect vnto fower princes onely. Let vs 
now proceed vnto the description of Egypt 

here etideth the seuenth booke. 


(i) Leo takes this account avowedly from Mas'fidi's MurHj uz- 
Zahab ("Meadows of Gold"), A.D. 943-44, and El-Bekri's Kitab 
ul-mesdlek-w<il-mefndlek (" The Book of Roads and Realms"), A.D. 
1067. But he is quite wrong in affirming that nothing was known of 
Negroland until the Barbary traders crossed the desert (a.d. 994); for Ibn 
Haukal, who began his travels in a.d. 943, gives the distances between 
Segelmessa and Audaghort, Ghama, Kuku, Kugha, and " Ulil", where 
there were salt mines {MS. in Leyden University Library, p. 34 ; 
Walckenaer, /?^r^^nrA^j Giog, sur rintdrieur de TAfrique^ P- i3' It 
is not given in Ousele/s imperfect translation of Ibn Haukal — 
Oriental Geography y 1800 — "A certaine Mahumetan which came into 
Barbarie," etc., is in the Italian version " e la causa fu questa, che 
allore Luntuna e tutto il popolo di Libia per causa d'un predicatore 
si fece maumettano, e venne ad alitare nella Barberia, e cominci6 a 
practicare, e aver cognizione di detti paesi" (Reprint, 1837). That is, 
the Land of the Negroes was thus discovered. The family of Luntuna 
and all the people of Lybia were through a (Mohammedan) preacher 
converted to Mohammedanism. He then came to live in Barbary, 
and strove to inform himself and did acquire a knowledge of that 
country (Negroland). 

(2) The ^vt. nations of Libya here referred to seem to be the 
Lemtuna, Lemta, Jedala, Tuireg, and Zenega, collectively known from 
wearing the litham or face covering (still seen among the Tuareg) as 
the " Moleththemin", or Litham-bearers. The propaganda of Islam 
among the desert races was virtually begun by Yahia Ibn Ibrahim, 
a Tuireg chief, and founder of the Almohade dynasty. He sought 
the help of Wahij Ibn Zelu, a disciple of Abu Amran, a Marabout of 
Kairwan, though originally from Fez (A.D. 1035-47). Wahij Ibn 
Zelu resided at Malkus, near Marakesh ; but not caring to go on the 
mission himself, he sent his disciple, Abd Allah Ibn Yazin of Segel- 
messa, who established a " zuia" on an island near the mouth of the 
Senegal, where in time his followers became known as El-Mar4bitin, 
familiar to us under the corrupt form of Almoravides. They soon 
became very powerful, and under the leadership of Yahia Ibn Omar 
subdued the neighbouring tribes. They next menaced Morocco ; 
and in A.D. 1053 (A.H. 445), Segelmessa was captured and occupied. 
Abu Bekr, who succeeded his brother, Yahia Ibn Omar, after making 


himself master of the Wad-Nun country, Sus, Tarudant, and Aghmat, 
penetrated in a.d. 1058 (a.h. 450) to Tedla, and destroyed the Ifrenide 
princes and the Berghuata who inhabited the littoral of Anfa and 
Temesna. Having been struck with paralysis in the desert, Abu Bekr 
handed over his authority to his cousin Yussuf Ibn Tashfin, who 
thereupon marched against the Sudan races, ninety days' journey 
south of the Almoravide countries. — Godard, Le MaroCy p. 310. 

(3) Hajj Mohammed ben Abu Bakr Askia (" Abuacre Izchia) was 
actually King of Songhai ("Sungai"). His conquests were just 
beginning when Leo visited Negroland, so that our traveller must 
have obtained most of his information regarding Askia's subsequent 
proceedings from Arab merchants who disliked the usurper, owing 
to the heavy taxes he levied for the support of his great armed force 
— the duties on merchandise interfering seriously with trade. He 
founded the homonymous dynasty of the Askia by rising^ against 
Sonni Abu Bakr Dau, son of Sonni Ali (" Sonni Heli " of Leo), a power- 
ful monarch, who (a.h. 894, A.D. 1488) wrested Timbuktu from the 
Tuireg, who had captured it from Meli. 

Askia — whom Barth justly characterises as perhaps the greatest 
sovereign that ever ruled over Negroland — was a native of the island 
of Neni, a little below Zinder on the Niger, and hence (unlike Sonni 
Ali, who was of Arab or, more probably, Berber origin) a good speci- 
men of what the pure-blooded negro is capable of becoming. Popu- 
lar with the rigid Mohammedans — instead of being odious in their 
eyes as Sonni Ali was — Askia, at the very period that Almeida and 
Albuquerque were doubling the Cape of Storms and founding the 
Portuguese Indian Empire, extended his conquests from Hausa to 
near the Atlantic, and from Mossi as far as Tuat, everywhere ruling 
with equity and vigour. 

Askia, or Sikkia, was assumed by him as his royal title (a.d. 1492, 
A.H. 898). After a reign of thirty-six and a half years, he was com- 
pelled to abdicate by his rebellious son, Askia Musa, and died in 
dishonour A.D. 1537 (a.h. 944).— Barth, Travels^ vol. iv, pp. 414, 

This chapter is not very fully translated. Thus the " former king", 
to whom Abu Bekr was "Capitano", is not given as " Soni Heli, King 
of Tumbutto and Gago of the family of the Libyan tribes " ; nor is it 
correct for Leo to say that Abu Bekr "dopo la morte del detto si 
rebell6 contra i figliuoli, i quelli fece morire e tom6 il dominio nei 
Negri", since Sonni Abu Bekr Dau fled to Abar (Adar), where he died. 
Nor does he correctly translate how Askia by his munificence on the 
pilgrimage to Mecca ** spese tutti i suoi tesori, e rimase debitore di 
centocinquanta milia ducati" (spent all his wealth and became in 
debt 150,000 ducats or mithkals). Nothing is said about getting in 


debt to " other princes", which, all things considered, would have 

p'fieen in the highest degree improbable. But, according to the 

f chronicle of Ahmed Baba of Timbuktu — of which Barth was allowed 

to take hurried extracts — Askia went to Mecca with 1,500 armed men, 

/ and 300,000 mithkals to defray his expenses. His official investiture 

as Khalifa in Songhai was performed in the Holy City by the Shereef 

£l-Abbisi. He also founded a charitable institution in Mecca for 

the people Tekrur ; so that a sovereign of such lavish generosity 

might well have exceeded his estimated expenditure. 

(4) Walata. When Ibn Batuta visited it in a.d. 1352-53 (a.h. 
753, 754) Walata was an important commercial centre; but soon after 
the conquests of Sonni Ali, as Leo mentions, its trade went over 
to Timbuktu and Gago. 

Walata is the Arab and Tuireg name, while Biru is the one applied 
to it by the Negro Azer, a section of the Aswanek, who are the original 
inhabitants of the place. It is at present a town of well-built clay 
houses, each with a rough coat of plaster. The region close to the 
district of El-Hodh at the foot of the Dahr Walata hills, and in 
a well-wooded valley, is considered very unhealthy. But there is 
little buisiness, and in Barth's day it was described as a "seat of 
poverty and misery*': an unflattering characterisation which does not 
agree with the statements of Ca da Mosto in 1 513, or of Alioun Sal in 
i860. It is inhabited by a mixed race of whites and blacks — Berbers, 
Arabs and Azer — who speak the Azeriyya idiom, and bear an in- 
different reputation. 

"Mil seed", or millet, is perhaps Pennisetum typhoideumy not 
maize, as Pory adds, with superfluous erudition. 

(5) Jinni or Jenni, founded in a.d. 1033-34 (a.h. 435), according to 
the documents from which Barth (vol. iv, p. 582) compiled his " Chrono- 
logical Table of Songhay and the neighbouring Kingdoms". It soon 
became wealthy, owing to the trade in salt from Tegh^lza and in gold 
from Bitu (Leo's Bito, the Bede of Denham and Clapperton, according 
to Cooley, Negrolandof the Arabs ^ p. 129). About a.d. 1203-4 (a.h. 600) 
most of the inhabitants, including the king, embraced Islam. Soon 
afterwards it became subject to Mari Jatah, King of Meli, on the 
Upper Niger ; and as the principal market of the Fulahs, Joloff, 
Zenagha, Serracolits, and the inhabitants of Western Tekrur and the 
Udaya, attained the zenith of its prosperity (De Barros, Asia^ ed. 
Lisboa 1778, lib. i, chap. 8, p. 220). In A.H. 873 (A.D. 1468-9) it was 
conquered after great slaughter by Sonni Ali. At that time it enjoyed 
a prosperous trade in native cloth (De Barros, lib, M^p. 257 ; Kunst- 
mann, AbhandL der K, Baier. Akad. kl. iii, vol. viii). 

Leo is our only authority for the fact that Askia kept the King of 


Jinni prisoner in his own capital. A more correct translation of the 
passage is, however, that Askia, having invaded the country and taken 
prisoner the last King of the Libyan (Berber) race who had become 
tributary to Sonni Ali, held him captive in Gogo till his death, and 
governed the kingdom by a deputy (" Con un suo luogotenante" There 
is nothing in the original about a " certaine nobleman". 

Leo derived Guinea from Jinni, and most likely correctly. But there 
are rival etymologies — Ginahoa, the first negro country visited by the 
Portuguese, Ghana, Jenna, a coast town, once of note, etc.— among 
which it is idle to choose. Cailli^ was the first European — at least, 
in later times — to enter Jinni, though Mungo Park saw it on 
his last journey. "Tutte le case di costoro sono fatte a modo 
di capanne, ma investite di creta, e coperte di paglia" — is not 
quite correctly translated. It should be : The houses are built 
in the shape of hamlets, the walls of clay (which Leo usually renders 
" creta"), and thatched with straw. In reality, they are built of sun- 
dried bricks, and lime is unknown, though Temporal rather freely 
translates the passage— "blanches de craye". When Cailli^ visited 
it the houses were mostly of a better quality and the town surrounded 
by a low, badly-constructed wall. But the inhabitants had evidently 
improved by their intercourse with the Moors and other foreign 

(6) Meli, Melli, Melle, Malli, or Mally was a prosperous kingdom 
when Ibn Batuta visited its capital. He describes it as the residence 
of the " king of the black men — Mansa Sleiman^', " Mansa" signifying 
Sultan. Many merchants seem to have visited it, and cowries {Cyprcea 
tnoneta) were, as is still the custom in that region, used in place of 
money (Ibn Batuta, ed. Defr^mery et Sanguinetti, t. iv, pp. 397 et seq,^ 
435, 439). But before that date the kingdom had played a great part 
in the Sudan. In about a.d. 1235-60 Mari Jatah, King of Meli, 
conquered the Susu, who at that time were masters of Ghamata. 
Mansa Kunkur Musa, the greatest of the Meli monarchs, who, 
according to Ahmed Baba of Timbuktu (Rohlfs, Zeitsch, Leipzig 
Oriental Soc.y vol. ix, p. 530) possessed "an aggressive strength 
without measure or limit", extended his dominions by absorbing 
Baghena (the remnants of the disrupted kingdoms of Baghena, 
Zagha, Timbuktu and Songhai, with its capital Gogo. His wealth 
was so great that he made the Mekka pilgrimage with a following 
like an army — his route being by way of Walata and Tuat and Gogo 
(or Gagho). Mansa Sleiman, who was Sultan at the time of Ibn 
Batuta's visit (a.d. 1352-53), in a.d. 1336 again occupied Timbuktu, 
which had apparently been left to itself for some years. About 
A.D. 1433 the Meli empire began to decline, its power being divided 
among a number of semi-independent governors, with the result that 



the Tuireg spread desolation on every side. Yet in i454Alvise di Ca 
da Mosto {Prima Navigazione^ c. 13) could still describe it as the 
most powerful of the Negroland kingdoms, and the most important for 
traffic in gold and slaves. In 1501, Askia made Meli part of his empire 
— a fact noted by Leo. Meli was perhaps the town called Zillen or 
Zalna by Ahmed Baba, the inhabitants of which were sold into slavery 
when Askia took and added this and other important towns to the 
Songhai empire, already extending 1,500 miles from east to west and 
1,000 miles from north to south. It was Leo who first made the word 
Songhai (Sungai) familiar to Europe, De Barros also using it. After 
this Meli waned rapidly, its sovereign bearing the title of Ferengh 
instead of Mansa. But its final extinction as an empire was due to a 
civil war between the sons of Ferengh Mahmud, about the middle of 
the seventeenth century, in which all the most powerful tribes in that 
part of Africa engaged. The result was that the capital of Meli was 
destroyed, and the country divided up among the various participants 
in this suicidal struggle. The Baghena lordship was given by Mulai 
Ismail of Morocco, under a sort of feudal tenure, to the chief of the 
Mebarek tribe. 

(7) Tin-Buktu, " the well of Buktu", as it has been fancifully trans- 
lated : Timbuctoo, to use the familiar spelling : Timbuktu in more 
accurate form — once a city of mystery and fable, is now so familiar that 
it is no longer necessary to speculate regarding the exact meaning of 
Leo's statements, or what modicum of truth they possess. In the editor's 
Africa (vol. i, pp. 26-312 ; vol. iv, p. 298) notes may be found on the 
numerous vacillations of opinion regarding this country, and journeys in 
search of it ; and in Barlh's Travels (vol. iv, pp. 403, 480, etc) and Lenz's 
Timbuktu (vol. ii, p. 114^/ seq^^ the fullest information is embodied on 
the history and condition of the city prior to the French occupying it 
on the loth January, 1893. Its subsequent fate has been chronicled 
by MM. Hubert et Delafosse in TombouctoUy son hisioire^ sa conqudte 
(1894) and by Zoudevan in Tijdschrift Netherlandsch Aardrijk- 
Genootschap^ vol. ix (1892), pp. 375-400- In the Comptes Rendus of 
the Paris Geographical Society, 1894, Nos. 18, 19, and 1895, p. 62, 
the information collected by the French military officers is embodied. 
I may, however, supplement Leo's description by a few explanatory 
remarks. Timbuktu means in the Songhai language a hollow, and 
perhaps got the name from being built in the cavity of the sand hills. 
It was founded towards the end of the fifth century of the Hegeira 
Ca.d. 1087-8) by the Tuireg, who have since used its site as an 
occasional camping-place. — Barth, Travels^ vol. iv, p. 584. 

(8) Since Leo's day the influence of the Moors has been most 
marked ; for, with the exception of some conical mat huts, the houses 


are now well built of day ("chalke"=creta) around courtyards, and 
with terraces, not thatched, as described by the viator of four centuries 
ago. Pory, copying Florianus, has not quite correctly translated this 
passage — " Le cui case sono capanne fatte di pali, coperte di creta [in 
the Latin Cujus domus omnes in tuguriola cretace(F\ coi cortivi di 
paglia." It should be : The houses here are built like cabins, the walls 
are hurdles plastered over with clay, and the houses covered with 
reeds (straw). Moore, by his ingenuity in mistranslating " capanne" 
(which he mistakes for " campane"), as " bells", still further confuses 
Leo's meaning ; though, no doubt, bell-shaped or conical is very 
applicable to the usual Nigritic style of architecture. 

The statement that almost half of the city was, during Leo's second 
visit, burnt down in the course of five hours, and that fires were one of 
the perils to which it was peculiarly subject, rather confirms the 
description of the inflammable character of the buildings in 1500. — 
See M. Jomard's remarks in Cailli^'s Travels (English ed.), vol. ii, 

p. 343- 

The Great Mosque and the palace were built by Mansa Musa, 
King of Meli, ^ as a half-legible inscription over the principal 
gate attests. The architect — "un excellente maestro di Granata" — 
was Ishak, commonly called Es-Saheli, as if he were a native of 
Morocco, not of Granada. But the Sankord mosque is generally 
regarded as the oldest in the city. 

(9) This description of the magnificence of Askia is no doubt quite 
accurate. For his plunder must have been accumulating fast, while 
his military forces and the merchants whom they attracted to Timbuktu 
must have given employment to a great many people during the 
moderately enlightened rule of Askia's brother, Omar, as " Tumbutu- 
koy" (Viceroy of Timbuktu), in spite of Sonni Ali having sacked it 
thirty years previously (a.d. 1468-9, A.H. 873). Timbuktu has 
decayed very greatly during the last four centuries : for at the date of 
Lenz*s visit — 1880 — the entire population did not exceed 20,000, with 
a few traders and their followers during the caravan season ; and until 
the French occupation the place still further approached insignificance 
by reason of the anarchy and pillage of the Tuireg, and their rivals, 
the Fulahs, added to the competition of the European trading ports on 
the Niger. Askia did not, as Leo seemed to have imagined, reside 
habitually in Timbuktu, Gogo being his capital. But unless he de- 
rived his information regarding Askia's regal state from second-hand 
information, the king must at the period of one of Leo's two 
visits (probably within an interval of a few months) have been in 
the city or its vicinity, as indeed was his custom at that period of his 
life. Kabara was also one of his favourite residences, but Gogo was 
most frequently Askia's home. 

3 H 2 


( 10) " Books and firearms" were the articles which Barth found most 
in demand, and to this day the Mogador traders in fitting out caravans 
for Timbuktu always include MSS. of the Koran and other 
religious works among their regular merchandise. There are 
several good libraries in the place, containing many valuable MSS., 
with the contents of which Europe is now likely to become better 
acquainted. The exclusion of Jews from Timbuktu continued until 
the year 1858, when the late Rabbi Mordokhai Abi Serour, of 
Akka, succeeded in gaining permission to reside and trade in the 
city ; and since that date several of his relatives and co-religionists 
have established themselves there, and it is understood that many 
more — now that anarchy is at an end — are likely to become per- 
manent citizens. — Beaumier, Bull, de la Soc, Giog, PariSy April- May, 

The Cowrie currency mentioned by Leo is still in use over a wide 
extent of the Niger country. To show the approximate value of the 
shells — Barth bought in Timbuktu, forty years ago, a piece of good 
bleached calico — " shigge", or " sehem hindi" as it is still called, as it 
was in Silla more than eight centuries ago (El-Bekri, ed. Slane, 1857, 
P- 173) — for i3i5oo shells, and three pieces of unbleached calico for 
8,000 each. Three thousand shells were accounted equal to one 
Spanish dollar — a much higher rate of exchange than prevailed in 
Leo's time. 

(11) Kabara, the port of Timbuktu, situated on a cul de sac of the 
Niger, five miles from the city — not "twelve", as in the rather 
obscure statement of Leo, not improved by his translators — the desert 
space between the two being known as Ur-immandes (** He — God — 
does not hear") from the fact that people are murdered here without 
their cries reaching anyone able to succour them. Ibn Batuta, on his 
visit to "Tomboktu" in 1352-53, sailed on the river from Kabara to 
Gogo. At one time Kabara was even more important than Timbuktu, 
but it is nowadays a somnolent village of some 2,000 people, living in 
dome-shaped houses, and in no way distinguished either by wealth or 
intelligence. The sanitary condition of the place has not improved 
since Leo's visit. — See Caron, De Saint Louis au port de Tombouktou 
(1891), pp. 281, et seq, ; Deportes, Extreme Sud de VAlgMe^ Le 
Gourara^ Le Touat, In-Sulah^ /> Tidikelt, Le Pays de Touaregs^ 
rAdrar^ Tin Bouctou, Agades{iS^), pp. 380-413. Askia had many 
brothers, whom he entrusted with great power, and who requited 
him better than did his mutinous and almost patricidal sons. Ex- 
cept for Leo's reference to Abu Bakr, sumamed Pergama, they are 
not known in history. — See, also, for some now obsolete criticisms 
on certain passages in Leo, Cock, in Adams's apocryphal Narrative, 
p. 188. 


(12) Gogo, Gago, Gagho, Gawo, or Gao,^the capital of the Songhai 
empire, and during Askia's reign a very important place. Makhled 
Ibn Kaidid (better known as Abu Yezid, the Nekarite), who figured 
in the revolutions of Northern Africa, was bom here. His father, 
however, came from Tozer for trading purposes, which shows the 
antiquity of commercial relations between Barbary and the Sudan 
(Ibn Khaldoun, Hist des Berb^res, ed. Slane, t. iii, p. 201). Wargla, 
by which he travelled, and where his son took refuge in A.H. 325 
(A.D. 957), Barth regards as the Bakalitis of Ptolemy (lib. iv, c. vii, 
P- 305> ed. Wilberg), and therefore even more ancient than is supposed. 
In El-Bekri's time " Gogo" consisted of two towns, one the residence of 
the King and the Mohammedans, the other the Pagan quarter, though 
already Islam had made such progress that no one but a Moham- 
medan could rule. Gogo was at that time the chief market for 
salt, which was brought from the Berber town of Tautek, distant 
fifteen days' travel About a century later (a.d. 1153) Edrisi 
tells us that the people of Gogo dominated over the surrounding 
country, and were rich in horses and camels. The great men were 
clothed handsomely, and wore the " litham", or face covering ; while 
humbler folk dressed in leathern shirts or upper garments. So well 
advanced were commercial relations between Negroland and North 
Africa (which Leo affirms began about the close of the tenth century 
after Christ), that already Gogo did a brisk trade with Augila. About 
A.D. 1770, the town and principality hitherto ruled by the "Ruma" or 
descendants of the soldiers left as garrison by MulaT Ahmed Abu-1- 
.Abbis el-Mansur of Morocco in 1 590, was taken by the Awleimmeden 
Tuireg. This spot, from whence the powerful princes whose capital it 
was, extended their conquests far and near (and at a time when Timbuktu 
was — what indeed it always has been — a mere trading provincial town), 
is nowadays a poor place, with few signs of having seen better days. 
The great mosque in which the victorious Askia is buried has been 
allowed to fall into ruins', and the private dwellings are little better than 
hovels. The town seems (as Leo states) never to have been surrounded 
by a wall, and to have had in its most flourishing days a circumference 
of something like six miles. But nothing now remains of the palace, 
which so little impressed Jaudar, the Moorish general, that he wrote 
to Mulai Ahmed that the house of the Sheikh el-Haram in Morocco 
was much finer than the {)alace of the Askia. Indeed, the architecture 
of Gogo seems to have been on a par with that of the rest of the 
Niger cities, until they aped that of Barbary, introduced perhaps 
after Jaudar's conquests in a.d. 1588-9 (see Introduction). As the 
valiant eunuch of Mulai Ahmed wished to accept Ishak Askia's 
ransom of 1,000 slaves and 100,000 mithkal of gold— a piece of com- 
plaisance which cost Jaudar his command— it is just possible that he 
minimised the modest splendour of Gogo. Leo reached it by sailing 


from Kabara, so that it is absurd to argue that he had never been on 
the Niger, and was ignorant of its course, simply because he gave its 
general direction to the Atlantic as westerly (Cock, in Adams's 
Narrative^ p. I90- RennelPs criticism on Leo placing Ghana to the 
westward of Timbuktu is based on the supposition that Ghana and 
Kano were identical. — Thomson, Mungo Park^ p. 193. 

(13) Gober, the most northern of the Haussa states, the home of 
the Imim Othman ben-Fodio (Fodiye), by whom the great Fulah 
revolution, in progress about the time of Mungo Park's explorations, 
was brought about. The Goberawa were at one time masters of Air, 
or Arben. Barth doubts Leo's statements about Askia's later pro- 
ceedings, being inclined to think that the Moorish traveller had 
confounded Askia with Kanta, the ruler of Leka, in the province of 

(14) For shoes read sandals (calzolaj)? Gober was at one time 
celebrated, as are still some of the Niger towns, for its leather wares. 

(15) Agades, on the right bank of the Wad Tilua, is still a 
prosperous town, the citizens of which possess, as in Leo's day, 
numbers of male slaves employed on their trading expeditions in 
the Sudan. Amid many ruins there are still plenty of substantial 
houses betokening wealth and even culture of the African order. 
But the palace of the Sultan — "un bel palazzo in me720 della 
cittV — where he housed his court and a large garrison, seems 
to have disappeared, since the huge ruin in the southern quarter 
can scarcely be identified with this building. Of the seventy mosques 
which are said to have formerly existed, only ten are still in use. 
Leather working, mat-plaiting, and blacksmithing are carried on here. 
The iron-work, though barbarous in design, is especially interesting ; 
and in most parts of Africa, as in mediaeval Europe, the smith is an 
important personage. 

(16) Agades was at one time regarded as identical with Audaghost, 
or Aoudarast of Edrisi and of EI-Bekri, merely owing to the simi- 
larity of the names. But Mr. Cooley {Negroland of the ArabSy 
p. 6 et seq.) showed this to be erroneous, with which judgment 
most late commentators agree (De Slane, Jiev, Africaine^ t i, 
p. 289), though whether Auderas (Wateran of Rennell), between Air 
and Agades, is a safer guess, is not worth discussing (Renou, ExpL 
Scientifique de PAigMe^ t. ii, p. 327). But Agades, or Egedesh, is a 
pure Berber word, of frequent occurrence, particularly among the 
Awleimmeden, and in no way connected with Audaghost. Accord- 
ding to Barth {Travels^ vol. i, p. 458), the name means "family", and 


is well chosen for a town consisting of mixed elements. Audaghost 
was, moreover, in existence at the time that El-Bekri wrote — namely, 
in the eleventh century. When Agades was built is not certain ; for 
Marmol's statement that it was founded 160 years before the time when 
he wrote (that is to say, 1460) must be received with some doubt. Other- 
wise, Leo would have been certain to have noted the fact of a place 
which he describes with some minuteness being not older than fifty or 
sixty years when he visited it. But all that he says is — " Agadez ^ una 
cittk murata, edificata dai modemi r^ " — " by a certain King " being 
simply a translation of **a quodam Rege", one of the many liberties 
with the text which Florianus took. Yet in A.D. 151 5 the great Askia 
captured this town, and drove out of it the few Berber tribes who had 
settled here, establishing in their place most likely a colony of his own 
people ; which explains why, so far from its original centre, a dialect of 
Songhai language, mixed with Berber elements, is spoken in Agades. 
In Leo's day the place had not yet undergone the change. But even 
then he seemed to regard it as a negro town : — " The inhabitants are 
all whiter than other Negroes " (E questa cittk h quasi vicina alia cittk 
dei Bianchi piu che alcun'altra de' Negri). Yet though he does not men- 
tion Askia's expedition against Agades, he takes note of those against 
Katsena and Kano, which took place two years earlier, and states that 
the King of Agades paid a tribute of 150,000 ducats to " the King of 
Tombuto " (Gogo). Indeed, considering that Leo accompanied his 
uncle on an official visit to Askia, he seems to have come very little 
in contact with the great conqueror, if at all, and to have received his 
information about him largely at second hand ; and though the details 
regarding Askia's proceedings are generally correct, he is at times 
strangely confused. Thus he mentions that Askia having reigned 
fifteen (quindici) years, and made peace with his neighbours, went 
on the Mecca pilgrimage. Yet this event is not correctly stated ; for 
Askia ascended the throne on the 14th Jumad, 898 (A.D. 1493), and 
went on the Mecca pilgrimage in Safer, 902 (A.D. 1495), returning to 
Gogo in A.H. 903 (August, 1497-8) — consequently in the fifth (Moham- 
medan) year of his reign. Yet Leo obtained information, perhaps 
from later writers, after his return to Barbary, of Aski.Vs expedition 
against Katsena and the adjoining provinces, which was made in a.h. 
919 (A.D. 1 5 13). Consequently, Barth was induced to believe that Leo, 
in describing Agades, speaks of its condition prior to Askia's exi>edi- 
tion of A.D. 1 51 5, a date at which Leo must have completed his Niger- 
land travels (see Introduction), But as Leo gives us no exact dates 
it is often impossible to say how far he is speaking as an eye-witness, 
or how far from more or less trustworthy information picked up among 
the trader caravans. Leo also describes the king as a Berber ; and 
certainly the unruly, restless character of the Berber population so 
unlike the easily-governed Negro, is markedly characteristic of the 


Tuireg population of Agades to this day. The tradition of the 
people is that the city was originally peopled from a small town 
in the Imallen Valley, of which some vestiges, with two or 
three date trees, remnants of a large plantation, remain to the 
present day (Barth, Travels^ vol. iv, pp. 462-68). Founded evi- 
dently as a trading centre more convenient than Tegidda (famous 
in Ibn Batuta, and Ibn Khaldoun's days for copper, and now 
for reddish-coloured salt), it speedily attained great prosperity. 
It had its own standard weight of gold — the mithkal — which 
even yet regulates the circulating medium. Thus while the Tim- 
buktu mithkal is in regard to the Spanish dollar as 1} to i, the 
Agades one is only as | to i. For wholesale business a greater 
weight was used. This was the " karruive", of which the smaller con- 
tained 33 mithkals and a third, equal to 2 rottls and a 117th, while the 
larger karruive contained 100 mithkals, equal to 6 rottls and a half. 
The Sultan is chosen by a compact among the tribes from among a 
Sherifian family, and lives, not in Agades, but m a Gobes town : this 
ruler being really the chief of the Tuireg tribes, who are almost con- 
stantly at war with each other. Now, as in Leo's time, the Sultan's 
chief source of revenue is the tax of ten mithkals (four Spanish dollars) 
on all merchandise — food excepted — entering the town. ("Riceve 
il re gran rendita delle gabelle che pagano le robe de' forestieri, e anco 
di quello che nasce nel regno".) At present the population numbers 
seven or eight thousand, many of whom are always absent on trading 
expeditions, though the commerce is now inconsiderable compared 
with what it was in former times. Money, or its representative, either 
in cowries or cloth, is rarely in the market, the standard being 
millet {Penmsetum typhoideum) durra, or sorghum {Holcus sorghum\ 
(List of prices in Barth, lib, cit.^ vol. iv, p. 479). Grain is the main 
object of speculation by the Tuates, who still form the most numerous 
section of the foreign traders, though not indulging in large transac- 
tions ; and then in the greater number of cases they are merely the 
commission agents or middlemen of the Ghadames capitalist. Hence, 
while well-dressed epicures from Tuat are frequent, wealthy ones are 
rare. The word " Zingand " is translated by Temporal as Gypsies 
(Bomiens ou Egyptiens\ and no doubt correctly. The shepherds' 
huts are built to-day in the very manner described by Leo. — Walck- 
enaer, Recherches Giographiques^ etc., pp. 316-320, 449 ; Richard- 
son, Narrative of a Mission to Central Africa^ vol. ii, p. 57 (mainly a 
summary of Barth's account). 

(17) Kano, not Ghana or Ghanata of El-Bekri, as at one time 
generally supposed, the question having been decided by Cooley 
{Negroland of the ArabSy p. 5, et seg.\ Kano is still a large busy town, 
much frequented by traders, especially since the occupation of Katsena 


by the Fulahs in 1 807. Barth gives a view of the place in 1 850 ( Travels^ 
vol. ii, p. 1 10) ; but considers that in his account of its history Leo 
confounds Kano with Katsena. In the second half of the sixteenth 
century the fortress of Dala, which withstood the Bornuese attack, 
must have been the only part of Kano in existence. According to 
Clapperton and Banks's estimate, the modem town may contain from 
30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants of a very mixed character ; though during 
the influx of caravans between January and April the number some- 
times rises to 60,000. Cotton cloth of native weaving is the chief 
article of sale, though artificers of various fabrics flourish, and in 
the bazaar Manchester and Sheffield wares are quite common. 

The province itself (in the original Leo calls it "una gran pro- 
vincial) comprises a fertile, well- populated district, the inhabitants 
being now alternately subject to Bomu and Sokoto, though the 
governor is practically independent. 

The conquest of Zezeg, Katsena (Casena) and Kano by Askia is 
mentioned in such set terms by Leo that it is difficult to accept 
Barth's doubt whether the Moorish historian did not confound Askia 
with Kanta, the ruler of Kebbi. Leo's information must have been second- 
hand — obtained in an exaggerated form from traders ; for Ahmed Baba 
makes no allusion to any expedition of Askia's three years after his first. 
Indeed, " such an expedition is", Barth affirms, " wholly impossible, 
on account of the hostility of Kanta, who made himself independent of 
Songhay, the second year after the expedition to Katsena (a.d. 15 14), 
and there was no road from Songhay to Kano except through Kebbi". 
" Chalk" (creta) should here, as elsewhere, be translated " clay". These 
Nigritic kings seem to have had at an early date communication with 
the Portuguese, who about A.D. 147 1 sent an embassy to Sonni Ali, 
asking permission to establish a factory at Wadan (Hoden), which, 
however, being in too barren a spot and too far from the coast, 
was soon abandoned. Again, when the Moors took Gogo, they 
found in that town " a piece of artillery bearing the Portuguese arms, 
a small image of Our Lady, and a metal crucifix". — Jorge de Mendoza 
Da Franca, among Papeles Curiosas^ in the Egerton Collection, 
Brit. Mus. Additional MSS., No. 10,262, p. 235. 

(18) Katsena, or Kashna, Kachene, and Cachenah of the older 
writers, one of the Hansa regions, or, as Leo — who evidently did not 
know that name— says a kingdom, like Zaria and Kano, speaking 
the Gober language. But, in affirming that Wangara (Guangara) 
used the same tongue, he falls into an error ; as he does in crediting 
Meli with the Songhai : he, as a foreigner, was addressed in it by 
traders and " educated" people. In Leo's day there does not seem to 
have been any capital in the province of Katsena : nothing but 
" piccoli casali fatti a guisa di capanne, e tutti tristi". Yet there are 


lists of Katsena kings dating back to a.h. 600, though perhaps Kat- 
sena did not receive the name of the province till it became important 
about the middle of the sixteenth century of the Christian era, when a 
number of poor villages coalesced into one town. Katsena — capital 
and province — is now much decayed. The town fell on evil times with 
the rest of Kano, while the province — one of the richest portions of 
Negroland— is now much curtailed since the bulk of it passed into the 
Fulahs* hands. 

(19) The province of Zegzeg under the Governor of Kano. 

(20) This custom, which seemed to have tried the faith of some of 
Leo's readers, is, on the contrary, quite accurately related. In Senegal 
(just as in Western America and other regions), in order to keep off 
the mosquitoes, the traveller is compelled to sleep under the lee of 
a " green smoke" in order to obtain some respite from these plagues, 
or to fill the house with pungent fumes. The late Mr. Joseph 
Thomson remarks on this passage as an instance of Leo's accuracy. 
** Even when he seems to draw most upon credulity, he is generally 
quite accurate : as, for instance, when he describes the people of one 
district kindling fires at night under their bedsteads to keep them- 
selves warm. To the truth of this statement the writer of these lines 
can testify from personal observation ; the precaution being adopted, 
however, not to ward off external cold, but that of ague — a disease to 
which many places on the Niger are subject at certain times of the 
year." — Thomson, Mungo Park and the Niger^ p. 17. 

(21) Zanfara,with its capital Zyrmi,is of more importance now than in 
Leo's day. It forms part of the Fulah empire, and is better governed 
than when Clapperton visited it, and found the place a mere asylum 
for vagabonds from neighbouring states. The province is very 
ancient, being mentioned by Edrisi when it was much more extensive 
than at present, half of it being under the Fulah yoke, while the rest 
was struggled for by the Goberawa and other turbulent neighbours. 

(22) Wangara, or Ungara. The Wangarawa or Wakore are a 
numerous and scattered people, to whom belong the Susa and 
Eastern Mandingoes, so called. These Wangarawa are found busily 
engaged in trade all over the Niger country and in Katsena. Barth 
notes that all the more considerable merchants belong to this 

When Leo states that Abraham, King of Bomu, meditated driving 
the Wangarawa out of his kingdom, his memory perhaps deceived 
him. Most probably he refers to Ali ben-Dunama, sumamed for his 
conquests El-Gh^i, but better known as Mai Ali Ghazideni (a.h. 877- 
909, A.D. 1472-1504). It may have been in this King's reign that Leo 


visited Bomu, though his son and successor Idris reigned from 
A.H. 910-932 (a.d. 1 504- 1 526). Barth also learnt from various sources 
that it was Ali Ghazideni who had to abandon the conquest of Wangara 
to repulse an invasion of the Bulala (Gaoga — quite different from 
Gogo). But Omar is probably another lapse of memory for Selma 
or *Abd el-Jelil, the father of the prince whom Idris («/ supra) 
conquered. The name Omar does not occur in the Bulala dynasty. 

(23) Until the reign of Mai Ali Ghazideni the Bomu people, as 
Leo describes them, lived in temporary encampments in the conquered 
country. These famous warriors, however, built Bimi, or Ghasr- 
eggomo, the first capital, though Nanigham (" a certaine large village") 
had for some time previously served the purpose, being the usual royal 
residence. Bimi, on the river Wau, three days west of Kukawa, the 
present capital, is now a min six miles in circumference, thickly over- 
grown with rank g^ass. 

(24) This refers mainly to the Pagan mountaineers, for even in 
Leo's day most of the more civilised Kanuri and other races of Bomu 
must have been as strict Mohammedans are they are at present. 

(25) This "puissant prince" must have been Mai Ali Ghazideni. 
The Kanuri language does not now contain any Libyan (Berber) 
elements, but the tongue of the conqueror may have been effaced 
by that of the conquered, just as the Bulala (Gaogo), who in Leo's 
time spake Kanuri, have now entirely forgotten it, adopting the 
language of the Kuka tribe, among whom they founded a dynasty. 
The Bardoa, a tribe mentioned by Makrizi as Berdoa (between 
which names and Bemu or Bomu, Borgu, Berdama, Berauni, 
and Berber, Barth thinks there is an "ethnological connection") 
are, however, more nearly allied to the Teda or Tibu than 
to the Berber or Mazigh. The Sultan Bello expressly traces the 
Bomu dynasty to a Berber origin : hence the Hausa people call 
every Bomu man "ba-Berbersh" and the Bomu nation "Berbere"; 
and Makrizi says that it was a common tradition of the kingdom 
that they were descended from the Berbers. — Barth, Travels y vol. ii, 
p. 269. 

(26) Seu, Shawi. See also Cooley, Negroland^ p. 129, and Claudius 
Ptolemy and the Nile^ p. 9. 

The " fontaine of Niger** (" capo donde nasce il Niger") is evidently 
" the Lake of the Desert of Gaoga", in which he places the sources 
of that river — Lake Tshad of more modem explorers. The " Desert 
of Set" is the easterly portion of the Sahara. Beside millet 
{Pennisetum) and durra {Sorghum) in various varieties, Sesamum is 
cultivated, and the seeds of a grass {Poa abyssinica ?) referred to by 
Denham, are extensively eaten. 


(27) Gaoga or Gaogao is the powerful empire of the Bulala 
dynasty, founded by the successors of Jil Shikomeni among the Kuka. 
The similarity of the name to Gogo, capital of the Songhai empire, 
has caused much confusion and given origin to many superfluous 
theories. Leo's statements, though vague in places, leave no doubt 
about its being what the Bomu people know as Bulala. It derived the 
name Gaogo (Kaoka) from the Kuka tribe, in whose territory the Bulala 
of the princely family of Kanem, guided by Jil (sumamed Shikomeni) 
(" a certaine Negro slaue"), founded an empire which at one time 
stretched from Eastern Bagirmi to the interior of Darfur. Islam is 
generally believed not to have been introduced into Gaoga until the 
seventeenth century. But Leo speaks of the rulers of the country, who, 
like the Kanem princes, were Mohammedans even in Makrizi's time — 
that is, a century before Leo wrote. 

(28) Goran, Gorham (Marmol), corrupted by Pory, Blome, and 
other compilers into Gorham, is Kordofan. 

(29) Dongola Aguse, or Old Dongola, the capital of the ancient 
kingdom of that name, then independent, now in ruins, has never 
recovered from the ravages of the Mamlukes in 1820 and the rise of 
New Dongola ; the barracks of which are said to have been built after 
a plan by Ehrenberg, the famous German Naturalist, who just then 
happened to be visiting the Nile Valley. 

(30) " Ma le case sono tutte triste, fabricate con creta e pali" — that is, 
the houses are all wretched, built of clay and poles — in short, " wattle 
and daub". 

(31) " Molto zibetto e legno di sandalo." But the true sandal wood 
is not found in Africa. Sanderswood is sometimes called sandalwood. 
One of the civets ( Viverra civetta) inhabits North Africa. 

(32) This story is apparently one of the legends told by the traders : 
for there is no poison known in Africa, much less in Nubia, which 
at all conforms to this description. 

(33) Leo's account of Nubia is very perfunctory, and to a large 
extent suspiciously second-hand. He gives the term a very wide 
significance ; for he makes Nubia to march with Bomu on the west- 
ward, with Kordofan on the south, and on the north with the Nubian 
Desert, which four centuries ago seems to have been recognised as 
about the southern boundary of Egypt. Nubia is thus only a geo- 
graphical expression, since even at that date it comprised several 
independent kingdoms, including Kordofan, Darfur, and Dongola. 
Nor, unless Leo considered the Blue or Abyssinian Nile the main 
river, is the Nile in any place, even in the driest season, capable of 


being waded. The Zingani of whom he has already spoken cannot 
be classed with any known people of the region described. From 
the Italian "Zingani" (gypsies, vagabonds) being used, they are 
doubtless intended to be described as wanderers, they "speake a 
kinde of language that no one understandeth". The ethnology of 
Nubia is, however, very complicated. But though the origin and 
relationship to the three great stocks inhabiting it are doubtful, their 
distinctness is clear enough. There are the Arabs, now very mixed, 
intruders of a comparatively recent date, the Hamitic Ababdeh, and 
Beja or Bisharin, the " Bugia " of Leo (the Begas of Makrizi, the 
Bugas of Greek and Axumite inscriptions, perhaps the Buka of 
the Egyptian hieroglyphs), and the Negro or Negroid Barabira, the 
nearest relatives of the original Nubos, from whom Nubia derived 
its name. (Lepsius, Nubische Grammatik^ 1880 ; Reinisch, Die 
Nuba-Sprachey 1879.) The tongue is therefore correctly described 
as " mixt ", but it is, of course, absurd to regard the Chaldean as akin 
to it ; though as the Bejas occupy most of the upland country 
between Upper Egypt and Abyssinia, their language may have some 
Himyaritic elements in it. The "tribute" they received from the 
rulers of Dongola and Suakin must have been blackmail. — Keane, 
Ethnology of the Egyptian Sudan (1884) ; Burckhardt, Travels in 
Nubia (1822). 

Ziden is Jiddah, Juddah, Jeddah, Djiddah, or Djeddah, as it is vari- 
ously spelt. But in the translation Leo is made to say that both 
Jeddah and " Zibid" were destroyed. In reality it was only the latter, 
owing to the Soldan of Egypt (in 1426) being provoked at the Bejas of 
the town pillaging caravans bound for Mecca, while the ruler (signor) 
and people of Suakin, helped by the Turks armed with bows and 
fire-arms, took terrible vengeance on the fugitives who sought refuge in 
that town: — " Ma da cSto anni in qua, per cagione, che costoro rubarono 
vna carouana che portaua robba & vettouaglia alia Mecca il Soldano 
si sdnegno, & maado un' armata pel mar rosso la quale assedio & 
disfece la detta cittk, & il porto di Zibid, che daua loro d' entrata du 
gen to mila sarafii ; allhora quelli che fuggirono, incominciarono 
a girsene a Dangala & Suachin, qualche piccola cosa quadag- 
nando. Ma dipoi il Signor di Suachin, col favor di certi turchi armati 
di scheoppi & d'archi, gli dett6 vna rotta, perciocchi in vna giomata 
ammazzarono di questa canaglia che andaua nuda, piii che quattro 
mila persone, e mille ne menarono via a Suachin ; i quali furono 
vccissi dalle femmine & da fanciulli " (Ramusio, ed. 1630, p. 80 b). At 
the time Suakin wreaked this characteristic vengeance on the Beja — 
with whom the inhabitants had many old scores to settle, though the 
majority of the people belonged then, as still, to that stock — it was 
probably under an independent ruler. Like all places on the coast, 
Suakin was almost invariably under foreigners. Thus, when Ibn 


Batuta visited the place, he found a son of the Amir of Mecca reigning 
over the Beja, by reason of his mother having belonged to that race, 
kinship and succession going among these people in the female line. 
(Makrizi, Kkitdty vol. i, p. 194 et seq. ; trans, in Burckhardt's Travels 
in Nubia^ App. III). Makrfzi says that the chief inhabitants were 
nominal Moslems, and were called Hadarib. In 1814 the "Emir of 
Hadarib " was still sovereign of the mainland, though Suakin had an 
aga appointed by the Turkish pasha of Jiddah. The place was 
settled by the Turks on its conquest by Selim I, about a.d. 15 17, 
some years subsequent to Leo's visit. The Circassian Mamluk, 
El-Ashraf Bursabey, the same who captured Jeddah and laid John III 
of Cyprus under tribute, was the Sultan who destroyed Zibid, or 
Zaibeth, as it appears on Sanson's maps. 



the Historic of Africa, and 
of the fnemorable things 
contained therein. 

Of Egypt, 

HE most noble and famous prouince 
of Egypt bordering westward vpon 
the deserts of Barca, Numidia, and 
Libya ; eastward vpon the deserts 
lying betweene Egypt it selfe and 
the red sea: and northward vpon 
the Mediterran sea; is inclosed 
southward with the land of the foresaid people called 
Bugiha, and with the riuer of Nilus. It stretcheth in length 
from the Mediterran sea to the land of the people called 
Bugiha about fower hundred and fiftie miles : but in bredth E^t 450 
it is very narrow ; so that it containeth nought but a small 
distance betweene both the banks of Nilus and the barren 
mountaines bordering vpon the foresaid deserts, being 
.inhabited onely in that place where Nilus is separate from 
the saide mountaines : albeit towards the Mediterran sea it 
extendeth it selfe somewhat broader. For Nilus about 
fower-score miles from the great citie of Cairo is diuided 
into two branches, one whereof running in his chanell 
westward, returneth at length into the maine stream from 
whence he tooke his originall, and hauing passed about 

miles long. 


three-score miles beyond Cairo, diuideth it selfe into two 
other branches, whereof the one runneth to Damiata, and 
the other to Rosetto. And out of that which trendeth to 
Damiata issueth another branch, which discharging it selfe 
into a lake passeth through a certaine gullet or streit into 
the Mediterran sea, vpon the banke whereof standeth the 
most ancient citie of Tenesse^ : and this diuision of Nilus 
into so many streames and branches causeth Egypt (as I 
haue beforesaid) to be so narrow. All this prouince is 
plaine, and is most fruitfull for all kind of graine and pulse. 
There are most pleasant and greene medowes, and great 
store of geese and other fowles. The countrey people are 
of a swart and browne colour : but the citizens are white. 
Garments they weare which are streite downe to their 
wastes, and broad beneath, and the sleeues likewise are 
streight. They couer their heads with a round and high 
habite called by the Italians a Dulipan. Their shooes are 
made according to the ancient fashion. In sommer they 
weare garments of particoloured cotton : but in winter they 
vse a certaine garment lined with cotton, which they 
call Chebre : but the chiefe citizens and merchants are 
apparelled in cloth of Europe. The inhabitants are of an 
honest, cheerful, and liberall disposition. For their victuals 
they vse a kinde of newe and extreme salt cheeses, and 
sowre milke also artificially congealed ; which fare albeit 
they account very daintie, yet cannot strangers digest it, 
and into everie dish almost they put sower milk. 

A diuision of Egypt. 

SINCE the Mahumetans were Lords of Egypt, it hath 
beene diuided into three parts. For the region from 
Cairo to Rosetto is called the shore of Errif : and from 
Cairo to the lande of Bugiha it is called Sahid, that is to 
say, The firme land : but the region adioining vpon that 
branch of Nilus which runneth towardes Damiata and 


Tenesse, they call by the name of Bechria or Maremma. 
All Egypt is exceeding fertile : but the prouince of Sahid 
excelleth the two other parts for abundance of corne, cattle, 
fowles, and flaxe : and Maremma aboundeth with cotton 
and sugar.2 Howbeit the inhabitants of Maremma and 
Errif are farre more ciuill then the people of Sahid : 
bicause those two prouinces lie neerer vnto the sea, and 
are more frequented by European, Barbarian, and Assirian 
merchants : but the people of Sahid haue no conuersation 
with strangers, except it be with a few Ethiopians. 


Of the ancient pedigree and originall of the Egyptians. 
HE Egyptians (as Moses writeth) fetch their originall <^«*- lo- 6. 

from ^Mesraim the sonne of ChuSy the sonne o(*Mesraimis 

recorded to be 

Chaniy the sonne oi Noe ; and the Hebrewes call both the the brother of 
countrie and the inhabitants of Egypt by the name o{ sonne of Cham- 
Mesraim. The Arabians call Egypt it selfe Mesre, but the 
inhabitants Chibith. And Chibith (they say) was the man, 
that first took vpon him the gouernment of this region, and 
began first to builde houses thereon. Also the inhabitants 
call themselues by the same name : neither are there left 
any true Egyptians, besides a fewe Christians, which are 
at this present remaining. The residue embracing the 
Mahumetan religion haue mingled themselues amongst 
the Arabians & the Moores.* This kingdome was gouerned 
many yeeres by the Egyptians themselues, as namely by 
the kings that were called Pharao, (who by their monu- 
ments and admirable buildings, seeme to haue beene 
mightie princes) and also by the kings called Ptolomcei. 
Afterward being subdued vnto the Romaine Empire, this 
kingdome since the comming of Christ was conuerted 
vnto the Christian religion, vnder the saide Romaine 
gouernment : since the decay of which Empire, it fell into 
the possession of the Emperours of Constantinople ; who 
being very carefull to maintaine this kingdome, were at 




The tcavnc of 
Pharao. ^ 

The sepulchre 
of Joseph. 

length depriued thereof by the Mahumetans, vnder the 
conduct of Hamrus the sonne of Hasi^ being appointed 
captaine generall ouer the Arabian armie of Hontar the 
second Califa or Mahumetan patriarke of that name: who 
permitting all men to haue their owne religion required 
nought but tribute at their hands. The said captaine built 
vpon the banke of Nilus a certaine towne called by the 
Arabians Fustato, which word signifieth in their language 
tabernacle : for when he first vndertooke this expedition, 
he marched through wilde and desert places voide of 
inhabitants, so that his armie was constrained to lye in 
tents. The common people call this towne Mesre Hatichi, 
that is to say, the auncient citie ; which notwithstanding 
in comparison of Cairo may not vnfitly be called the New 
citie.^ And as concerning the situation of this towne many 
excellent men both Christians, lewes, and Mahumetans 
haue in these our times beene deceiued. For they thinke 
Mesre to be situate in the same place where king Pharao 
in the time of Moses, and king Pharao in the time of 
Joseph had their aboade : because they suppose the towne 
of P/tarao to haue stood in that part of Africa where Nilus 
stretcheth out one of his armes westward towards Africa, 
and where the Pyramides are as yet to be seene : which 
the holy Scripture also seemeth to auouch in the books 
of Genesis, where it is said, that the lewes in Moses 
time were employed about the building of the town of 
Aphthun, which was founded by Pharao : namely in 
that place where Nilus trendeth towards Africa, being 
about fiftie miles southward of Cairo, and neere vnto the 
most westerly arme or branch of Nilus. They alleage also 
another probabilitie, that the towne oi P/tarao was built in 
the same place, because that at the verie head or confluence 
of the branches of Nilus there standeth a building of 
maruellous antiquitie, called the sepulchre of losephy 
wherein the dead bodie of Joseph lay, till it was by the 


lewes transported vnto the sepulchre of their fathers.® To 
be briefe, neither Cairo nor any place neere vnto it, can by 
any likelyhood chalenge that they were at any time in- 
habited by the ancient Pharaos, But heere it is to be 
noted, that the nobilitie of the ancient Egyptians dwelt in 
times past in the region of Sahid beyond Cairo, in the 
cities of Fium, of Manfichmin, and in other such famous 
cities. Howbeit after Egypt was conquered by the 
Romans, the Egyptian nobilitie planted themselues in the 
region of Errif, vpon the sea shore thereof, namely about 
the cities of Alexandria, Rosetto, and other famous townes 
retayning as yet the Latine names. Also when the Roman 
Empire was translated into Greece, the said nobilitie still 
inhabited vpon the sea-shore, the Emperors lieutenant re- 
siding at Alexandria : but after the Mahumetans got the 
dominion of Egypt, the foresaide nobilitie retired them- 
selues into the inland, hoping thereby to reape a double 
commoditie : namely first in that they might be a meanes 
to pacific the kingdome on both sides of them, and 
secondly that they might be free from the inuasions of the 
Christians, whereof they should haue beene in danger, had 
they remained any longer vpon the sea coast. 

Of the qualitie and temperature of the ayre in Egypt, 

THe ayre of this countrey is hot and vnholesome : and 
it raineth here verie seldome or neuer. And raine 
is the cause of many diseases in Egypt : for in rainie 
weather some of the Egyptians are subicct vnto dangerous 
rheumes and feuers : and others vnto a strange kinde of 
swelling in their priuie members : which swelling the 
Phisicians impute vnto salt-cheese and beefe, which are the 
common diet of the Egyptians. In sommer time this 
countrey is most extremely hot, for a remedie of which 
heat they build in euerie towne certaine high towers, 
hauing one doore aloft, and another beneath, right ouer 

3 1 2 


against the houses, through the tops whereof the winde 
passing downward, doth somewhat coole and refresh the 
ayre : otherwise in regard to the intolerable heat of the 
sun it were impossible for any man to Hue there. Some- 

fmce^^^^^ time the pestilence is so hot among them, especially 
at Cairo, that almost euery day there die twelue thousand 

m^^?J^most P^^'sons thereof. But with the French poxe I thinke 

ri/e in Egypt, that no Other countrey vnder heauen is so molested, nor 
that containeth so many people infected therewith.^ About 
the beginning of Aprill they reape their corne, and hauing 
reaped it, they presently thrash the same ; neither shall 
you see one eare of their corne standing till the twentith 
of May. The inundation or overflow of Nilus beginneth 

Thf^ increase 0/ ^Qxxt the middest of lune, increasing afterward for the 
space of fortie daies, and for the space of other fortie daies 
also decreasing : during which time all the cities and 
townes of Egypt are like vnto Hands, which none can 
come vnto but by boates and barges. At this time also 
Nilus is verie fit to be sayled vpon with vessels of burthen ; 
some whereof are so big that they will containe sixe 
thousand bushels of corne, and an hundreth head-cattell : 
and in these vessels they sayle onely downe the streame : 
for against the streame it were impossible for them to passe 
emptie. The Egyptians according to the increase of Nilus 
doe foresee the plentie or dearth of the yeere following : as 
we will more at large declare, when we come to speake of 
the island of Nilus ouer against the olde citie, where the 
inundation of Nilus is measured. Neither is it our pur- 
pose in this place particularly to describe all the cities of 
Egypt, because our African writers are of diuers opinions 
thereabout ; for some would haue Egypt to be a part of 
Africa, but others are of a contrarie minde. Diuers there 
are that afiirme that part of Egypt adioyning vpon the 
deserts of Barbaric, Numidia, and Libya, to belong vnto 
Africa. Some others ascribe vnto Africa all those places 


that border vpon the principall and maine chanel of Nilus : 
but as for other places, as namely Manf, Fium, Semenud, 
Damanhore, Berelles, Tenesse, and Damiata, they thinke 
them not to be situate in Africa : which opinion I my selfe 
also vpon many and great reasons take to be true. Where- 
fore my purpose is to describe none other cities but such 
as stand neere the maine and principall chanell of Nilus. 

Of the citie of Bosiri. 

THe ancient citie of Bosiri built by the Egyptians vpon 
the Mediterran sea, and standing twenty miles west- 
ward from Alexandria, was in times past enuironed with 
most strong walles, and adorned with most beautifull and 
stately buildings. At this present it is compassed with 
many possessions or grounds bearing dates, whereof no 
man taketh charge nor reapeth any commoditie : for when 
Alexandria was woon by the Christians, the inhabitants 
abandoned this citie, and fled towards the lake called 

Of the great citie of Alexandria in Egypt. 

THe great citie of Alexandria in Egypt founded by 
Alexander the great, not without the aduise of most 
famous and skilfull architects, vpon a beautifull point of 
land stretching into the Mediterran sea, and being distant 
40. miles westward of Nilus,® was in times past, till it grew 
subiect vnto the Mahumetans, most sumptuously and 
strongly built, as diuers and sundry authors beare record. 
Afterward this citie decaying many yeeres together, was 
depriued of the ancient renowme and honour, and remained 
in manner desolate, because no merchants of Greece, nor of 
any other part of Europe exercised any longer traffique 
therein. Howbeit a certaine craftie Mahumetan patriarke 
made the rude people beleeue, that by the prophecie of 
Mahumet most ample indulgences were granted vnto all 


such as would inhabite the citie or garde it for certaine 
daies, and would bestow some almes for a publike benefite : 
by which wilie stratagem the citie was in short time filled 
with forren people, which from all places resorted there- 
unto : by whom were built many houses neere vnto the 
citie-walles, and many colleges of students, and diuers 
monasteries for the reliefe of pilgrims.^® The citie it selfe 
is fower square, and hath fower gates to enter in at : one 
standing on the east side towards Nilus,.another on the south 
side towards the lake of Buchaira,the third westward towards 
the desert of Barca, and the fourth towards the Mediterran 
sea, and the hauen ; whereat stand the searchers and 
customers, which ransacke strangers euen to their verie 
shirts : for they demaund custome not onely for wares and 
merchandize, but also some allowance in the hundred for all 
kinde of money. Neere vnto the citie-walles there are two 
other gates also, being diuided asunder by a faire walke, 
and a most impregnable castle, which standeth vpon the 
stand or wharfe of the port commonly called Mdrsa el 
Bargty that is to say, the port of the castle : in which 
port ride the principall and best ships, namely such 
as come from Venice, Genoa, Ragusa, with other ships 
Ancient tra^ of Eurooe. For hither resort the English, the low Dutch, 

fique of the En- *^ r» / 

^lishvnto the Biscaines, the Portugals, and men of all other 


nations in Europe for traffiques sake. Howbeit this 
port is most vsually frequented by the ships of Appulia, 
Sicilia, and of Greece, which are Turkish ships ; all which 
resort into this harbour to saue themselues from pirates, 
and from tempestuous weather. Another port there is also 
called Marsa Esil Sela^ that is to say, the port of the 
chaine, wherein the ships of Barbarie, namely those of 
Tunis & of the isle of Gerbi harbor themselues.^^ The 
Christians are constrained to pay about the lo. part 
for all wares that they bring in & carie out, but the 
Mahumetans pay but the 20. part : and whatsoeuer wares 


are caried by land to Cairo pay no custom at all. And at this 

present that part of the citie which is next vnto Cairo is the 

most famous and best furnished with merchandize brought 

by merchants from al places of the world. The other parts 

of this city are destitute both of ciuilitie & inhabitants : 

for except one long street, and that part of the citie next 

the hauen which is full of merchants shops, & inhabited 

by christians, the residue is void and desolate. Which 

desolation happened at that time, when Lewis the fourth 

king of France being restored to libertie by the Soldan, the 

king of Cyprus with a fleet partly of Venetians & partly of ^^^^^^ 

Frenchmen suddenly assailed Alexandria, and with great J^^^Ar^>^^ 

^ ' ^ king fo Cyprus. 

slaughter surprized and sacked the same. But the Soldan 

comming with an huge armie to rescue Alexandria; so 

discouraged the Cyprians, that they burnt downe the houses 

thereof and betooke themselues to flight ^^ Whereupon 

the Soldan repairing the walles, and building a castle 

neere vnto the hauen, the citie grew by little and little into 

that estate, wherein it standeth at this present. In the 

citie of Alexandria there is acertaine high mount fashioned 

vnto the place called Testaccio at Rome, whereon, although 

it hath no naturall situation, are found diuers earthen 

vessels of great antiquitie. Vpon the top of the said mount 

standeth a turret, where a certaine officer is appointed to 

watch for such ships as direct their course towards the 

citie, who for euery ship that he giueth notice of vnto the 

customers, receiveth a certain fee : but if he chanceth to 

fall asleep, or be out of the way at the arriuall of any ship, 

whereof he certifieth not to the customers, he paieth double 

for his negligence into the Soldans exchequer.^' Vnder 

each house of this citie there is a great vaulted cesteme The water of 

built upon mightie pillers and arches : whereinto the water ^^a^iuce^fnto 

of Nilus at euery inundation is conueied vnder the walles ^^^^^^^*^' 

of the citie, by a certaine woonderfull and most artificiall 

sluce standing without the city it selfe. But these cesternes 


growing sometime corrupt and fowle, are often in summer 
the occasion of many diseases and infirmities. This citie 
standeth in the midst of a sandie desert, and is destitute of 
gardens and vines, neither is the soil round about it apt to 
beare corne ; so that their corne is brought them from places 
fortie miles distant. Howbeit neere the foresaid sluce, 
whereby the water of Nilus is conueied into the citie, are 
certaine little gardens, the fruits whereof being growen to 
ripenes are so vnholesome, that they breed feuers and other 
noisome diseases among the citizens. Sixe miles westward 
of Alexandria, among certaine ancient buildings, standeth 
a piller^* of a woonderfull height and thicknes, which the 
Arabians call Hemadussaoar, that is to say, the piller of 
trees. Of this pillbr there is a fable reported, that Ptolemey 
one of the kings of Alexandria built it upon an extreme 
point of land stretching from the hauen, whereby to the 
end he might defend the citie from the inuasion of forren 
enemies, and make it inuincible, he placed a certaine steele- 
glasse upon the top thereof, by the hidden vertue of which 
glasse as many ships as passed by while the glasse was 
vncouered should immediately be set on fire ; but the said 
glasse being broken by the Mahumetans, the secret vertue 
thereof vanished, and the great piller whereon it stood was 
remooued out of the place. But this is a most ridiculous 
narration, and fit for babes to giue credit vnto. At this 
present there are amongst the ancient inhabitants of 
Certaine Alexandria many Christians called lacobites, being all of 

called Jacob- them artizans & merchants : these lacobites haue a church 
of their own to resort vnto, wherein the body of S. Mark 
the Euagelist lay in times past interred, which hath since 
beene priuily stolne by the Venetians, & carried vnto 
Venice. And the said lacobites pay tribute vnto the 
gouemour of Cairo.^^ Neither is it to be passed ouer in 
silence, that in the midst of the ruinous monuments of 
Alexandria there remaineth as yet a certaine little house 



built in forme of a chappell, and containing a sepulchre 
much honoured by the" Mahumetans, wherein they affirme 
out of the authoritie of their Alcaron, that the bodie of the 
high prophet and king (as they terme him) Alexander the 
great lieth buried. And thither resort yeerely great multi- 
tudes of pilgrimes fromforren nations, to adore and reuerence 
the said sepulchre, and oftentimes to bestow large almes 
thereupon.^^ Other things woorthie the noting I purposely 
passe ouer, least I should seeme too tedious vnto the 

Of tlu citie of Bochin, 

THis ancient and small citie situate in times past vpon 
the Mediterran sea shore eight miles eastward of 
Alexandria, lieth at this time vtterly desolate, nought re- 
maining thereof, but certaine mines of the walles. It is 
now planted with date-trees, wherewith the poore in- 
habitants dwelling in base and solitarie cottages sustaine 
themselues. Neere vnto this citie standeth a towre vpon a 
certaine dangerous rocke, against which many ships of 
Syria being driuen in the night, doe suffer shipwracke, 
because they cannot in the darke finde the right course to 
Alexandria. Round about this citie there are no fields but 
sandie deserts euen to the riuer of Nilus.^^ 

Of the citie of Rasid called by the Italians Rosetto. 

THe citie of Rosetto was built by a slaue of a certaine 
Mahumetan patriarke and gouemour of Egypt,^^ 
vpon the easterne banke of Nilus three miles from the 
Mediterran sea, not farre from the place where Nilus dis- 
chargeth his streames into the said sea. It containeth 
most beautifull houses and palaces built vpon the shore of 
Nilus, and a faire market-place, enuironed on all sides 
with shops of merchants and artizans, with a stately and 
sumptuous temple also, hauing some gates towards the 


market-place, and others toward Nilus, and certaine com- 
modious staires to descend into the same riuer. Neere 
vnto the temple there is a certaine harbour for the safetie 
of ships and barks of burthen that carrie wares vnto Cairo : 
for the citie being unwalled resembleth a village rather 
then a citie. About this citie stands diuers cottages, 
wherein they vse to thrash rice with certaine wooden 
instruments, & to make ready each moneth three thousand 
bushels thereof. A little farther from this citie there is a 
place like vnto a village, wherein great store of hackney- 
mules, and asses are kept for trauellers to ride vpon vnto 
Alexandria : neither neede the trauellers to guide the saide 
hackneyes, but to let them run their ordinarie course, for 
they will goe directly to the same house or inne where they 
ought to be left : and their pace is so good, that they will 
from sunne-rising to sunne-set carrie a man fortie miles : 
they trauell alwaics so neere the sea-shore, that sometimes 
the waues thereof beat vpon the hackneyes feete. Neere 
vnto this citie are many fields of dates, and grounds which 
yeeld aboundance of rice. The inhabitants are of a cheer- 
full disposition and courteous to strangers, especially to 
such as loue to spend their time in iollitie and disport. 
Here is a stately bath-stoue also, hauing fountaines both 
of cold and hot water belonging thereunto, the like whereof 
for stately and commodious building is not to be found in 
foAn Leo was Egypt besides. I my selfe was in this citie when Se/zm the 
sametinuwhen great Turkc retumed this way from Alexandna, who with 
Turke passed his priuate and familiar friends beholding the said bath- 
a way. gtoue, sccmcd to take great delight and contentment 

Of the citie called Antkius, 

THis citie was built vpon the easteme banke of Nilus 
by the Romans, as many Latin inscriptions en- 
grauen in marble, and remaining til this present do beare 


sufficient record. It is a beautifull and well-gouerned citie, 
and is furnished with men of all kinde of trades and occu- 
pations. The fields adiaccnt abound with great plentie of 
rice, corne, and dates. The inhabitants are of a cheerefull 
and gentle disposition, and gaine much by rice which they 
transport vnto Cairo.^ 

Of the citie of BamabaL 

THis citie was founded at the same time when the 
Christian religion began to take place in Egypt, 
vpon the easteme banke of Nilus, in a most pleasant ^and 
fruitfull place. Here is such abundance of rice, that in the 
citie there are more then fower hundred houses for the 
thrashing and trimming thereof. But they that impose 
this task vpon the inhabitants, are men of forren countries, 
and especially of Barbarie, which are so lasciuiously and 
riotously giuen, that almost all the harlots of Egypt resort 
hither vnto them, who shaue ©ff their haires to the very 
bones without any cizzers or rasors.*^ 

Of the citie of Thebe, 

BY whom this ancient citie of Thebe^ standing vpon 
the westeme banke of Nilus should be built, our 
African chroniclers are of sundry opinions. Some affirme 
it to be built by the Egyptians, some by the Romans, and 
others by the Grecians, because there are as yet to be 
seene most ancient monuments, partly in Latine, partly in 
Greeke, and partly in Egyptian characters. Howbeit at 
this present it containeth but three hundred families in all, 
being most of them very stately and sumptuously built.^ 
It aboundeth with corne, rice, and sugar, and with certaine 
fruits of a most excellent taste called Muse.^ It is also ThefruUs 
furnished with great store of merchants and artificers : but *' 
the most part of the inhabitants are husbandmen : and if 
a man walke the streetes in the day-time he shall see none 


but trim and beautifull women. The territorie adiacent 
aboundeth with date-trees which grow so thicke, that a 
man cannot see the citie, till he approcheth nigh vnto the 
walles. Here grow likewise store of grapes, figs, and 
peaches, which are carried in great plentie vnto Cairo. 
Without the citie there are many ancient monuments, as 
namely pillers, inscriptions, and walles of a great thicknes 
built of excellent stone, and such a number of ruinous 
places, that this citie seemeth in times past to haue beene 
very large. 


Of the citie of Fuoa, 

^His citie being distant about 45. miles southward from 
Rosetto, was built by the Egyptians on the side of 
Nilus next vnto Asia. The streetes thereof are narrow, 
being otherwise a well gouerned and populous citie, and 
abounding with all necessarie commodities. Heere are 
likewise very faire shops of merchants and artificers, 
albeit the inhabitants are much addicted vnto their 
ease and pleasure. The women of this towne Hue in 
so great libertie, that they may go whither they will 
all the day-time, returning home at night without any 
controlement of their husbands. The fieldes adiacent 
abounde greatly with dates, and neere vnto them there is a 
certaine plaine which is very apt for sugar and corne : 
howbeit the sugar canes there bring not foorth perfect 
Sugar. sugar, but in steede thereof a certaine kind of honie like 

sope, which they vse throughout all Egypt, because there 
is but little other hony in the whole countrey.^^ 

Of Gezirat Eddeheby that is to sajy, the golden Isle, 

OVer against the foresaid city the riuer of Nilus maketh 
an Isle, which being situate on an high place, 
bringeth forth all kinde of fruitefull trees except OKues, 
Vpon this Island are many palaces and beautifull buildings, 


which cannot be scene through the thicke and shadie 
woods. The soile of this Island being apt for sugar and 
rice, is manured by most of the inhabitants, but the residue 
are imploied about carrying of their merchandize vnto 

Of the citie of Medulla, 

THis citie builte by the Mahumetans in my time vpon 
the easterne shore of Nilus, and enuironed with a 
lowe wall, containeth great store of inhabitants, the most 
part of whom being either weauers or husbandmen, are 
voide of all curtesie and ciuilitie. They bring vp great 
store of geese which they sell at Cairo ; and their fields 
bring foorth plentie of corne and flaxe.^ 

Of the citie of Derotte, 

WHen Egypt was subiect to the Romaine empire, this 
towne was built also vpon the easterne banke of 
Nilus : which as it is very populous, so is it adorned with 
stately buildings and large streets, hauing merchants shops 
on either side of them. They haue a most beautifuU 
temple, and the citizens are exceeding rich : for their 
grounde yeeldeth such abundance of sugar, that they pay Great abun- 
yeerely vnto the Soldan an hundred thousande peeces of ^"^^ ^^^^' 
golde, called in their language Saraffi, for their libertie of 
making and refining thereof. In this citie standeth a 
certaine great house like vnto a castle, wherein are their 
presses and caldrons, for the boiling and preparing of their 
sugar. Neither did I euer in all my life see so many 
workemen emploied about that busines, whose daily wages 
(as I vnderstood by a certaine publike officer) amounted to 
two hundred Saraffi.^ 


Of the citie called Mechellat Chats. 

THe Mahumetans hauing conquered Egypt, built this 
citie vpon an high hill standing by the westerne 
banke of Nilus. The fields of this citie being high ground, 
are apt for to plant vines vpon, bicause the waters of Nilus 
cannot ouerflow them. This towne affoordeth new grapes 
vnto Cairo, almost for halfe the yeere long : but the 
inhabitants arc vnciuill people, being most of them water- 
men and bargemen.^ 

A description of the huge and admirable citie of Cairo, 

CAiro is commonly reputed to be one of the greatest 
and most famous cities in al the whole world. But 
leauing the common reports & opinions thereof, I will 
2^ exactly describe the forme and estate wherin it ♦now 

standeth. And that I may begin with the Etymology or 
deriuation of the name, Cairo is an Arabian word, corruptly 
pronounced by the people of Europe : for the true Arabian 
worde is El Chahira, which signifieth an enforcing or im- 
perious mistresse.^ This citie built in ancient times by one 
Gehoar Cttetib a Dalmatian slaue (as I haue before signified 
in the beginning of my discourse) containeth within the 
wals not aboue eight thousand families, being inhabited by 
noblemen, gentlemen, and merchants that sell wares 
brought from all other places.^^ The famous temple of 
Cairo commonly called Gemih Hashare, that is to say, 
the glorious temple, was built also by the foresaide slaue, 
whom we affirmed to be the founder of the citie, and whose 
surname was Hashare^ that is to say, famous, being giuen 
him by the Mahumetan patriarke that was his prince.^^ 
This city standeth vpon a most beautifull plaine, neere 
vnto a certaine mountaine called Mucatun,^ about two 
miles distant from Nilus, and is enuironed with stately 
wals, and fortified with iron gates : the principall of which 


gates is called Babe Nanfre,^ that is, the gate of victory, 
which standeth eastward towards the desert of the red sea ; 
and the gate called Beb Zuaila^ being next vnto the old 
citie and to Nilus ; and also Bebel Futuh,^ that is to say, 
the gate of triumph, standing towards the lake and the 
fieldes. And albeit Cairo aboundeth cuerie where with all 
kinde of merchants and artificers, yet that is the principall 
streete of the whole citie which stretcheth from the gate of 
Nanfre to the gate of Zuaila ; for in it are builte most 
stately and admirable palaces and colleges, and most 
sumptuous temples, among which is the temple of Gemith 
Elhechim^ the third schismaticall Califa of Cairo. Other 
temples there are of a maruellous bignes, which to describe 
in particular, I thinke it superfluous. Heere are many bath- 
stoues also very artificially built. Next of all is the streete 
called Beinel Casrain,^ containing to the number of three- 
score cooks or victualers shops, furnished with vessels of 
tinne : there are certaine other shops also, wherein are to 
be solde delicate waters or drinkes made of all kinds oi Delicate drinks 
fruits, being for noblemen to drinke of, and these waters ^i^a of fruits. 
they keepe most charily in fine vessels, partly of glasse, 
and partly of tinne : next vnto these are shops where 
diuers confections of hony and sugar, vnlike vnto the 
confections of Europe, are to be sold : then follow the 
fruiterers shops, who bring outlandish fruits out of Syria, 
to wit, quinces, pomegranates, and other fruits which grow 
not in Egypt : next vnto them are the shops of such as sell 
egges, cheese, and pancakes fried with oile. And next of 
all there is a streete of the principall artificers shops. 
Beyond which streete standeth a college built by the Soldan soidan 
called Gliauriy who was slaine in a battaile against Selim ^^''"'^• 
the great Turke.^ And next vnto the college are diuers 
rankes of drapers shops. In the first ranke there is most 
outlandish linnen cloth to be sold, as namely fine cloth of 
cotton brought from Balabach,^ and cloth called Mosall 


brought from Ninou*^ of a maruellous bredth and finenesse, 
whereof noblemen and others of account haue shirts made 
them, and scarfTes to weare vpon their Duh'pans. Besides 
these there are certaine mercers shops where the rich 
stuffes of Italy, namely silke, damaske, veluet, cloth of 
golde,*^ and such like are to be bought, vnto which stuflFes 
I neuer sawe anie comparable (to my remembrace) in 
Italy, where they vse to be made. Next vnto the mercers 
are the woollen drapers which bring cloth out of Europe, 
as namely from Florence, Venice, Flanders, and other 
places. Next of all there are chamblets to be sold : and 
from thence the way lieth to the gate of Zuaila, at which 
gate dwell great store of artificers. Neere vnto the saide 
way standeth the famous Burse called Canel Halili,** 
wherin the Persian merchants dwell. It is built very 
stately in maner of a kings palace, and is of three stories 
high : beneath it are certaine conuenient roomes whither 
merchants for the exchange of rich and costly wares do 
resort : for heere do the principall and most wealthie 
merchants abide ; whose wares are spices, precious stones, 
cloth of India, and such like. Next vnto the Burse 
standeth a streete of shops where all kinde of perfumes, 
namely ciuet, muske, amber, and such like are to be solde :^ 
which commodities are heere in so great plentie, that if 
you aske for twentie pounds of muske they will presently 
shewe you an hundred. Next followeth the streete of the 
paper merchants where you may buie most excellent and 
smooth paper : heere also are to be sold iewels and 
precious stones of great value, which the brokers carrie 
from one shop to another. Then come you to the gold- 
smiths streete being inhabited for the most part by lewes, 
who deale for riches of great importance.^ And next vnto 
the goldsmiths are certaine streets of vpholsfers or brokers, 
who sell the apparell and rich furniture of noblemen and 
other citizens at the second hande ; which are not cloakes, 


coates, napeiy, or such like, but things of exceeding price 

and value : amongst which I my selfe once sawe a beautifuU 

pauilion embrodered with needle-worke, and beset with 

pearles that weighed fortie pounds, which pearles being 

taken out of it were solde for ten thousand Saraffi. In 

this citie also there is a most stately hospitall built by A stately hospi- 

Piperis the first Soldan of the Mamalucks race*^: the 

yearly reuenues whereof amount vnto two hundred thousand 

Saraffi. Hither may any impotent or diseased persons 

resort, and be well prouided of phisitions, and of all things 

necessarie for those that are sicke, who if they chance to 

die heere, all their goods are due vnto the hospitall. 

Of the suburb called Beb Zuaila. 

THis great suburbe belonging vnto Cairo, and containing 
about twelue thousand families, beginneth at the gate 
of Zuaila, and extendeth westward almost a mile & a halfe ; 
southward it bordereth vpon the palace of the Soldan, and 
stretcheth northward for the space of a mile vnto the 
suburbe called Beb Elloch. Heere dwell as many noble 
men and gentlemen almost, as within the city it selfe ; and 
the citizens haue shops both heere and in the citie, as 
likewise many inhabitants of this suburbe maintaine families 
in the citie also. Amongst all the buildings of this suburbe 
the principall is that stately college built by Soldan Hesen}^ 
being of such a woonderfull height and great strength, that 
oftentimes the colleges haue presumed to rebell against 
the Soldan, and therein to fortifie themselues against the 
whole citie, and to discharge ordinance against the Soldans 
castle which is but halfe a crosse-bowe shot distant. 

Of the suburbe called Gemeh Tailon, 

THis huge suburbe confining eastwarde vpon the fore- 
said suburbe of Beb Zuaila extendeth westward to 
certaine ruinous places neere vnto the olde citie. . Before 



the foundation of Cairo this suburbe was erected by one 
Tailoity who was subiect vnto the Califa of Bagdet, and 
gouernour of Egypt, and was a most famous and prudent 
man/^ This TaUon leauing the old citie, inhabited this 
suburbe, and adorned the same with a most admirable 
palace, and sumptuous temple. Heere dwell also great 
store of merchants, and artificers, especially such as are 
Moores of Barbarie. 

Of the suburbe called Beb Elloch}^ 

THis large suburbe being distant from the wals of Cairo 
about the space of a mile, and containing almost 
three thousand families, is inhabited by merchants, and 
artizans of diuers sorts as well as the former. Vpon a 
certaine large place of this suburbe standeth a great palace 
and a stately college built by a certaine Mammaluck called 
lazbachy counseller vnto the Soldan of those times ; and 
the place it selfe is called after his name lazbachia.*® 
Hither after Mahumetan sermons and deuotions, the com- 
mon people of Cairo, togither with the baudes and harlots, 
do vsually resort ; and many stage plaiers also, and such as 
teach camels, asses, and dogs, to daunce : which dauncing 
is a thing very delightfuU to behold, and especially that of 
the asse : who hauing frisked and daunced a while, his 
master comes vnto him and tels him with a loude voice, 
that the Soldan being about to builde some great palace, 
must vse all the asses of Cairo to carrie morter, stones, and 
These asses are Other ncccssaric prouision. Then the asse falling presently 
to Banks his to the grouud, and lying with his heeles vpward, maketh 
pia^ his prizes^^^ belly to swell, and closeth his eies as if he were starke 
ouer"^^^'*^ dead. In the meane while his master lamenting the mis- 
fortune of the asse vnto the standers by, earnestly craueth 
their friendly assistance and liberalitie to buie him a newe 
asse. And hauing gathered of each one as much money 
as he can get ; you are much deceiued my masters (quoth 


he) that thinke mine asse to be dead : for the hungrie iade 
knowing his masters necessity hath wrought this sleight, 
to the end he might get some money to buie him pro- 
uender. Then turning about to the asse, he commandeth 
him with all speede to arise: but the asse lyeth starke 
still, though he command and beate him neuer so much : 
whereupon turning againe to the people, Be it knowen 
(quoth he) vnto you all, that the Soldan hath published an 
edict or proclamation, that to morrow next all the people 
shall go foorth of the citie to beholde a triumph ; and that 
all the honourable and beautifull ladies and gentlewomen 
shall ride vpon the most comely asses, and shall giue them 
otes to eate, and the christall water of Nilus to drinke. 
Which words being scarce ended, the asse suddenly 
starteth from the ground, prancing & leaping for ioy : then 
his master prosecuting still his narration ; but (saith he) 
the warden of our streete hath borrowed this goodly asse 
of mine for his deformed and olde wife to ride vpon. At 
these wordes the asse, as though hee were indued with 
humainc reason, coucheth his eares, and limpeth with one 
of his legges, as if it were quite out of ioint. Then saith 
his master ; What, sir lade, are you so in loue with faire 
women ? The asse nodding his head seemeth to say, yea. 
Come on therefore sirra (quoth his master) and let us see 
among all these prettie damosels, which pleaseth your 
fancie best. Whereupon the asse going about the com- 
panie, and espying some woman more comely and beautiful 
then the fest, walketh directly vnto her and toucheth her 
with his head : and then the beholders laugh and crie out 
amaine : Lo, the asses paramour, the paramour of the 
asse. Whereupon the fellow that shewed all this sport 
leaping vpon the backe of his asse rideth to some other 
place.^ There is also another kinde of charmers or Soothsaying 
iuglers, which keepe certaine little birds in cages made 
after the fashion of cupboords, which birds will reach vnto 



any man with their beaks certaine skroules contayning 
either his good or euill successe in time to come. And 
whosoeuer desireth to know his fortune must giue the bird 
an halfepenie : which shee taking in her bill carrieth into 
a little boxe, and then comming foorth againe bringeth the 
said skroule in her beake. I my selfe had once a skroule 
of ill fortune giuen me, which although I little regarded, 
yet had I most vnfortunate successe then was contained 
therein. Also there are masters of defence playing 
at all kinde of weapons, and others that sing songs of 
the battels fought betweene the Arabians and Egyptians, 
whenas the Arabians conquered Egypt, with diuers others 
that sing such toyes and ballads vnto the people." 

0/ the suburb called Bulack 

THis large and ancient suburb of Cairo standing two 
miles distant from the walles of the citie vpon the 
banke of Nilus, containeth fower thousand families. Vpon 
the way lying betweene the suburb and this citie, stand 
diuers houses, and mils turned about by the strength of 
beasts. In this suburb dwell many artificers and mer- 
chants, especially such as sell corne, oyle, and sugar. 
Moreouer it is full of stately temples, palaces, and 
colledges : but the fairest buildings thereof stand along the 
riuer Nilus, for from thence there is a most beautiful! 
prospect vpon the riuer, and thither do the vessels and 
barkes of Nilus resort vnto the common stathe of Cairo 
being situate in this suburb : at which place you shall see 
at some times, and especially in the time of haruest, aboue 
1000. barkes. And here the officers appointed to receiue 
custome for wares brought from Alexandria and Damiata 
haue their aboad : albeit but little tribute be demaunded for 
the said wares, because it was payd before at the port of 
their arriuall : but those wares that come out of the firme 
land of Egypt allow entire custome.^* 


Of the suburb called Charafa. 

THE suburbe of Carafa built in manner of a towne,and 
standing from mount Muccatim a stones cast, and 
from the walles of the citie about two miles, containeth 
almost two thousand housholds. But at this day the 
greatest part thereof lyeth waste and destroyed. Here are 
many sepulchres built with high and stately vaults and 
arches, and adorned on the inner side with diuers emblemes 
and colours, which the fond people adore as the sacred 
shrines, & monuments of saints, spreading the pauement 
with sumptuous and rich carpets. Hither euerie friday 
morning resort out of the citie it selfe and the suburbs, 
great multitudes of people for deuotions sake, who bestow 
liberall and larjge almes.^ 

Of the old citie called Mifrulhetich. 

THis citie being the first that was built in Egypt in the 
time of the Mahumetans, was founded by Hamre 
captaine generall ouer the forces of Homar the second 
Muahmetan patriarke vpon the banke of Nilus, resembling 
a suburb because it is vnwalled, and containing to the 
number of fiue thousand families.*^ It is adorned^ 
especially by the riuer Nilus, with diuers palaces and 
houses of noblemen, and also with the famous temple of 
Hatnre^ being of an huge bignes, and most stately built. 
It is also indifferently well prouided of tradesmen and 
artificers. And here standeth the famous sepulchre 
of a woman reputed most holy by the Mahumetans, 
and called by them Saint Nafissa^ which was the Saint Najissar, 
daughter of one called Zenulhebidin being the sonne 
of Huseiity the son of Heliy who was cousin-german vnto 
Mahumet, The said Nafissa seeing all of her family 
to be depriued of the Mahumetan patriarkship, left Cufa a 
citie of Arabia Felix ^ and came and dwelt in this citie ; 


partly because she was of the linage of Mahumet, and 
partly for that she liued an innocent and blamelesse life, 
the people after her death ascribed diuine honours, 
canonizing her for a Saint. Wherefore the schismaticall 
patriarks of her kinred hauing got the vpper hand in 
Egypt, began to build for Nafissa most beautifull shrine or 
sepulchre, which they adorned also with siluer-lamps, 
with carpets of silke, and such like precious ornaments. 
So great is the renowne of this Nafissa^ that there commeth 
no Mahumetan either by sea or land vnto Cairo, but hee 
adoreth this sepulchre, and bringeth his offering thereunto, 
as likewise doe all the Mahumetans inhabitating there- 
about: insomuch that the yeerely oblations and almes 
offered at this sepulchre, partly for the reliefe of the poore 
kinsfolkes of Mahumet, and partly for the maintenance of 
the priests which keep the saide sepulchre, amount vnto 
looooo. Saraffi: which priests by fained and counterfeit 
miracles do dayly delude the mindes of the simple, to the 
ende they may the more inflame thir blinde deuotion, and 
may stirre them to greater liberalitie. When Selim the great 
Turke woone the citie of Cairo, his lanizaries rifling this 
sepulchre, found there the summe of 500000. Saraffi in 
readie money, besides the silver-lampes, the chaines, and 
carpets : but Selim tooke away a great part of that treasure 
from them. Such as write the lines of the Mahumetan 
saints, making very honourable mention of this Nafissa^s^.y 
that she was descended of the noble family of Heli^ and 
that she was most famous for her vertuous and chast life : 
but the fonde people and the priest of that excecrable 
sepulchre haue deuised many fained and superstitious 
miracles.^ In this suburbe also neere vnto the riuer of 
Nilus is the customers office for such wares as are brought 
out of the Prouince of Sahid. Without the walled citie 
stand the magnificent and stately sepulchres of theSoldans, 
built with admirable and huge arches.^ But in my time 



a certaine Soldan caused a walke to be built between two 

high wals from the gate of the citie to the place of the 

aforesaid sepulchres, and at the endes of both wals caused 

two turrets of an exceeding height to be erected for marks 

and directions vnto such merchants as came thither from 

the port of mount Sinai.^ About a mile and an halfe from 

the saide sepulchres in a certaine place called Amalthria 

there is a garden containing the onely balme-tree, (for in The place 

whole world besides there is not any other tree that beareth growetk. 

true balme) which balme-tree growing in the midst of a 

large fountaine, and hauing a short stocke or bodie, beareth 

leaues like vnto vine-leaues, but that they are not so long ; 

and this tree (they say) would vtterly wither and decay, if 

the water of the fountaine should chance to be deminished. 

The garden is enuironed with a strong wall, whereinto no 

man may enter without the speciall fauour and licence 

of the gouemor.^® In the midst of Nilus, ouer against the 

old citie, standeth the isle called Michias,®^ that is to say. 

The isle of measure, in which isle (according to the 

inundation of Nilus) they haue a kinde of deuise inuented 

by the ancient Egyptians, whereby they most certainely 

foresee the plentie or scarcitie of the yeere following 

throughout all the land of Egypt This island is well 

inhabited and containeth about 1 500. families ; vpon the 

extreme point or ende whereof standeth a most beautifull 

palace built in my remembrance by a Soldan, and a large 

temple also, which is verie pleasant in regard of the coole 

streames of Nilus. Vpon another side of the Island 

standeth an house alone by it selfe, in the midst whereof The manner of 

there is a fouresquare cestern or chanell of eighteene cubits ^^ea^"ff 

deepe, whereinto the water of Nilus is conueied by a'^'^*'^* 

certaine sluce vnder the ground. And in the midst of the 

cestern there is erected a certaine piller, which is marked Thispiiieris 

,,..,,. , . , ' tr called by Plinie 

,and dmided mto so many cubits as the cesteme it selfe mioscopium, 
containeth in depth. And vpon the seuenteenth of June when 


Nilus beginneth to overflow, the water thereof conueied by 
the said sluce into the chanell, increaseth daily, sometimes 
two, and sometimes three fingers, and sometimes halfe a 
cubite in height Vnto this place there dayly resort 
certaine officers appointed by the Senate, who viewing and 
obseruing the increase of Nilus, declare vnto certaine 
children how much it hath increased, which children 
wearing yellow skarffes vpon their heads, doe publish the 
saide increase of Nilus in euerie streete of the citie and the 
suburbs, and receiue gifts euerie day of the merchants, 
artificers, and women so long as Nilus increaseth. The 
foresaid deuise or experiment of the increase of Nilus is 
this that followeth. If the water reacheth onely to the 
fifteeneth cubit of the foresaide piller, they hope for a 
fruitfull yeere following : but if it stayeth betweene the 
twelfth cubit and the fifteenth, then the increase of the 
yeere will proue but meane : if it resteth betweene the 
tenth and twelfth cubits, then it is a signe that come will bee 
solde tenne ducates the biishell. But if it ariseth to the 
eighteenth cubite, there is a like to follow great scarcitie in 
regarde of too much moisture : and if the eighteenth cubite 
be surmounted, all Egypt is in danger to be swallowed up 
by the inundation of Nilus. The officers therefore declare 
unto the children the height of the riuer, and the 
children publish the same in all streetes of the citie, 
charging the people to feare God, and telling them how 
high Nilus is increased. And the people being astonied 
at the woonderfull increase of Nilus, wholy exercise them- 
selues in praiers, and giuing of almes. And thus Nilus 
continueth fortie daies increasing and fortie daies 
decreasing ; all which time come is sold very deere, 
because while the inundation lasteth, euery man may sell 
at his owne pleasure : but when the eightith day is once 
past, the clerke of the market appointeth the price of all 
victuals, and especially of come, according as he knoweth 


by the foresaid experiment, that the high and lowe grounds 
of Egypt haue receiued either too little, or too much, or 
conuienient moisture : all which customes and ceremonies 
being duely performed, there followeth so great a solem- 
nitie, and such a thundering noise of drums and trumpets 
throughout all Cairo, that a man would suppose the whole 
citie to be turned vpside downe. And then euery familie 
hath a barge adorned with rich couerings and carpets, and 
with torch-light, and furnished with most daintie meates 
and confections, wherewith they solace themselves. The 
Soldan also with all his nobles and courtiers resorteth 
vnto that sluce or conduct, which is called the great 
conduct, and is compassed round about with a wall, 
who taking an axe in his hand breaketh the said wall, 
and so doe his nobles and courtiers likewise: inso- 
much that the same part of the wall being cast downe 
which stopped the passage of the water, the riuer of 
Nilus is so swiftly and forcibly carried through that con- 
duct and through all other conducts and sluces in the city 
and the suburbes, that Cairo at that time seemeth to be 
another Venice ; and then may you rowe ouer all places 
of the land of Egypt. Seuen daies and seuen nights 
together the foresaide festiuall solemnitie continueth in 
Cairo ; during which space the merchants and artificers of 
the citie may (according to the custome of the ancient 
Egyptians) consume & spend in torches, perfumes, con- 
fections, musique, & such like iollities, al their gaines that 
they, haue gotten the whole yeere past. Without the citie 
of Cairo, neere vnto the suburbe of Ben Zuaila^ standeth 
the castle of the Soldan vpon the side of the mountaine 
called Mochattan. This castle is enuironed with high and 
impregnable walles, and containeth such stately and beau- 
tifull palaces, that they can hardly be described. Paued 
they are with excellent marble, and on the roofes they are 
gilt and curiously painted, their windowes are adorned with 


diuers colours, like to the windowes of some places of 
Europe ; and their gates be artificially carued and beauti- 
fied with gold and azure. Some of these palaces are for 
the Soldan and his familie : others for the familie of his 
wife, and the residue for his concubines, his eunuches, and 
his garde. Likewise the Soldan had one palace to keepe 
publique feastes in ; and another wherein to giue audience 
vnto forren ambassadours, and to exalt himselfe with great 
pompe and ceremonies : and another also for the gouer- 
nours and officials of his court. But all these are at this 
present abolished by Selim the great Turke.^ 

Of the aistomeSy rites ^ and fashions of the citizens of 

THe inhabitants of Cairo are people of a merrie, 
iocund, and cheerefull disposition, siich as will pro- 
mise much, but performe little. They exercise merchan- 
dize and mechanicall artes, and yet trauell they not out 
of their owne natiue soile. Many students there are of 
the lawes, but very few of other liberall artes and sciences. 
And albeit their colleges are continually full of students, 
yet few of them attaine vnto perfection. The citizens in 
winter are clad in garments of cloth lined with cotton : 
in summer they weare fine shirts : ouer which shirts some 
put on linnen garments curiously wrought with silke, and 
others weare garments of chamblet, and vpon their heads 
they carrie great turbants couered with cloth of India. 
TheatHrtof The women goe costly attired, adorning their foreheads 

ihevoomen of 

Cairo, and necks with frontlets and chaines of pearle, and on 

their heads they weare a sharpe and slender bonet of a 
span high, being very pretious and rich. Gownes they 
weare of woollen cloth with streite sleeues, being curiously 
embrodered with needle-worke, ouer which they cast cer- 
taine veiles of most excellent fine cloth of India. They 
couer their heads and faces with a kinde of blacke scarfe, 




through which beholding others they cannot be scene 
themselues. Vpon their feet they weare fine shooes and 
pantofles, somewhat after the Turkish fashion. These 
women are so ambitious & proud, that all of them dis- 
daine either to spin or to play the cookes : wherefore their 
husbands are constrained to buie victuals ready drest at 
the cookes shops : for very few, except such as haue a 
great familie, vse to prepare and dresse their victuals in 
their owne houses. Also they vouchsafe great libertie vnto The HherHe of 

, the women of 

their wiues : for the good man bemg gone to the tauerne Cairo, 

or victualling-house, his wife tricking vp her selfe in costly 

apparell, and being perfumed with sweet and pretious 

odours, walketh about the citie to solace her selfe, and 

parley with her kinsfolk and friendes. They vse to ride 

vpon asses more then horses, which are broken to such a 

gentle pace, that they goe easier than any ambling horse. 

These asses they couer with most costly furniture, and let 

them out vnto women to ride vpon, together with a boy 

to lead the asse, and certaine footmen to run by. In this 

citie, like as in diuers others, great store of people carrie 

about sundrie kindes of victuals to be solde. Many there 

are also that sell water, which they carrie vp and downe in 

certaine leather bags vpon the backs of camels : for the 

citie (as I said before) is two miles distant from Nilus. 

Others carrie about a more fine and handsome vessell with 

a cocke or spout of brasse upon it, hauing a cup of Myrrhe 

or christall in their hands, and these sell water for men to 

drinke, and for euery draught they take a farthing. Others 

sell yoong chickens and other fowles by measure, which Birds hauked 

^ r> J y ^j-f^f, ^ strange 

they hatch after a woonderfull and strange manner.^ manner in 
They put great numbers of egges into certaine ouens 
built upon sundrie loftes, which ouens being moderately 
het, will within seuen dales conuert all the said egges into 
chickens. Their measures are bottomlesse, which being 
put into the basket of the buier, and filled full of chickens, 


they lift it vp, and so let the chickens fall into the 
basket®* Likewise such as buie those chickens hauing 
kept them a few daies, carry them about to sell againe. 
The cookes shops stand open very late : but the 
shops of other artificers shut up before ten of the 
clocke, who then walke abroad for their solace and recrea- 
tion from one suburbe to another. The citizens in their 
common talke vse ribald and filthie speeches : and (that I 
may passe ouer the rest in silence) it falleth out oftentimes 
that the wife will complaine of her husband vnto the iudge, 
that he doth not his dutie nor contenteth her sufficiently 
in the night season, whereupon (as it is permitted by the 
Mahumetan law) the women are diuorced and married vnto 
other husbands. Among the artizans whosoeuer is the 
MWMtTin'^^ first inuentour of any new and ingenious deuise is clad in a 
geniousdeuises, garment of cloth of gold, and carried with a noise of 
musitians after him, as it were in triumph from shop to 
shop, hauing some money giuen him at euery place. I my 
selfe once saw one carried about with solemne musicke 
and with great pompe and triumph, because he had bound 
a flea in a chaine, which lay before him on a peece of 
paper for all men to behold. And if any of them chance 
to fall out in the streetes, they presently goe to buffets, and 
then a great number of people come flocking about them 
to see the conflict, and will not depart thence, till they 
haue reconciled them. Their most usual foode is buffles 
flesh and great store of pulse : when they goe to dinner 
or supper, if their familie be little, they lay a short and 
rounde table-cloth : but if their houshold be great, they 
spread a large cloth, such as is used in the halles of princes. 
Amongst the sundrie sectes of religion in this citie, there is 
"" one sect of the Moores called Chenesia®*: and this sect 

liueth vpon horse-flesh, so that their butchers when they 
can heare of any halting or lame iade, buy him foorthwith, 
and set him vp a fatting, and hauing killed him, the said 


sect of Chenesia come and buy vp his flesh handsmoothe. 

This sect is rife also among the Turkes, the Mamaluks,and 

the people of Asia ; and albeit the Turkes might freely vse 

the foode before-mentioned, yet doe they not inure them- 

selues thereunto. In Egypt and in the citie of Cairo there 

are permitted fower seuerall sectes, differing each ^^^^f^^/^^^^ 

other both in canon and ciuill lawes : all which sects haue Mahumetan 

religion per- 

their originall from the religion of Mahunut For there mittedin the 

** ^ citie of Cairo, 

were in times past fower men of singular learning, who by 
subtiltie and sharpnesse of wit, founde out a way to make 
particular deductions out of Mahumets generall preceptes. 
So that each of them would interpret the opinions of 
Mahumet according to their owne fancie, and would euery 
man apply them to his owne proper sense ; and therefore 
they must needes disagree much betweene themselues : 
howbeit growing famous among the common people in 
regard to their diuers canons & precepts, they were the 
first authors and founders of the saide fower sects : any 
one of which whatsoeuer Mahumetan professeth, cannot 
renounce the same at his pleasure and embrace another 
sect, vnless he be a man of deepe learning, and knoweth 
the reasons and allegations of both parts. Also there are 
in the citie of Cairo fower principall iudges, who giue 
sentence onely vpon matters of great importance : vnder 
which fower are substituted other inferiour iudges, in 
euerie streete of the citie, which decide petie contentions and 
brabbles. And if the parties which are at controuersie 
chance to bee of diuers sects, the plaintife may summon 
and conuent the defendant before the iudge of his streete : 
howbeit the defendant may, if he will, appeale from him 
vnto the highest iudge of all, being placed ouer the fower 
principall iudges aforesaid, and being gouemour of the 
sect called Essasichia^ ; and this high iudge hath authority 
to dispense withal or to disanul the decrees of the fower 
principal, and of all the other inferiour iudges, according 


as he shall see cause. Whosoeuer attempteth ought 
against the canons and precepts of his owne religion, is 
seuerely punished by the iudge of the same religion. 
Moreouer, albeit the priests of the foresaid sects differ very 
much, both in their formes of Liturgie or praier, and also 
in many other respects, yet do they not for that diuersitie 
of ceremonies hate one another, neither yet do the com- 
mon people of sundrie sects fal to mutinie & debate : but 
men indeed of singular learning & much reading confer 
oftentimes togither, & as in priuate each man affirmeth 
his owne sect to be the best, so likewise do they confirm 
their opinions by subtile arguments, neither may any man 
vnder paine of greeuous punishment reproch any of the 
saide fower ancient doctors. And in verie deed they all of 
them follow one and the same religion, to wit, that which 
is prescribed in the canons of Hashari the principall 
doctor of the Mahumetans, which canons go for currant 
ouer all Africa, and most part of Asia, except in the 
dominions of the great Sophi of Persia^ ; who bicause he 
reiecteth the saide canons, is accounted by other Ma- 
humetans an heretike, and a schismatike. But how such 
varietie of opinions proceeded from the ibwre doctors 
aforesaid, it were tedious and troublesome to rehearse : he 
that is desirous to knowe more of this matter, let him read 
my Commentaries which I haue written concerning the 
lawe and religion of Mahumet according to the doctrine of 
Malich^ who was a man of profound learning, and was 
borne at Medina Talnabi, where the body of Mahumet 
lieth buried : which doctrine of Malich is embraced 
throughout all Syria, Egypt, and Arabia : wherewith if 
any man be delighted, let him peruse my foresaide Com- 
mentaries, and they will satisfie him to the full. Vpon 
malefactors they inflict most greeuous and horrible punish- 
ment, especially vpon such as haue committed any heinous 
crime in the court. Theeues they condemne to the halter. 


A murther committed trecherously they punish in manner 
following : the executioners assistants take the malefactor 
one by the head, and another by the feete, and then comes 
the chiefe executioner with a two-hand sword, and 
cutteth his body in twaine, the one part whereof adioining 
to the head is put into a fire full of vnslaked lime : and it 
is a most strange and dreadfull thing to consider, ho we f^^^^T^^^^^ 
the same dismembred and halfe body will remaine aliue in ^<^' 
the fire for the space of a quarter of an hower, speaking 
and making answer vnto the standers by. But rebels or 
seditious persons they flea aliue, stuffing their skins with 
bran till they resemble mans shape, which being done, 
they Carrie the saide stuffed skins vpon camels backs 
through euery streete of the citie, and there publish 
the crime of the partie executed : then which punish- 
ment I neuer sawe a more dreadfull, by reason that 
the condemned partie liueth so long in torment : but if 
the tormenter once toucheth his nauel with the knife, he Th^ nauei 
presently yeeldeth vp the ghost : which he may not do pr^Ji death, 
vntill he be commanded by the magistrate standing by.®® 
If any be imprisoned for debt, not hauing wherewithall to 
satisfie the same, the gouernour of the prison paieth their 
creditors, and sendeth them, poore wretches, bound in 
chaines, & accompanied with certaine keepers, daily to 
begge almes from streete to streete, all which almes 
redoundeth to the gouernor, and he alloweth the saide 
prisoners very bare maintenance to Hue upon. Moreouer 
there go crying vp and downe this citie certaine aged 
women, who (though that which they say in the streetes 
cannot be understood) are notwithstanding inioined by their 
office to circumcise women according to the prescript of Women dr- 
Mahumet : which ceremonie is obserued in Egypt and *^'"^'^ * 



lohn Leo was 
thrise in 

The Mama- 

Of the manner of creating the Soldan, and of the orders y 
degrees y and offices in his court, 

THe dignitie and power of the Soldan was in times past 
exceeding great ; but Selim the great Turke in the 
yeere of Christ (if I be notdeceiued) 15 17. vtterly abolished 
the saide dignitie, and changed all the customes and lawes 
of the Soldan. And bicause it hath beene my hap thrise 
to trauell into Egypt since the saide woonderfull alteration 
befell, I suppose it will not be much beside my purpose, if 
I set downe in this place such particulars as I know to be 
most certaine true concerning the court of- the Soldan. 
Vnto this high dignitie was woont to be chosen some one 
of the most noble Mamaluks. These Mamaluks being all 
Christians at the first, and stolne in their childhoode by the 
Tartars out of the prouince of Circassian** which bordereth 
vpon the Euxin sea, and being solde at CafTa a towne of 
Taurica Chersonesus, were brought from thence by certaine 
merchants vnto the citie of Cairo, and were there bought 
by the Soldan ; who constraining them foorthwith to abiure 
and renounce their baptisme, caused them to be instructed 
in the Arabian and Turkish languages, and to be trained 
vp in militarie discipline, to the end they might ascend from 
one degree of honour to another, till at last they were 
aduanced vnto the high dignitie of the Soldan. But this 
custome whereby it was enacted, that the Soldan should be • 
chosen out of the number of such as were Mamaluks and 
slaues by their condition, began about 250. yeeres sithens, 
whenas the family of the valiant Saladin (whose name was 
so terrible vnto Christians) being supported but by a fewe 
of the kinred, fell to vtter decay and ruine.^^ At the same 
time when the last king of lerusalem was determined to 
sacke the citie of Cairo, which also in regard of 
the sloth and cowardize of the Mahumeran CViAJ/a: then 
raigning ouer it, intended to make it selfe tributarj^ vnto 


the same king, the ludges and lawyers of the citie with the 
consent of the Califay sent for a certaine prince of Asia 
called Azedudin, of the nation of Curdu, (the people where- 
of Hue in tents like the Arabians) which Azedudin togither 
with his Sonne Saladttiy came with an armie of fiftie 
thousand horsemen. And albeit Saladin was inferiour in 
age vnto his father, yet in regard of his redoubted valour, 
and singular knowledge in militarie affaires, they created 
him generall of the field, and gaue him free libertie to 
bestow all the tributes and reuenues of Egypt, as himselfe 
shoulde thinke expedient. And so marching at length 
against the ' Christians, he got the victorie of them without 
any bloudshed, and draue them out of lerusalem and out 
of all Syria. Then Saladin returning backe with triumph 
vnto Cairo, had an intent to vsurpe the gouernment 
thereof: whereupon hauing slaine the Califa his g^ard 
(who bare principall swaie ouer the Egyptians) he procured 
the death also of the Califa himselfe, being thus bereft of 
his guard, with a poisoned cup, and then foorthwith 
submitted himselfe vnto the patronage of the Califa of 
Bagdet, who was the true & lawful Mahumetan prelate of 
Cairo. Thus the iurisdiction of the Califas of Cairo (who 
had continued lords of that citie by perpetuall succession 
for the space of two hundred and thirty yeeres) surceased, 
and returned againe vnto the Califa of Bagdet, who 
was the true & lawfull gouernour thereof. And so the 
schismaticall Califas and patriarks being suppressed, there 
grew a contention between Saladin and the Soldan of 
Bagdet, & Saladin made himselfe a soueraigne of Cairo, 
bicause the saide Soldan of Bagdet being in times past 
prince of the prouinces of Mazandran and Euarizin situate 
vpon the riuer Ganges, and being borne in a certaine 
countrcy of Asia, laide claime notwithstanding, vnto the 
dominion of Cairo, and intending to wage warre against 
Saladin^ he was restrained by the Tartars of Corasan, who 



made inuasions and inrodes vpon him. Saladin on the 
other side fearing least the Christians in reuenge of the 
foresaid iniury would make an expedition into Syria, and 
considering that his forces were partly slain in the former 
warres, and partly consumed by pestilence, except a few 
which remained for the defence and safeguard of his 
kingdome, began to employ himselfe about buying of 
TheoHginaii slaues that came from Circassia, whom the king of Armenia 

of the Mama- , , , 

luks, by those daies tooke and sent vnto Cairo to be sold : which 

slaues he caused to abiure the Christian faith and to be 
trained vp in feats of warre and in the Turkish language, 
as being the proper language of Saladin himselfe : and so 
the saide slaues within a while increased so exceedingly 
both in valour and number, that they became not onely 
valiant souldiers and skilfuU commaunders, but also 
gouernours of the whole kingdome. After the decease of 
Saladin^ the dominion remained vnto his family 1 50. yeeres, 
and all his successours obserued the custome of buying 
slaues of Circassia : but the family of Saladin growing at 
length to decay, the slaues by a generall consent elected 
one Piperis a valiant Mamaluk of their owne companie to 
be their soueraigne Lord and Soldan : which custome 
they afterward so inuiolably kept, that not the Soldans 
owne Sonne nor any other Mamaluk could attaine vnto that 
high dignitie, vnless first he had beene a Christian, and had 
abiured his faith, and had learned also exactly to speake 
the Circassian and Turkish languages. Insomuch that 
many Soldans sent their sonnes in their childhood into 
Circassia, that by learning the language and fashions of 
the countrey they might prooue in processe of time fit to 
beare soueraigne authoritie ; but by the dissension of the 
Mamalukes they were alwaies defeated of their purpose. 
And thus much briefly concerning the gouernment of the 
Mamalukes, and of their Princes, called euen till this 
present by a word of their owne mother-toong by the 


names of Soldans : let vs now speake of the honourable 
degrees and dignities inferiour to the Soldanship. 

Of the principall Peere next vfider the Soldan called 

THis man being in dignitie second vnto the Soldan^ 
and beeing, as it were, his viceroy or lieutenant, had 
authoritie to place or displace any magistrates or officers ; 
and maintained a family almost as great as the family of 
the Soldan himselfeJ^ 

Of the Soldans officer called Amir Cabir. 

THis man hauing the third place of honour was Lord 
generall ouer the Soldans militari forces ; who was 
by office bound to leauie armies against the forraine 
enemie, especially against the next Arabians, and to fur- 
nish the castles & cities with conuenient garisons ; and 
also had authority to dispend the Soldans treasure vpon 
such necessarie affaires as hee thought goodJ* 

Of Nat Bessan, 

THE fourth in dignitie after the Soldan called Nai 
Bessan, beeing the Soldan his lieutenant in Syria, 
and gathering vp all the tributes of Assiria bestowed them 
at his owne discretion, & yet the Soldan himselfe was to 
place garrisons in the castles and forts of those prouinces. 
This Nai Bessan was bound yeerly to pay certaine thou- 
sands of Saraffi vnto the Soldan?^ 

Of the Ostadar, 

THe fift magistrate called the Ostadar, was the great 
master or steward of the palace ; whose duetie was 
to prouide apparell for the Soldan, with victuals and other 
necessaries for his whole family. And vnto this dignitie 

3 L 2 


the Soldan vsed to aduance some one of his most ancient, 
honourable, and vertuous nobles, vnder whose tuition him- 
selfe had in times pcist beene trained upj^ 

Of the Amiri Achor. 

THE sixt called the Amiri Achor^ was master of the 
horse and camels ; and distributed them vnto each 
man in court, according to his degreeJ^ 

Of the Amiralf 

THE seuenth office was performed by certaine princi- 
pall Mamalukes, being like vnto the Colonels of 
Europe ; euerie of whom was captaine of a thousand 
inferiour Mamaluks ; and their office was to conduct the 
Soldans forces against the enemie, & to take charge of his 

Of the Aminnia. 

THE eight degree of honour was allotted vnto certaine 
centurions ouer the Mamalukes ; who were conti- 
nually to attend vpon the Soldan, either when he road 
any whither, or when he exercised himselfe in armes. 

Of t/te Chazendare. 

THE ninth person was the treasurer, who made an 
account vnto the Soldan of all tributes and customes 
of his kingdome, disbursing money for the daily and neces- 
sarie expenses of the Soldans household, and iaying vp 
the rest in the Soldans castle.*^® 

Of the Amirsileh, 

THE tenth called the Amirsileh had the armour of the 
Soldan committed to his charge, which being con- 
tained in a great armorie was to be scoured, furbushed, 
and renued at his discretion, for which purpose he had 
sundrie Mamaluks placed vnder him.^ 


Of the Testecana, 

THe eleuenth called the TestecancP^ was master of the 
Soldans wardrobe, and tooke charge of all such 
robes and apparell as were deliured vnto him by the 
Ostadar or high steward of the household ; which 
robes he distributed according to the appointment of the 
Soldan ; for whomsoeuer the Soldan promoted vnto any 
dignitie, him he apparelled also. All the said garments 
were of cloth of gold, of veluet, or of silke : and whither 
soeuer the Testecana went, he was attended upon by a 
great number of Mamalukes. Certaine other officers there 
were also : as namely the Serbedare,®* whose duetie was to 
prouide delicate drinke for the Soldan^ and to haue alwaies 
in a readines most excellent compound waters tempered 
both with sugar and with spices. Moreouer there were 
other officers called * Farrasin,^ that is, diuers chamber- * '^^^ ". ^f!*^ 

' ' an officer in the 

laines, who furnished the place of the Soldan with rich ^^«'?^/^»^- 

* land called, 

hangings and carpets, and made prouision also of torches TheMaistero/ 
and tapers of waxe mixed with amber, which serued both 
to shew light, and to yeeld most fragrant and odoriferous 
smels. Others there were also called Sebabathia,^ to wit, 
the footemen of the Soldan : and certaine others called 
Taburchania,®^ which were the Soldans Halbardiers, who 
attended upon his person when he road foorth, or sate in 
publique audience. Adauia were those that tooke charge 
of the Soldans carriages whithersoeuer he trauelled : out of 
which number there was a master-hangman or executioner 
chosen ; and so often as any malefactors were to be 
punished, all his companions stood by him to leame his 
bloodie occupation, namely of flaying and skinning men 
aliue, and of putting them to the torture, to make them 
confesse their crimes.^ And Esuha were the Soldans 
foote-postes that carried letters from Cairo into Syria, 
and trauelled on foote threescore miles a day, because that 


betweene Egypt and Syria there is neither mountainous 
nor mirie way, but a continuall sandie plaine : howbeit such 
as carried letters of serious & weightie matters road vpon 

Of the Soldans militarie forces, 

OF soldiers or martiall men the Soldan had fower 
degrees. The first called Caschia were certaine 
horsemen, & were most valiant and expert warriours : out 
of which number the Soldan chose gouernours ouer his 
cities and Ccistles. Some of these were allowed their 
stipend in readie money out of the Soldans treasurie, and 
others out of the tributes of townes and castles. The 
second called Eseifia were a companie of footmen, bearing 
no armes but swords only, who likewise had* their pay 
allowed them out of the Soldans treasurie. The third 
called Charanisa being voluntaries or such as serued gratis, 
had no other pay but onely their victuals allowed them : 
but when any Mamaluke deceased that was well prouided 
for, some one of them supplied his roume. The fourth and 
last of al called Galeb, were the yoong and new-come 
Mamaluks, being as yet ignorant of the Turkish and 
Egyptian languages, and such as had shewed no experi- 
ment of their valour.** 

Of certaine other great officers and magistrates 
in the Soldans common-wealth. 

Of the magistrate called the Nad/ieasse, 

HE was as it were the Soldans chiefe receiuer ; for all 
the tributes and customes of the whole kingdome 
came through his hands, and were paid from him vnto the 
treasurer. Also he was customer of Cairo, by which office 
he gained infinite summes of mony : neither could any 


man attaine vnto this office, vnlesse he first paid vnto the 
Soldan an hundred thousand Saraffi, which he recouered 
againe within sixe moneths following.®® 

Of the Chetebeessere, 

THis man being the Soldans secretarie, and writing 
letters, and making answere on the Soldans behalfe, 
did (besides his secretariship) take notice and account of 
all the land-tributes in Egypt, and receiued the particular 
summes from the collectors thereof.®® 

Of the Muachih, 

THis was a secretarie also, but inferiour to the former, 
and yet more trustie vnto the Soldan. His office 
was to reuiew the letters and briefes penned by the former, 
and to examine whether they were agreeable vnto the 
Soldans minde, and also in the name of the Soldan to 
subscribe vnto them. But the other hath so many cunning 
and expert scribes about him, that the Muachih seldome 
cancelleth any of his writings.®^ 

Of the Mutesib, 

THis mans office was to set a price vpon corne and all 
other victuals ; which price partly according to the 
increase of Nilus, and partly also according to the resort of 
ships and other vessels out of the prouinces of Errif and 
Sahid he either diminished or inhaunsed, and vpon the 
offenders imposed such penalties as the Soldan thought 
good to appoint. Being at Cairo, I vnderstood that the 
said Mutesib got daily by his office about a thousand 
Saraffi ; hauing his ministers and substitutes not onely in 
Cairo, but in all other cities and places of Egypt.®^ 


Of the Amir el Cheggi, 

THe oflSce of the Amir el Cheggi®* being of no lesse 
charge, then dignitie, was imposed by the Soldan 
vpon one of his most sufficient and wealthie Mamaluks : 
vnto whom was committed the conduct of the carouan, 
which went euery yeere from Cairo to Mecca. Which 
dutie he could not performe without great expences of his 
owne purse, for being guarded with a companie of Mama- 
lukes, he must trauell with maiesticall pompe and costly 
diet, expecting no recompence for his exceeding charges 
either at the hands of the Soldan, or of the passengers 
which he conducted. Other offices and dignities there are, 
which I thinke needlesse to rehearse. 


Of the citie of Geza, 

^He citie of Geza being situate vpon the banke of Nilus, 
ouer against the old citie before mentioned, and 
being separated therefrom by the foresaide Island of Nilus, 
is a very populus and ciuile place, and is adorned with 
many sumptuous palaces built by the Mamaluks, whither 
they vse to retire themselues out of the throng and multi- 
tude of Cairo. Here are likewise great store of artificers 
and merchants, especially such as buie cattell brought from 
the mountaines of Barca, the drouers of which cattell being 
Arabians, do sell their ware in this citie vnto the merchants 
and butchers of Cairo, to the end they may auoide the 
trouble of passing ouer the riuer. The temple and other 
principall buildings of this citie stand vpon the shore of 
Nilus. On all sides of the citie there are gardens and 
grounds of dates. Such as come hither in the morning 
from Cairo to buy and sell, vse not to returne home againe 
till the euening. This way they trauell ouer a sandie desert 
Thepyramides, ^^^^o the Pyramides, and sepulchers of the ancient Egyptian 
^ kings, in which place they affirme the stately citie of 


Memphis to haue stoode in times past. And albeit the TheciHeof 

^ ^ Memphis, 

way thither be very troublesome in regard of the manifold 
lakes and pits made by the inundation of Nilus, yet by the 
direction of a trustie and expert guide it may easily be 

Of the towne of Muhallaca. 

THis little towne built vpon the banke of Nilus, by the 
ancient Egyptians, and standing three miles from 
the olde citie, hath a most beautifull temple situate vpon 
the shore of Nilus, and diuers other stately buildings 
therein. It aboundeth with dates and with certaine fruites 
called Egyptian figs ; and the inhabitants vse the very same ^gyfii^^n ngs. 
rites and customs that are obserued by the citizens of 

Of the citie of Chanca, 

THe great citie of Chanca^ situate about sixe miles 
from Cairo, at the verie entrance of the desert lying 
in the way to mount Sinai, is replenished with most stately 
houses, temples, and colleges. All the fields betweene 
Cairo and this citie abound with great plentie of dates: 
but from Chanca to mount Sinai, which is an hundred and 
fortie miles, there are no places of habitation at all. The 
inhabitants are but of meane wealth : for when any 
carouan is to passe into Syria, hither resort a company of 
people from Cairo, to prouide things necessarie for their 
iourney, bicause the villages adioining yeeld nought but 
dates. Through this citie lie two maine roade-waies, the 
one leading to Syria, and the other to Arabia. This citie 
hath no other water but such as remaineth in certaine 
chanels after the inundation of Nilus ; which chanels being 
broken, the water runneth foorth into the plaines, and 
there maketh a number of small lakes, from whence it is 
conueighed backe by certaine sluices into the cesterns of 
the citie. 



Of the citie of Muhaisira. 

His little citie built vpon the riucr of Nilus, 30. miles 
eastward of Cairo, aboundeth greatly with the graine 
store of the or sced Called Sesama, and containeth sundrie milles to 

graine calted 

Sesama^ grinde oile out of the same seede. • The inhabitants are 

most of them husbandmen, except a fewe that exercise 
trade of merchandise.®^ 

Of the towne of Benisuaif 

THis towne being situate on the west side of Nilus, is 
distant from Cairo 120. miles. The plaines adiacent 

Most excellent abound exceedingly with flaxe and hempe, which is so 
excellent, that it is carried from thence as farre as Tunis in 
Barbarie. And this towne furnisheth all Egypt with flaxe, 
whereof they make very fine and strong cloth. The fields 
of the same are continually worne & diminished, and 
especially at this present, by the inundation of Nilus, for 
now their date-groundes are halfe consumed. The inhabi- 
tants for the most part are emploied about their flaxe. 

Crocodiles, And beyond this towne there are found Crocodiles that will 
eate mans flesh, as we will declare in our historie of liuing 

Of the citie of Munia, 

VPon the same side of Nilus standeth the faire citie of 
Munia, which was built in the time of the Mahumetans 
by one Chasib a lieutenant and courtier of the Califa of 
Bagdet, vpon an high place. Here are most excellent 
grapes, and abundance of all kinde of fruite, which albeit 
they are carried to Cairo, yet can they not come thither 
fresh and newe, by reason that this citie is distant from 
Cairo an hundred and fower-score miles. It is adorned 
with most stately temples and other buildings : and here 
are to be scene at this present sundry ruines of the ancient 


Egyptian buildings. The inhabitants are rich, for they 
trauaile for their gaine as farre as Gaoga, a kingdome of 
the land of Negros.*^ 

Of the citie of El Fium, 

THis ancient citie was founded by one of the Pharaos 
vpon a little branch of Nilus, and on a high ground, 
at the same time when the Israelites departed out of Egypt, 
whom the said Pharao greatly oppressed with making of 
bricke, and with other seruile occupations. In this citie 
they say that loseph the sonne of lacob was buried, and ^^j^oseph 
that his bones were digged vp by Moses and the Israelites ^oj buned. 
when they departed. Fruits heere grow great plentie, and 
especially oliues, which are good to eate, but vn profitable 
to make oile of. It is a well gouerned and populous citie, 
and containeth many artificers especially weauers.^^ 

Of the citie of Mans Loth, 

THis great and ancient citie was built by the Egyp- 
tians, destroied by the Romains, and reedified by 
the Mahumetans, but not in so stately manner as it was 
first built At this present there are found certaine huge 
and high pillers and porches, whereon are verses engrauen 
in the Egyptian toong. Neere vnto Nilus stand the mines 
of a stately building, which seemeth to haue beene a 
temple in times past, among which ruines the citizens finde 
sometimes coine of siluer, sometimes of gold, and some- 
times of lead, hauing on the one side hielygraphick notes, 
and on the other side the pictures of ancient kings. The 
fields adiacent being very fruitefull, are extremely scorched 
by the heate of the sunne, and much haunted with Croco- 
diles, which was the occasion (as some thinke) why the 
Romaines abandoned this citie. The inhabitants are men 
of indifferent wealth, for they exercise traffike in the land 
of Negros.^^^ 


Of the citie of Azioth, 

THis ancient city founded by the Egyptians vpon the 
banke of Nilus two hundred and fiftie miles from 
Cairo, is most admirable in regard to the hugenes, and 
of the varietie of old buildings and of epitaphes engrauen 
in Egyptian letters ; although at this present the greatest 
part thereof lyeth desolate. When the Mahumetans were 
first Lords of this city it was inhabited by honorable per- 
sonages, and continueth as yet famous in regard of the 
nobilitie and great wealth of the citizens. There are in this 
citie almost an hundred families of christians, & three or 
fower churches still remaining : and without the citie 
standeth a monasterie containing mo then an hundred 
monks, who eate neither flesh nor fish, but onely herbes, 
bread, and oliues. And yet haue they daintie cates with- 
out any fatte among them. This monasterie is very rich, 
and giueth three dales entertainment to all strangers that 
resort thither, for the welcomming of whom they bring 
vp great store of doues, of chickens, and of such like com- 

Of the citie of Ichmin, 

IChmin being the most ancient city in all Egypt, was 
built by Ichmin the son of *Misraimy the sonne of 
lSil^Z\hap!of ChuSy which was the son of *Heny vpon the banke of Nilus 
versed^ ncxt vnto Asia, and three hundred miles eastwarde from 

♦ DuHum. Cairo. This citie the Mahumetans, when they first began 
to vsurpe ouer Egypt, so wasted and destroied, for certaine 
causes mentioned in histories, that besides the foundations 
and rubbish they left nought remaining : for, transporting 
the pillers and principall stones vnto the other side of 
Nilus, they built thereof the citie called Munsia, euen as 
we will now declare.'*^ 


Of the citie of Munsia. 

MVnsia therefore, founded on the other side of 
Nilus, by the lieutenant of a certaine Califa, 
hath no shew of comelines or beautie, by reason that 
all the streetes are so narrow. And in sommer-time 
there riseth so much dust from the ground, that a man 
can hardly walke the streetes. It aboundeth, notwith- 
standing, with come and cattell. It was once subiect 
vnto a certaine African prince of Barbarie, whose name was 
Haoara^ and whose predecessors were princes and gouer- 
nours of Haoara. Which city (they say) was giuen him in 
regarde of a singular benefite which hee did vnto the fore- 
saide Dalmatian slaue that founded Cairo : howbeit I 
cannot be perswaded that the gouernment remained so 
long a time vnto that familie. But in our time Soliman 
the ninth Turkish emperour depriued them of the same 

Of the monasterie called Georgia, 

THis was in times past a famous monasterie of Chris- 
tians, called after the name of Saint George, and 
being sixe miles distant from Munsia. It was inhabited 
by more than two hundred monkes, who enioying large 
territories, possessions, and reuenues, shewed themselues 
curteous and beneficiall vnto strangers ; and the ouerplus 
of their yeerely reuenues was sent vnto the patriarke of 
Cairo, who caused the same to be distributed amongst 
poore Christians : but about an hundred yeeres ago, all the 
monks of this monasterie died of a pestilence, which spred 
it selfe ouer all the land of Egypt. Whereupon the prince 
of Munsia compassed the saide monasterie with a wall, and 
erected diuers houses for artificers and merchants to dwell 
in. And being allured by the pleasant gardens situate 
amidst the beautifuU hils, he himselfe went thither to 


inhabite : but the patriarke of the lacobites making his 
mone vnto the Soldaii, the Soldan caused another monas- 
terie to be built in the same place, where in times past the 
old citie stoode ; & assigned so much allowance thereunto, 
as might maintaine thirty monks.^®^ 

Of the citie of Chian. 

THis little citie of Chian was built in times past neere 
unto Nilus by the Mahumetans, which notwithstand- 
ing is not nowe inhabited by them, but by the christias 
called lacobites, who employ themselues either in hus- 
bandrie, or in bringing vp of chickens, geese, and doues. 
There remaine as yet certaine monasteries of Christians, 
that giue entertainment to strangers. But Mahumetans 
(besides the gouernour and his family) there are none 
at all.i^ 


Of the citie of Barbanda, 

I Arbanda founded by the Egyptians vpon Nilus, about 
fower hundred miles from Cairo, was laide so waste 
by the Romaines, that nothing but the ruines thereof 
remained, most of which ruines were carried vnto Asna, 
whereof we will foorthwith intreate. Amongst the saide 
ruines are to be found many peeces of golde and siluer 
Emraids, coine, and sundrie fragments of Smaragds or emeralds.^^ 

Of the citie ofCana. 

Antonio Gal- 'T^Hc ancicnt citie of Cana built by the Egyptians vpon 
large mention 1 the bankc of Nilus oucr against Barbanda, and 
ofttsciHe. enuironed with wals of sunne-dried bricks, is inhabited 
with people of base condition, applying themselues vnto 
husbandrie, by which meanes the citie aboundeth with 
corne. Hither are the merchandise brought against the 
streame of Nilus, which are sent from Cairo to Mecca : 
for the distance from hence ouer the wildernes vnto the 


Red sea, is at least 120. miles, all which way there is no 

water at all to be founde. And at the hauen of Chossir The hauen of 

vpon the shore of the red sea are diuers cottages whereinto 

the saide merchandises are vnladen. And ouer against 

Chossir on the side of Asia lieth lambuh another hauen of 

the red sea, whereat traualiers going on pilgrimage to 

see the tombe of Mahumet at Medina, must make 

their rendezuous or generall meeting. Moreouer Ghana 

furnisheth Medina and Mecca with come, in which places 

they suffer great and continuall scarcitie.^^ 

Of the citie of Asna, 

ASna in times past was called Siene : which name was 
afterward changed by the Arabians, in whose lan- 
guage the worde Siene signifieth a filthie or vncleane thing. 
Wherefore they called it Asna, that is to say, faire and 
beautifull, bicause it standeth in a pleasant situation vpon 
the westerne banke of Nilus : which citie though it was 
brought almost to desolation by the Romaines, yet was it 
so repaired againe in the Mahumetans time, that the 
inhabitants grewe exceeding rich, both in corne, cattell, 
and money : for they transport their commodities partly 
vp the streame of Nilus, and partly ouer the deserts, into 
the kingdome of Nubia. Round about this citie there 
are to be seene diuers huge buildings, and admirable 
sepulchres, togither with sundrie epitaphes engrauen both 
in Egyptian and Latine Letters.^®* 

Of the citie of Assuan, 

THe great, ancient, and populous city of Assuan was 
built by the Egyptians vpon the riuer of Nilus, 
about fower-score miles eastward from Asna. The soile 
adiacent is most apt and fruitefull for corne. And the 
citizens are exceedingly addicted vnto the trade of 
merchandise, bicause they dwell so neere vnto the kingdome 


of Nubia, vpon the confines whereof standeth their citie : 
beyond which citie Nilus dispersing himselfe ouer the 
plaines through many small lakes becommcth innauigable. 
Also the saide citie standeth neere vnto that desert ouer 

Suacken. which they traueil vnto the port of Suachen vpon the red 
sea, and it adioineth likewise vpon the frontiers of Ethiopia. 
And heere in sommer time the inhabitants are extremely 
scorched with the heate of the sunne, being of a swart or 
browne colour, and being mingled with the people of 
Nubia and Ethiopia. Heere are to be seene also many 
buildings of the ancient Egyptians, and most high towers, 
which they call in the language of that countrey Barba. 
Beyond this place there is neither citie nor habitation of 
any account, besides a fewe villages of blacke people, 
whose speech is compounded of the Arabian, Egyptian, 
and Ethiopian languages. These being subject vnto the 

* Bugihaare people Called *Bugiha, Hue in the fields after the Arabian 

those which in *■ *' 

oide time were manner, being free from the Soldans iurisdiction, for there 

called Trogio- ,.,..,.., 

dyta. his dommions are limited. 

And thus much concerning the principall cities standing 
along the maine chanel of Nilus : Some whereof I saw, 
others I entered into, and passed by the residue : but I 
had most certaine intelligence of them all, either by the 
inhabitants themselues, or by the mariners which carried 
me by water from Cairo to Assuan, with whom returning 
back vnto Ghana, I trauellcd thence ouer the desert vnto 
the red sea, ouer which sea I crossed vnto Imbuth, and 
Ziddem two hauen-townes of Arabia deserta, of which two 
townes, because they belong vnto Asia, I will not here 
discourse, least I should seem to transgresse the limits of 

The great Africa. But if it shall please god to vouchsafe me longer 

trauels of lohn ,.-,_. , .. n* . r k * «.«* 

Leo. life, I purpose to describe all the regions of Asia which I 

haue trauelled ; to wit Arabia deserta, Arabia felix, Arabia 
Petrea, the Asian part of Egypt, Armenia, and some part 
of Tartaria ; all which countries I saw and passed through 


in the time of my youth. Likewise I will set downe my 
last voiages from Fez to Constantinople, from Constanti- 
nople to Egypt, and from thence into Italic, in which 
lourney I saw diuers and sundry Islands. All which 
my trauels I meane (by Gods assistance) being returned 
forth of Europe into mine owne countrie, particularly to 
describe ; decyphering first the regions of Europe and 
Asia which I haue seen, and thereunto annexing this 
my discourse of Africa ; to the end that I may promote 
the endeuours of such as are desirous to know the state 
of forren countries.^^^ 



(i) This lake is Menzaleh, and Tenesse, or Tennes (the ancient 
Tenessus), an island on which are remains of Roman baths, tombs, 
etc. The wildfowl on the lake and in its vicinity are still as numerous 
as ever, and the habits of the people are to-day much what they were 
at the time when Leo visited them. The "dulipan" (dolopani) is 
equivalent to the turban, and the "chebie" of Leo is evidently the 

(2) Modem Egypt is commonly divided into El-Bahari, or Lower 
Egypt ; El-Vortani, or Middle Egypt ; and El-Said, or Upper Egypt. 
In Ibn Haukal's day, the part of Egypt below Old Cairo (El- 
Fost^t) — north-east of the Nile — was called '* HauP and that to the 
south (properly west) Rif (Er-Rif, the " riviera", a word more familiar 
as applied to the Moroccan region of the same name, p. 635). — Abu-1- 
feda, Geographic (ed. Reinaud), t. ii, p. 141. In Ouseley's trans, of 
Ibn Haukal (pp. 36, 37), Khou/dind Zeif^iXt, (erroneously, according to 
De Sacy) the orthography of these districts. — Abd Allatif, Relation de 
TEgypte (ed. De Sacy), pp. 56, 396-398. The divisions mentioned by 
Leo are still known among the natives. Bechria is Behriyya, the Lake 

(3) In Hebrew Egypt is Misraim, or Mazor, which in the Prophets 
means Lower Egypt proper, as distinguished from Pathros, or Upper 
Egypt. Mazor is preserved in the Arab Misr, pronounced Mazr in 
the vulgar dialect of Egypt, Mdzar in that of Morocco and other parts 
of Barbary. It is now applied to both the country and the capital. 

(4) " Amr figliuolo di Asi, capitano d'un escercito arabo di Omar 
secondo pontefice" — 'Amr Ibn el- Asi — a.h. 18, A.D. 639. 

(5) El-Fostat {ut supra), founded in A.H. 21 (A.D. 641), the seat of 
government till A.D. 751. The mosque of 'Amr is well known as one 
of the few memorials of the past now standing 'amid the ruins of " Old 

(6) The numerous places in Egypt with which the name of Joseph 
(Yusuf) is linked have most probably no connection whatever with the 
Hebrew patriarch of that name, but, like the Canal, Well, Hall, etc., 
"of Joseph", refer to En-Naser Sal^h ed-Din Yusuf Ibn AyyOb 
(Saladin), the famous Kurdish conqueror. Even then the connection 
is often purely honorary. 


(7) At one time the plague appeared at regular intervals of six, 
eight, and ten years. But it is now more than sixty years since there 
has been an outbreak, mainly owing to stricter care regarding the 
landing of goods and infected persons from Asia and other quarters, 
including Barbary and the HejAz, where, if not endemic, it has 
appeared more than once this century. Even in the age of the 
Pharaohs, the plague was an Egyptian disease. Cholera is more 
dreaded nowadays. — Ray, Collection of Curious Travels and Voyages^ 
tome ii, p. 95 ; Savary, Letters on Egypt ^ vol. ii, pp. 218-233 ; Abd 
AlHitif, Relation de PEgypte^ pp. 4, 9 ; Desgenettes, Relation chirurgi- 
cale de Carmde d' Orient^ p. 409, etc. ; Me moires sur PEgypte, t. iv, 
p. 238, et seq, ; Zagrel, Du Climat de PEgypte ; Pruner, Topographie 
Medicate du Caire ; Patterson, Egypt as a Health Resort (1867) ; 
Dalrymple, Medical and Meteorological Observations on the Climate 
of Egypt ( 1 860; ; Clot- Bey, Aperqu Gdn^ral sur PEgypte; De la Pes/e, 
etc. ; Description de PEgypte, t. xiii. 

(8) The ancient Busiris in the Delta, the modem Abusir, a name 
also applied to Busiris, the supposed Nilopolis, and to a village near 
the Gizeh Pyramids. Lake Bucaira is the modern Mareotis, or 

(9) This, as pointed out more than two centuries ago by Ogleby 
{Africa, p. 55), is an error of Leo's ; for Alexandria, instead of being 
distant from the Nile "verso ponente quaranta miglai", is only 
twelve miles from the Canopic mouth, and about twice as far from 
the Rosetta or Bolbitine mouth of the river. 

(10) Who this "astuto pontefice maumettano" was, is not men- 
tioned by any other authority. The Khalif Othman demolished 
the fortifications, and in the ninth century Ahmed Ibn TQlQn pulled 
down the old walls and erected others more suited to the diminished 
size of " Iskandriyya". The discovery in 1497 of the route to 
India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, brought about the 
temporary ruin of Alexandria, as it did of so many other famous 
Mediterranean seaports. This was also aided by the conquest of 
Egypt by the Turks, so that the city, which was still a place of some 
actual importance, became so utterly insignificant that, when Savary 
visited it in 1777, he found it a town of ruins "of small extent and six 
thousand inhabitants", instead of the 300,000 free inhabitants and 
600,000 slaves it contained in the time of Augustus. But Savary 
did not see the place at its worst ; for when in 1692 M. de Maillet, 
French Consul at Cairo, landed here, a city with inhabitants 
scarcely existed — " Je ne crois pas qu'k bien compter les Chretiens, 
les Turcs, and les Arabes qui habitent encore cette Alexandrie prt?- 
tendue, on trouvdt une centaine d'hommes parmi les mines qu'elle 
renferme." The place was a desert, in which robbers plied their trade 

3 M 2 


almost with impunity {Description de tEgypte^ etc., ed. by L'Abbe Le 
Mascrier (1740), t. i, p. 186). The Sieur Cassar Lambert, who visited 
it some sixty years earlier, though he does not allude to it in such 
unflattering terms, evidently did not find it much more flourishing 
{Trois Relations d^Ej^pte^ etc., p. 44). It is therefore clear that if 
Alexandria deserved Leo's description, it had not then begun to feel 
the withering effects of Turkish misrule. Indeed, when Leo first saw 
it, the Mamluks were still reigning, and what he has to say regarding 
Alexandria and other parts of Egypt applies almost exclusively to the 
period of these comparatively enlightened sovereigns. It was Moham- 
med Ali who restored the commercial prosperity of Alexandria, which 
now has a population of over 200,000. 

(11) The Mersa el-Bargi — the Eastern or Great Harbour — called 
the New Port, is now only frequented by small native vessels. But 
until the evacuation of Alexandria by the English, when the privilege 
of using the Mersa Essil Sela, the western harbour, now called the 
Old Port, was (in common with that of riding on horseback) granted 
to all Europeans, the Mersa el-Bargi was allotted to "Christian" 
ships, which were only admitted, under stress of weather, into the 
exclusive haven. 

(12) " Ludovico quarto r^ di Francia" is a mistake. It should be 
Louis IV (Saint Louis), who in 1249, at the head of the Eighth 
Crusade, captured Damietta, but was taken prisoner at Mansura 
by the Sultan Melek es-Saleh, of the Ayyubite dynasty, and released 
on the restitution of Damietta and the payment of a million 
bezants of gold (about ;£38o,ooo). — .Savary, Letters on Egvpty vol. i, 
pp. 337-384, etc. The transaction was, however, effected during 
the brief reign of Melek el-Mo'azzam (Tiirdn Shah), Melek es-Saleh 
having died on the 21st November, while the French army did not 
appear— according to Makrizi, Joinville, and other authorities — before 
Mansura until the 19th December 1249. But the ransom of St. 
Louis was the work of that sultan's mother, Sheger ed-Durr, who, 
after instigating the murder of her predecessor, reigned for three 
months and married the Mamluk El-Moi'zz, who in 1250 founded the 
Bahri Mamluk dynasty, and was murdered in 1257 by his jealous 
spouse (Makrizi, Hist, des Sultans Mamlouks de PEgypte^ ed. Quatre- 
mere, t. i, pp. 71-73). As St. Louis made on behalf of the Christian 
powers a truce with Islam for ten years, the raid of the Cyprians, 
Venetians, and French must have been much later than the words of 
Leo seem to indicate ; unless it was that the treaty was indifferently 
adhered to. The *' Soldan " referred to is probably Ez-Z^her 
Baybers I (a.d. 1260), who fortified Alexandria. 

(13) The place which Leo takes to be the Roman Monte Testaccio 


is apparently that which used to be known as the Pharillon, near the 
entrance to the New Harbour. It was evidently the work of the 
Mohammedan kings, who were unable to re-erect the ancient Pharos. 
The modern lighthouse has long ago superseded it. (De Maillet, 
Description de PEgypte^ 1740, t. i, p. 164.) 

(14) "Pompey's Pillar." The cisterns under the houses to which 
Leo refers are among the few remnants of ancient Alexandria still 
existing. They are used for storing the water supply furnished by 
the Canopic Canal. 

(i 5) Copts (Kubti, Gubti), called Jacobites, not, as they pretend, from 
James the Apostle, but more likely from Jacobus Baradasus, the Syrian 
heresiarch, who propagated the tenets of the Monophysites, Euty- 
chians, or Monothelites, condemned by the fourth OEcumenical 
Council of Chalcedon. They claim their conversion from paganism 
to have been the work of St. Mark, and still pretend to have the body 
of that Apostle in the Coptic convent at Alexandria, though, as stated 
by Leo, Ddru, and other historians, it was removed by the Venetians 
about A.D. 828. The inscriptions on the mosaics of St. Mark at Venice 
admit that the relics were stolen by Rustico of Torcello and Buono of 
Malanacco, assisted by the monk Staurgius and the priest Theodorus, 
who were in charge of the sanctuary at Alexandria. (Gardner Wilkin- 
son, Journ. Brit. Arch, Assoc.y vol. vii, p. 258.) The Greeks of 
Alexandria pretend, on the other hand, that their convent of St. Saba 
contains the original church of St. Mark. 

(16) The traditional tomb of Alexander, fabled to exist at various other 
places, was thought to have been found by Mr. Stoddart amidst the 
mounds of the old city. This building looks like an ordinary sheikh's 
tomb, and is near the bath to the west of the road leading from the 
Frank Quarter to the Pompey's Pillar Gate. Its position, however, does 
not agree with Strabo's description of the " Soma", while the sarco- 
phagus, regarded by the Alexandrians as the tomb of "Iskander", is 
now in the British Museum. But the hieroglyphics on it prove that it 
belonged to one of the Pharaohs. In Murray's usually very accurate 
Guide Book^ p. 130, the quotation from Leo is inaccurate. There is 
nothing about the small edifice " standing in the midst of the mounds 
of Alexandria ". Nor are Pory and Florian any more correct in refer- 
ring to the " monument of Alexandria " (in medio Alexandria ruderum). 
All that Leo says is that the " piccola casa a modo di chiesetta " was 
" nel mezzo della citt^." 

(17) "• Bochin" is a misprint for " Bocchir " of the Italian original. 
This is again a corruption of Abukir, off which the naval battle of that 
name was fought on the ist of August 1798. Savary calls it 


"Alboukir*', and mentions that "the place is called Bekier by 
Mariners". Leo seems to have considered it an ancient city. Most 
likely it is identical with Canopus, the village of Aboukir a little to the 
west of it being a modern town, built in part out of the ruins. A small 
place now, it seems to have been much smaller four centuries ago. — 
See "Map of Ancient Egypt", iii, Egyptian Exploration Fundus 

(i8) Rosetta, the Arabic Rashid, which is simply a corruption of 
the former. Who built it, is not known. El-Macin mentions that it 
was founded during the reign of El-Motawakkil 'ala 'llah (Ja'far) about 
A.D. 870. It did not, as Maillet and Alpinus imagine, replace 
Canopus, and therefore is of comparatively recent date, though it 
possibly occupies the site of Bolbitinum. Rosetta was founded on 
account of the silting-up of the Bolbitine branch of the Nile, and 
for many ages flourished exceedingly. In Leo^s day it had not attained 
the zenith of its prosperity. All the overland trade of India passed 
through it ; while the coolness of the umbrageous gardens which 
surround it, and the salubrity of the air, attracted thither the residents 
of Cairo during the hot season. In Abu-1-feda's day it was "a small 
city", and when Belon visited it in 1530 the place was not half the si 
of Fua. But, by the close of last century, it was one-half larger 
than that town. Its population, now about 14,000, must then have 
exceeded 25,000. Even then the "bogaz" or bar of the branch of 
the Nile on which it is built, was very troublesome, and for two 
months in the year totally prevented the commerce of Alexandria 
entering the river. The Nile Delta, which is constantly increasing 
and altering without the government making any efforts to 
survey the mud banks or to provide against the shoaling, told year 
after year against the trade of Rosetta. Then the cutting of the 
Mahmudiyya canal by Mehemet Ali diverted the overland trade, and 
now Ramleh is the favourite summer resort of the Alexandrians and 
Cairenes. The mosques, propped up by red Corinthian columns 
from Canopus, like those which form the comer-stones of many 
private buildings, have not escaped the general decay which has 
overtaken this once flourishing town. It was here that a British 
force under General Eraser was defeated by Mehemet Ali in 1807. 
It was occupied by the French in 1798 — a strategic operation, one 
of the most important results of which was the accidental discovery 
of the famous trilingual " Rosetta stone" ; and the Briton to whom 
the memories of Rosetta are not entirely pleasant, may feel a 
patriotic compensation by remembering that it was from the old 
fort on a sand-hill behind the fig-shaded mosque, that Denou, one of 
the savants who came with Napoleon to Egypt, saw the destruction 
of the French fleet by Nelson in Abukir Bay. 


(19) This fixes Leo's visit to have been about a.d. 15 17, the date of 
the conquest of Egypt by Selim I, the Great— or, as he is better 
known in history, " Yawuz Selim" — Selim the Grim. 

(20) There is no place in Egypt called " Antius", and it is difficult, 
from the data supplied, to determine what town Leo meant. Marmol — 
who is, however, no authority — says that it was formerly called Antedon, 
a place mentioned by Ptolemy. Antinoe, or Antinoopolis, has been 
suggested mainly from a slight similarity of the name. But, as Leo is 
describing the Delta, the place he notes as a busy town must be sought 
for there, and not in the modern village of Sheikh Abadeh in Middle 
Egypt, among the palm groves of which some ancient remains lie 
scattered. Arsinoe is still less acceptable : for it was in the Fayum and 
not on the Nile. The only conclusion permissible is that Anthius is 
some place on the Delta, of which either Leo or his first editor 
mistook the name. 

Busir may, however, be a Busiris — most likely the one on the Gizeh 
Plateau. — Edrisi, Africa^ ed. Hartmann, p. 506, ed. Dozy et de Goeje, 
p. 53 ; Golius, Mohammedis filii Ketiri Ferganenis^ qui vulgo Aljra- 
l^anus diciiuTy Elemenia Astronomica Arabice et Latine (1699), p. 104 ; 
Abu-1-feda, ed. Reinaud, p. 157; SsLvaryy Letters on Egypt ^ vol. i, 
p. 454; Bruns., Allgemeine Geog, Epkemeriden {Ai^nXy 1801), p. 317, 
where Antinoe is suggested as identical with Anthius. 

(21) Probably Berimbal el-Kebir, not a city, but only a large village 
on the Menzaleh Canal. This identification has the imprimatur of 
Karsten Niebuhr. Most of the rice of the Lower Delta is now 
shipped from Damietta, an important town, which, curiously enough, 
is not described by Leo, though mentioned by him. 

(22) Memphis is mistaken by Leo for Thebes, the form " Thebe " 
being adopted from Pliny and Juvenal. This error is, in kind if not 
in degree, made by many writers subsequent to Leo's time (Savary, 
Letters^ vol. i, pp. 257, 258, 388, 392). If Herodotus is even approxi- 
mately correct — and the appearance of the vicinity is in favour of the 
story told to him by the priests — Memphis must be as old as Menes — 
/>., according to Mariette, 5004 B.C. Its ruins are, at all events, 
of immense antiquity. 

(23) " . . . . trecento fuochi ; ma ^ omata di belle case.'* These 
" three hundred hearths" must have been at the village of Sakkarah, 
whose houses, however, it is impossible to describe as " belle case". 
Most probably, much was standing four centuries ago which has 
now disappeared or been covered with Nile mud. Abd Allatif, 
writing at the end of the twelfth century, describes the ruins as 
extensive and marvellous ; and Abu-1-feda, 1 50 years later, speaks of 


Memphis (Menf;, which he believes to be the ancient Misr, as still 
very considerable. 

(24) Muse, 'SlsLUz—Aft/sa, plantains, bananas.— Sonnini, Voyai^e 
dans la haute et basse Egypte^ t. ii, p. i, etc. ; Sionite, De nonnuliis 
Orient, urbibus, in G^o^, Nub.y p. 32 ; Abd Allati^ Relation de 
rEgypte^ pp. 20, 86, 104, etc. 

(25) Fua, Fooah, occupying the site of the ancient Metellis. It is 
now a poor place. Leo's account of its prosperity four centuries ago is 
confirmed by Belon, who in the sixteenth century described it as second 
only to Cairo. The Venetians kept a Consul here, and merchandise 
was brought thither up the now no longer navigable Alexandrian 
Canal. The foundation and prosperity of Rosetta were, however, the 
first blows to the place, which now contains only large ruinous 
buildings and squares full of rubbish. In the reign of Menelek Adel 
(a.d. 1200), brother of Saladin, the Crusaders, after plundering the 
town of much booty, burnt it. Possibly it was affected by the 
hereditary licentiousness of the neighbouring Canopus, which was 
transmitted from the Egyptians to its later possessors (Savary, Letters^ 
etc., vol. i, pp. 44, 45, 69). The belief that less than five centuries ago 
Fua (now nearly eight miles above it) was at the mouth of the Canopic 
branch of the Nile is not confirmed by Leo, though the increase of 
the Delta renders this very probable. Modem Damietta is also 
supposed to have been a seaport in a.d. 1428 (Shaw, Travels^ ed. 
1757 ; Maillet, Description, p. 26 ; Abd Allatif, pp. 2, 8). In reality, 
this town was razed in A.D. 1251, as Abu-1-feda and Makrizi tell us, by 
Melik El-Mo'izz Aybek, on a report that the French again threatened 
Egypt, and the present town erected about four miles further from the 
sea. Traces of the old city — a mosque, etc. — can still be seen at the 
village of Esba. 

The two towns are confounded by many writers, including Alpinus, 
Pococke, Karsten Niebuhr, Maillet, Shaw, and others. — Savar}-, 
Letters, vol. i, pp. 308-311. 

(26) Geziret 6d-Debub. 

{27) Mehella. There are several places of that name in the Delta — 
Mehallet Malik, Mehallet el-Eben,Mehallet Damaneh, Mehallet Rokh, 
Mehallet El-Kebir, etc. The latter was the capital of the lower, or 
Garbia, province of the Delta. It is described by Abu-1-feda (ed. 
Reinaud, t. ii, p. 160), and was still in Savarys day noted for its cloth 
and sal ammoniac manufactures. This is probably the place meant by 
Leo, though '*the author of Moshtarelc'\ quoted by Abu-1-fedn, 
declares that in his day there were "about a hundred" villages in 
Egypt called by the name of Mehella (place, town, quarter). 


(28) Darut is now a pleasant-looking but insignificant village, from 
which sugar-making has long disappeared. 

(29) There is a Mehallet-Sa (the town of Sa) on the other side of 
the Nile from the site of the ancient city of Saiss, which still bears the 
name of Sa el-Hagar (Sa of the stone). This is apparently Leo's 
'' Mechillat Cais". — Quatrem^re, M^moires g^ographiques et historiques 
sur PEgypte^ t. i, p. 292 ; Hartmann, Africa Edrisii^ pp. 498, 499. 
See also for a good account of Saiss, Murray's Guide Book^ p. 147. 

(30) Masr el-Kihira, named from the planet Mars (Kahir) having 
been in the ascendant on the night that Gauhar el-Kaid laid the 
foundation. The city was originally named El-Mans(iriyya (the 
Victorious), but was changed to El-Kihira by the Khalif El-Mo'izz 
on account of the omen mentioned. Mrs. Lane's Englishwoman in 
Egypt^ vol. i, p. 124, et seq.^ gives details (partly from Mr. Lane's 
notes) of the history of Cairo and other Egyptian capitals under 
the Moslems. Leo's etymology — " El Chahera, che tanto dinota 
quanto coatric^^ — is altogether incorrect. 

(31) Now nearer 400,000 — or about ten times the population at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. — See Lane-Poole's Cairo (1893) ; 
Makrizi's Khitat^ etc. (Bulak, 1854). 

(32) J^ma el-Azhar, converted into the Moslem "University" of 
that name by the Khalif el-Aziz. The number of students under 

he Sheikh el-Azhar sometimes amounts to 12,000— a popularity 
which has reduced Fez to insignificance. 

(33) Jebel Mokatlam. 

(34) Bab en-Nasr (Gate of Help to Triumph). 

(35) Bab es-Zuweylah, now really in the heart of the city, owing to 
its spread towards the south. 

(36) J4ma el-Hakem, completed by El-H^kem El-Mansur, third 
Katemite Khalif (a. D. 996). 

(37) Beyn el-Kasreyn— " Between the Palaces," that is, the Great 
and Little Palaces, which were originally, and until El-Fostdt was 
burnt, the only buildings within the walls of Gauhar's Cairo. 

(38) J^ma el-Ghoriya, built by the Sultan El-Ashraf Kansuh el 
Ghori about 1501. 

(39) Balabac in the original Italian, Bahlabah in Temporal's 
translation, Balabach in Florianus' Latin and Leer's Dutch transla- 
tion. It is Baalbec in Syria. 

(40) Muslin, from Mosul (after which it is named), on the opposite 
bank of ihc Tigris from the ruins of Nineveh. 


(41) " Panni d' Italia, come sono rasi damaschenis vellute, tafetta, 
brocati e altri." 

(42) Khan Khalili, built by Gokarkis el-Khalili in A.D. 1292, still a 
sort of " auction mart". 

(43) The Sok el-'Attdrin, at the end of the Hamzowi, near " the 
Burse", is at present the principal place for the sale of spices, per- 
fumes, and drugs. 

(44) The Sok es-Saigh and the Gohariyya, in the near vicinity are 
the jewellers' bazaars. The booksellers, bookbinders, paper-dealers and 
others, may be found by the El-Azhar mosque, just as the same class of 
shops crowd the vicinity of university buildings all the world over. 

(45) ". . . . un grande spedale, ii quale fu edificato da Piperis 
primo soldano de Mammalucchi." There is a mistake here. The first 
Mamluk Sultan was Melik MoMzz Aybek, the consort of Sheger ed- 
Durr, who, however, caused him to be proclaimed Sultan El-Mansur. 
["Piperis" may possibly be a corruption of Beybars, the name of 
the fourth ruler of this line. — E. D. R.] 

(46) Jima es-Sultan Hasan. The literary class have always 
strenuously opposed any innovation. Hence the difficulty in introducing 
any change in the curriculum of the college. Dor Bey, U Instruction 
publique en Egypte, The " Soldan's Castle " (citadel) is immediately 
above the mosque of Hasan. 

(47) Ahmed Ibn TfilQn (.\.D. 868) was founder of the Tiililnide 
dynasty. He built the mosque known by his name (Jima Ibn-TOlun) 
in A.D. 879 (A.H. 265). 

(48) Bab el-Luk. 

(49) Esbekiyya is now one of the most fashionable quarters in Cairo. 
Up to 1867 it was a low haunt, practically flooded during " high Niles". 
The Jima Ezbek is named after the Emir Ezbek el-YOsufi, a notable 
of El-Ashraf Ginbalit (a.d. 1500). 

(50) The beauty and vigour of the Egyptian donkeys have won the 
admiration of all visitors, and are celebrated by the older writers of 
the country. Sonnini, Voyage^ t. ii, p. 353 ; Alpinus, HisL Nat, 
Egypt, y part i, pp. 1 21-122; Maillet, Descript, de PEgypt^ t. ii, p. 
124. In Abd Allatifs day, a donkey fit for a wealthy Jew or Christian 
to ride — infidels not being, until comparatively lately, permitted the 
distinction of mounting a horse — brought from seventy to forty pieces of 
gold {Relation^ etc., p. 150). N^sir-i-Khusrau affirms that in his time 
(eleventh century) 50,000 donkeys, richly caparisoned, stood for hire 
in Cairo. " Banks his curtail,*' mentioned by Pory in a note, refers to 
ihe trick horse " Marocco", exhibited in 1 595 and subsequent years, by 

NOTES TO BOOK Vllt. 91$ 

a Scotchman named Banks. Shakespeare alludes to it in Lov^s 
Labour^ s Losty where Moth, wishing to show how simple is a certain 
arithmetical problem, says, " The dancing horse will tell." Notes by 
Halliwell to his edition of Shakespeare ; Chambers, Domestic Annals 
of Scotland (April, 1596) ; Moroccas Ex-staticas : or Bankes Bay Horse 
m a Trance (1595) ; Donc^y Illustrations of Shakespeare^ vol. i, p. 214, 
etc. The " Kureyditi " still amuse the humbler order of Cairenes 
with performances such as those described ; Lane, Modern Egyptians^ 
vol. ii, p. 99. 

(51) This divination by birds is identical with that practised of late 
years in the streets of London and other towns, but was long familiar 
to the Italians, who may have introduced it from Egypt, or vice versd. 
Street fencing, etc., was almost a frequent sight in the lower quarters 
of Cairo. 

(52) Bulak, the port of Cairo, best known to strangers as the home 
of the famous Museum of Egyptian Antiquities. 

(53) Bab el-Karafeh, near the tombs of the Mamluks, and of the 
Imdm Shifi at the base of Jebel Mokattam. 

(54) El-Fostdt gives its name to "fustian", just as Mosul does to 
muslin, Damietta to dimity, etc. 

(55) The Mosque of Amr (p. 906). 

(56) Nefisa (" the precious one ") was the great-granddaughter of 
the ImAm el-Hasan. Her father, the Governor of Medina, was impri- 
soned by El-Mansur, and restored to power by Al-Mahdi. She was 
married to a son of the Imim JaTar es-Sidik, and after living the 
life described by Leo, died in Old Cairo A.H. 218 (a.d. 824). Her 
mosque and mausoleum (formerly her house), is still much reverenced 
as a " Kardmat ", or miracle-working shrine, though no longer the 
attraction it was in Leo's day. It stands — or stood — in the Darb 
as-Sabua, which formerly divided Old and New Cairo, and is now 
a suburb of the latter. 

Makrizi, Arabic MS. in Bibl. Nat.^ No. 682, fol. 335, 360, vide De 
Sacys ed. Abd Allatif (pp. 428, 430) more than once refers to the 
Mosque of Sitta Nefisa in Cairo. 

(57) Not the so-called "Tombs of the Khalifs" or "El-K^it Bey", 
but the almost equally ruined " Tombs of the Mamluks " south of 

(58) Suez. These landmarks do not now exist. 

(59) Matariyya, a village near Heliopolis, once celebrated for its 
balsam {Balsamodendron gileadensis and B. opobalsatnum\ brought. 


according to current legend, from Judsea to this spot by Cleopatra, in 
spite of the opposition of Herod. But Josephus tells us that the 
ground on which the Balsam of Gilead grew, near Jericho and in 
Arabia, belonged to Cleopatra, and was farmed for her by Herod. 
At all events, the balsam was taken from Matariyya (where it does 
not now grow) and cultivated, in the vicinity of Mecca, whence it is 
exported under the name of Mecca balsam. But the resin is obtained 
from a variety of Terebinthacea;. All the older writers refer to it. 
Abd Allatif {Relation de PEgypte, pp. 20-22) describes its growth at 
Matariyya. So do Alpinus {Hist. Nat. Egypt.^ part i, chap. 14, p. 
26, et seq.\ Vesleng {Ibid.^ pp. 174, 227, etc.), Belon {lib. cit.^ liv, ii, 
ch. 39, p. 246, et seq.\ Linnaeus {Attuenitates Academica^ vol. vii, 
p. 55, et seq.\ Sionite {De nonnullis Oriental, urbibus^ Geog. 
Nubiensis, p. 27), Pellegrino Brocardi {Dissertazione intomo ad 
alcuni viaggiatori eruditi Veres, da D.J. Morelli), and a host of 
other writers less apocryphal than the compiler of the travels which 
pass under the name of Sir John de Mandeville, who affects to have 
visited Egypt in the reign of Melee Mandebron [Al-Melik al- 
MozafTer Baybers], about the year 1335. Suyuti and Kazwini, two 
Arabic writers, whose MS. works in the National Library of Paris 
are cited by De Sacy in his edition of Abd Allatif, p. 90, speak of 
the well as fountains with which the balsam plants at*' Mataria" were 
watered, with the addition that the virtues of the irrigant were due to 
the Messiah having bathed in it. The modern Coptic version, also 
related by Makrizi (MS. in Bibl. Nat. No. 682, fol. it^vide De Sacy;, 
is that the water was salt until the arrival of the Holy Family in Egypt, 
its softness being due to ** Our Lady having bathed in it". In reality 
the supposed spring is an infiltration from the Nile, while the super- 
stitions connected with it go back to the early days of Egypt, when it 
was the " Fountam of the Sun." 

(60) The island of Raudha (koda),or the isle of the Mekds^ Measurer, 
or Nilometer. According to Makrizi, it was first known as "the island", 
or the " island of Misr ". Then it was called the Fort Island, Ahmed 
Ibn Tiilun (a.d. 861) having built a fort on it, and later still received 
the name of Raudha. Here Gureyg the Mukowkis, the traitorous Greek 
governor, retired with his forces until he could make terms with the 
Moslem conqueror, into whose hands the frontier of Babylon had 
fallen. And on Raudha the Khalif Amir biacham-allah reared a plea- 
sure house (haudaj) for his Bedouin wife, "and Sdleh Nejim ed-Din 
.Ayyub built the fortress called Sdlehiyya". The Bahrite ("river") 
Mamluks, who derive their name from being quartered here, further 
peopled it, while Ibrihim Pasha laid out the northern part of the gar- 
dens. But though no longer resorted to by the Cairenes for a change 
of air, the foreign visitor comes to inspect the Nilometer, and the 


natives respect it as the traditional spot where Pharaoh's daughter 
found the infant Moses. (Arabic MS. in Bibl. Nat., No. 682, fol. 376, 
7>ide De Sacy in Abd Allatif, p. 388). For the ceremonies attending 
the overflowing of the Nile, see Lane, Modem Egyptians (1871), 
vol. ii, p. 224, et seq, ; Abd-Allatif (ed. De Sacy), pp. 404, 406, 
505, etc. 

(61) In this chapter Leo mixes up descriptions of El-Fostat and 
Cairo without any warning, except from the context, that he has 
suddenly shifted his ground. Thus, he is again at Cairo in describing 
the Citadel (El-Kara), near to the Bab ez-Zuweyla. It has been much 
altered since Leo's day, some of the oldest and most interesting parts 
having been pulled down — among others ,Saladin's palace. But it is 
still a little town in itself, and perfectly sodden with the grim chroni- 
cles from the twelfth century. Here, as in the days which follow, 
Leo describes the Cairo of the Mamluk Sultans. For though he 
saw the conquest by Selim — or Selin, as he spells the name— and 
visited the country thrice subsequently — but, according to my 
calculation, not later than 1 520 — his Egypt is essentially that of the 
"old Soldans", whose rule ended in 15 17. 

(62) This description of the customs of Cairo might, making 
allowance for four centuries having almost elapsed since it was written, 
stand ver>' well for those of to-day. The " Sakkas ", or water-sellers, 
of Leo's time are exactly those of ours, as sketched in L2in€s Modem 
Egyptians, vol. ii, p. 16, et seq. 

(63) Artificial egg-hatching, now familiar enough in Europe and 
America, where incubators of various kinds are in use, was from a very 
early date an Egyptian industry, which excited the interest and even 
disgust of prejudiced strangers. Early in the second century the 
Emperor Hadrian, in a letter to the Consul Servianus, full of contempt 
for the Egyptians, adds that he wished them no other curse than to be 
fed on their own chickens, " which are hatched in a way I am ashamed 
[/.^., lest his veracity might be doubted] to relate." At one time, the 
trade of "manufacturing chickens", as the Arabs call it, was an 
oppressive monopoly in the hands of farmers-general, who exercised 
their lucrative privileges with so little regard to justice that, accord- 
ing to Makrizi, it was suppressed in A.H. 716 (a.d. 13 16) by the 
reigning Sultan. At present, the Copts are the chief "chicken 
makers". At Gizeh there are many ovens, and at Mansura there used 
to be a great industry in it ; the villagers of Berniai bearing the repu- 
tation of being supremely skilful at the art, which is only practised 
during the first two or three months of spring and early summer, for 
reasons given by Abd AUatif (p. 1 54). 

A recent report (1891) of the United States Consul-General in Egypt, 


sketches this ancient trade, and the 600 ovens {mammal cl ferdk) 
in which the hatching takes place. One which he visited was wholly 
constructed of sun-dried bricks, mortar, and earth. It was 70 ft. long, 
60 ft. wide, and 16 ft. high, and was provided with twelve com|)art- 
ments or incubators, each capable of hatching 7,500 eggs, or altogether 
90,000, at one time. The season begins in March and lasts until May, 
and three batches of eggs are hatched in this time, each taking an 
average of three weeks. The fourth week is given to removing the 
chickens, and preparing the incubators for a new batch of eggs. The 
number of eggs treated at this establishment in a single season was 
therefore 270,000, from which 234,000 chickens are usually obtained. 
The percentage of chickens would be greater but that the eggs are in 
some instances procured from long distances and in large quantities, 
and are therefore liable to damage. The price of eggs is i\d. per 
dozen, and the chickens just issued from the shell are sold at 7\d, 
per dozen. The loss of chickens after incubation is comparatively 
small. The whole staff of the place is a man and a boy, who keep up 
the fires to a temperature of not less than 98^ F., arrange the eg-gs, 
move them four or five times in the twenty-four hours, look after 
the chickens, and hand them over to the buyers, or to the customers, 
who generally receive one chicken for every two eggs sent in. 
In short, it is carried on to-day in all essential details as Herodotus 
saw it practised in Memphis more than 2,300 years ago. The number 
of chickens hatched in this manner throughout Egypt is variously 
estimated at from 10,000,000 to 75,000,000, and would, under 
ordinary circumstances, at the highest figure named, require 1,500,000 

(64) El Chenefia. 

(65) " II giudice della religione chiamata Essifichia^^ the followers 
of the Iman Esh-Sh^fi (a.h. 150, A.D. 767-68). 

(66) The Sunnites, in opposition to the Shiites. " Hashari " (Asari) 
is apparently a misprint or lapsus pennce for Esh-Sh^fi (Asafi), ut 
supra. He was of the Koraish tribe, and descended from Abd-ul 
Muttalib, the Prophet's grandfather. 

(67) Malek ibn Anas (a.d. 95-179, A.D. 713-14—795), the first great 
systematiser of Moslem doctrines, and the founder of the Malekite 
Rite, as contradistinguished from the Hanefite, the school of Abu 
Hanefa an-Noman (a.h. 80, a.d. 699-70). Malek was born in Medina, 
or Medinat en-Nebi, "City of the Prophet "—" Medina Talnabi," 
according to Leo's somewhat uncouth transliteration. 

(68) Such dreadful punishments, contrary to both the spirit and the 


letter of the Koran, were abandoned about the same time that the 
scarcely less hideous ones, equally inimical to the teachings of 
Christianity, disappeared from European jurisprudence. 

(69) This form of mutilation was prevalent in the time of Strabo 
(pp. 711, 824). Lane informs us that it is still universally practised in 
every part of Egypt, both by Moslems and Copts, except in Alexandria 
and perhaps a few other places on the shores of the Mediterranean 
{Modem Egyptians^ vol. i, p. 7^ ; Arabic Dictionary, sub voce 
" Hafeda ")• Karsten Niebuhr " heard " that it was in vogue on both 
shores of the Persian Gulf and at Bagdad. {Description cPArabie, 
p. 70). It is known in Somaliland, and Strabo mentions its preva- 
lence not only in Egypt but in Arabia, where it is still carried out. 
Indeed, no Arab would accept a bride on whom the operation had not 
been performed. Roland {De Religione Mohammedica, ed. 17 17, 
p. 75), traces an allusion to it in Galen. See also 'Eh^rs, Egypten und 
die Biicher Mosis, vol. i, pp. 278-284, etc., and Burton's edition of The 
Arabian Nights , vol. v, p. 279. 

(70) This is not quite accurate. Besides the Circassian (Burgi) 
Mamluks, there were others of Turkish (Bahri) or Tartar origin, and 
several whose names suggest even Arab descent, though they appear 
to have been actually Tartars, and many were Greeks. Nor, of 
course, did it always follow that their religion had been originally 

(71) In 1250, when Melek el-Ashraf was deposed by the Bahrite 
Mamluk, Melek Mo'izz Aybek. What follows refers to El-'Adid's 
vizier Shawer, in his struggles with Darghan for office, calling in the 
help of Nur ed-Din, ruler of Aleppo, who sent Kurdish troops under his 
son Saldh ed-Din (Saladin). With these allies he quarrelled, and by 
the assistance of Amauri, or Amalrik, King of Jerusalem, drove them 
out of Egypt. On AmaUri in his turn attempting to capture Cairo, 
that city was burnt. The Kurds were again called on, and Sal^h ed-Din 
became Vizier, and subsequently king by usurping the throne on the 
deathof El-'Adid. Melek es-Sileh (Negm ed-D in Ayyub) originally 
imported the Mamluks or white slaves to defend him against the 
Crusaders and his own kinsmen. 

(72) Also called Niib es-Saltana, or Viceroy, or Melik el-Umara 
("King of Nobles"), who Uved in a special palace (Dar en- 
Niiba) in the Citadel. Lane- Poole, Art of the Saracens, p. 29. 
Leo's title for this functionary may perhaps be deciphered as the 
Emir el-Janddr or Jukendar ; Makrizi, Mamlouks, t. i, pp. ir8, 


i7}) He was originally designated Atabck of the Armies (Atabek 
el-asaker) ; but after the middle of the fourteenth century he was 
called simply El-Emir el-Kabir ("the chief ruler"). In the D/' 
Legatione Badylonica {\^i6), p. 85, of Peter Martyr (Anglcrius) we read 
that " Emir-Chebir est Magistratus primus post Soldanum." 

(74) This official is not mentioned by Makrizi under that name ; he 
always speaks simply of the NAib (Nai), the Viceroy or Governor of 

(75) The Ostidddr or Major-domo, who by the year 1400, and 
during the turbulent reign of En-N^sir, had so encroached on the post 
of Grand Vizier as to control not only the Royal Household, but the 
finances and Royal domains also. The title Ostid-dir means literally 
chief master of the house. Makrizi, Mamlouks^ t. i, pp. 25-27. 

(76) Amir-Akhfir, assisted by the Sela-Khari or provider of the 
horses' food, and sometimes by a second Amir-Akhor, usually of the 
rank of Amirs of the Tabl-kh^na or Decarions, or " Grand Ecuyer", 
to use the title of the corresponding French functionary. The as- 
sistant Amir-Akhors had the control of the different animals. Hence 
there were Amir-Akhors of the foals, of the camel stables, and some- 
times of the oxen, the official in that case taking the title of Amir-Akhor 
as-Sawiki (" the Amir-Akhor of the machines of irrigation "). Von 
Hammer, Des Osmanischcn Reichs Stoats- Verfassung^ vol. ii, p. 409 ; 
Makrizi, MamloukSy t. i, pp. 1 19, 120. 

{yj) Amir-Alf (commander of a thousand) is apparently the Amir- 
Alam or Adjutant -general, who took charge of the Sultan's arms 
(" trattar I'arme del soldano"). 

(78) Amir-mia (commander of a hundred), a functionary not men- 
tioned by Makrizi. 

(79) Really the GAshenkir, or Taster, an office filled by the founder 
of the Mamluk kings to Melik Saleh. — Makrizi, Hist, des Sultans 
Mamlouks^ t. i, p. 2. 

(80) The Amir-Silih, or chief Armour-bearer (Sildhdir). In some 
MSS. of Abu-1-mahasen quoted by De Sacy (Makrizi, t. i, p. 159), 
it is mentioned that latterly the Amir-Silih became one of the chief 
dignitaries after the Atibek-Amir el-Kebir. 

(81) The Tisht-Khina was the room in which the Royal robes, 
jewels, etc., were kept. The officials were called Tishtddrs and 
RakhtwAnis, and were under the direction of two mihtars or superin- 
tendents. Makrizi, Mamlouks^ t. i, p. 162. 


(82) The Shardbdirs of the Sharib-Khina were under the control of 
one or two mihtars. 

(83) The Firdsh-Khina was really the store-room. 

(84) " Sebabatia, cio h gli staffieri." 

The Sultan's pages were called Ojakis, and were evidently, from a 
passage in Makrizi (t. i, p. 108), a set of pampered, mischievous imps. 
In the reign of Melik MozafTer Kutuz (a.d. 1260) they attacked the 
Christians of Damascus. 

(85) Tabarkhdna, or Department of Tabardars (Halberdiers ?), under 
the Amir-Tabar. The Tablkhina was the drum department, the Amir 
of the Tablkhina being a very high functionary under the Mamluk 
Sultans. Many of these offices and customs, like the highly-prized 
privilege of keeping a private band, went out when the Turks took 
possession of Egypt. — Lane- Poole, Art of the Saracens in Egypt ^ 
pp. 29-33 J Makrizi, Mamlouks^ t. i, p. 173. 

(86) "Addavia" in the 1632 reprint, " Addauia" in the 161 3 and 
early editions generally. According to Makrizi, the Amir Gandar, a 
high official, introduced great persons to the Royal presence, com- 
manded the gandirs or equerries, and the Berd-dars or chamber 
attendants, and, besides having charge of the prison (zardkhina), 
superintended executions and tortures. He was selected from 
the ranks of the Colonels {mukkadam) or Lords of the Drum. — Lane- 
Poole, lib. cit,^ p. 30. 

(fiy) According to Makrizi, the couriers were called " Beridis". 
They travelled between Cairo and Damascus in four days. 

(88) The "Ghishia" was a Royal saddle-cloth embroidered with 
gold and precious stones. It was an emblem of sovereignty always 
carried before the Sultan by one of the great Amirs, whose rank on 
that account came to be called Ghishia. It sometimes means a club, 
a reunion — "those who habitually surround one man". Burton 
renders " Ghashiyah" as literally ** a cover", or, as employed nowa- 
days, "a saddle-cover carried by the groom^^ ^Arabian Nights^ 
vol. iv, p. 131 ; Makrizi, Mamlouks^ t. i, pp. 3-7. The "Escifia"of 
Leo appear to be the Khassekis, a grade of Mamluks always in 
attendance on the Sultan, and who accompanied the Mahmil to 
Mekka. They bore, after the Mamluk fashion, the lofty title of 
* Kawdmil al-Koffal" (the perfect administrators). —Makrizi, Mamlouksy 

t. ii, pp. 158, 159. 

(89) The ** Khazindar" was the Mamluk treasurer. 

3 N 


(90) The Kitim es-Sirr, the private secretary, who shared with the 
Dew&dir the conduct of the Sultan's correspondence. — Makrizi, 
MamloukSy t ii, p. 115. 

(91) There were various other secretaries, such as the Kitib ed-Derej 
(Cabinet Secretary), the Kdtib el- 1 nshi (Secretary of the Chancellery), 
etc. The Mushidd, a word of similar sound, designated an inspector. 

(92) The " Mutesib" (muhUsib) is still a familiar official in all the 
Arab- speaking portions of Northern Africa, and even in Persia under 
the same name (Quatrem^re, in Makrizi, lib, cii.^ t. i, p. 1 14). The title is, 
however, spelt so variously by European travellers that it is sometimes 
almost beyond recognition. Thus, it is the " metassoup" of Albert 
{Etat de PEgypte^ p. 80), the "metasit" of Sequezzi (Revenus €U 
lEgypt^ p. 89), the " metesseb" of Pococke {DescrtpL of the E<ist^ 
vol i, p. 165), the "moteheseb" of Host {Efterretninger^ p. 260), *'al 
motassen" of Ali Bey {Voyages^ t. iii, p. 128, etc). See also De Sacy, 
Chrestomathie Arabe^ t. i, p. 468, et seq, ; De Chabrol, Essai sur Us 
mceurs de PEgypte^ p. 515 ; Lane, Modem Egyptians^ voL i, pp. 154, 

(93) The Amir el-Hajj— " Lord of the Pilgrimage" — still a very 
important office, but no longer the costly dignity it was under the 

(94) Gizeh. This favourite summer retreat of the Mamluks is now 
a village of wrecked houses and ruined bazaars. Last century there 
was a manufactory of sal ammoniac here, and Savary notes the fields 
of sallflower {Carihamus tinctorid) in its vicinity. 

(95) Probably Helwan or Alban, founded, or at least restored, by the 
Arabs under the Khalifateof Abd el-Melik. Abu-1-feda (ed. Reinaud, 
t. ii, p. 140) describes it as a "pleasant place" (Quatrem^re, M^moires 
Giographiques et historiques^ etc., p. 25). The Egyptian fig is the 
Ficus Sycamorus. 

(96) El-Khanka, a ruined town, little known except for being one 
of the places on the caravan route to Mekka. It and Birket el-Hajj, 
the rendezvous of the pilgrims, are frequently mentioned in old narra- 
tives. Thus, in the Prefetto of Egypt's journal (1722) from Cairo 
to Mount Sinai (Maundrell, A Journey from Aleppo to Jerusa- 
lem^ ed. 1810, pp. 222, 224, 272) places "called Chanke", chiefly 
inhabited by poor Beda weens and " Ukalt El-bahaar", are noted. 

(97) El-Masarah, on the route to the Baths of Helwan, though Leo 
does not mention the great quarries. He describes it as " dopo il 
Cairo sopra il Nilo". " Sesama" is the s^sdim^ {Sesamum J ndicum 


and S. OrientaU) still extensively grown in Egypt for the oil, which is 
used as a cosmetic, and is preferred for cooking purposes to olive oil. 

(98) Benisuef. The linen manufacture for which it was famous in 
Leo's day was revived by Mehemet Ali in 1826, and it is still 
prosperous so far as the weaving of coarse fabrics in demand by the 
fellaheen is concerned. When Savary visited the town in 1 777, he found 
carpet weaving the only industry, though almost crushed under the 
exaction of the Bey, who collected " arbitrary taxes sword in hand". 
Benisuef is less than seventy-three miles by railway from Cairo, but the 
crocodile is not nowadays found further north than about the twenty- 
seventh parallel, which is about 120 miles further south. 

(99) Minieh, a prosperous town of about 100,000 people, and the seat 
of a considerable sugar manufactory. It was called Minyet beni-1- 
Khassib, after Al-Khassib, Controller of the Finances of Egypt 
under the Khalifate of Harun ar-Raschid, whose sons received the 
government of Upper Egypt during the Khalifate of Al-Mamun. 
The family had their residence here ; but, as the remains of Romano- 
Grecian architecture show, they were not the founders of the place. 

(100) Medinet el-Fayum,or Medinet el- Fares — the capital of Fayum, 
and hence generally called Medineh (" the City "). To the north of it 
is the site of Arsinoe, or Crocodopolis, Arsinoe being the name by 
which the Copts still call Medinet el-Fayum. The legends repeated 
by Leo do not rest on any basis more solid than Arab imagination. 
Medinet el-Fayum is a comparatively modem town, our author ex- 
pressly referring to the ancient city, relics of which, in the shape of 
mounds, are found in its vicinity. Abu-1-feda speaks of Al-Fayum as 
possessing many artizans, baths, markets and colleges, where the 
doctrines of Shifi and Melek were taught. M. Reinaud considers 
Fayum an alteration of the Egyptian " Piom", which signifies a great 
mass of water. Ed. of Abu-1-feda, t. ii, 1 58 ; Champollion, LEgypte 
sous Us PharaonSy t. i, p. 325. 

(loi) Manfalut, from the Coptic Manbalut, the remains of which, 
Leo writes, no longer exist, but mounds exist in the neighbourhood ; 
and though no notice is taken of it by Greek or Roman historians, the 
name occurs in Coptic MSS., and means (Quatrem^re, Mdmoires 
G^og. et historiquesy t. i, p. 217) "the refuge of the wild asses". 
Abu-1-feda (ed. Reinaud, t. ii, p. 1 56) describes Manfalut as a small 
town on the western (not the eastern^ as translated by Quatrem6re, 
Reiske and Michaelis) bank of the Nile, with a single mosque. But 
when Mr. Richard Pococke, afterwards Bishop of Ossory (A Descrip- 
tion of the East, I745)i visited the place, it stood, owing to alterations 
of the current, nearly a mile from the river. Now the stream has 

3 N 2 


gained ground so rapidly that, unless the encroachments cease, the 
town must disappear. The crocodile mummy pits are at Maabdel, on 
the Jebel Abufayda. But the crocodiles described by Leo as haunting 
"the fields" ("e i coccodrilli fanno dimolti danni") are not now 
found so far to the north. In Makrizi's day, the Christians of Man- 
falut were so brotherly that they all worshipped at the Monastery 
of Benu Kelb. When Pococke made acquaintance with the place there 
were 200 Christians, whose church was at Narach. 

(102) Asiut is still a place of considerable importance, though not 
so wealthy since the decay of its caravan trade with the Sudan. 
Except mounds, tombs, and grottoes, there are now few remains 
of the ancient city of which Leo speaks. The Patriarch Peter 
of Alexandria mentions Meletius, Bishop of 2/ai($ur, who is elsewhere 
referred to as MfXsr/o; 6 dirh AjjxS/ riji e>nfiathoi, St. John of 
Lycopolis is called St. John of Sio6ut by the Copts. {Illustrium 
Christi martyrum lecti triumphi^ p. 20. Quatrem^re, Mimoires^ t i, 
p. 275.) The Arabs preserved the Coptic name in the modem desig- 
nation of the town, which Abu-1-feda (ed. Reinaud, t. ii, p. 1 54) writes 
as Osiuth (Osyouth) or Soyouth. 

(103) Ikhmin, or Akhmin, the successor of the Greek Chenunis 
(X*>^/g), or Panopolis (llai'owoX/^), the Arabic name being a slight 
corruption of the Coptic Shmin, The remains of buildings erected 
by, or in honour of, Thothmes III, Ptolemy, son of Auletes, Dio- 
cletian, and other sovereigns, fully justify the Arab legends, to which 
Leo gives voice, about this being a very ancient city, though its 
foundation by Ikhmin, son of Misraim, " The son of Cush, which 
was the son [?] of Ham " (" Icmin figliuolo di Misrain, a cui tu padre 
Cus figliuolo di En" more correctly in the original Italian), is, as 
usual, apocryphal. Herodotus refers to Chemmis, and Strabo to 
Panopolis; and it is mentioned by Abu-1-feda, Ibn Haukal, Kaswini, 
El-Bekri, Makrizi, and other Moslem historians. From Leo's account 
it seems to have suffered so much at the conqueror's hands— albeit, 
according to Herodotus, the citizens took more kindly to foreign (to 
wit, Greek) customs than the rest of the Egyptians. Dulnuni, who 
wrote the -fi'AJ/^.ffr^^^/ (Experiments), was a native of Ikhmin, as was 
also Perseus, to whom his descendants ordained festivals here, which 
rivalled those to Pan, after whom the city was named. For remains of 
serpent worship here see Savary, Letters^ vol. i, p. 465. When Pococke 
visited it in 1737, Ikhmin was governed by a Berber Amir. But, like 
the Howara and other Moghrebin tribes once extending to Egypt 
(Khalil-Dahery in De Sacy, Chrestomathie arabe, t. i, pp. 242, 243, 
247 : Quatrem^re, M^moires^ t. ii, p. 200, et seq \ the Berber princes 
of Ikhmin have vanished. These Howara rulers were probably those 


referred to by Leo in his account of Menshiyeh. But in that case 
there is a slight obscurity ; for, leaving out of account the fact that 
they were in power until at least 1737, there was never any " impera- 
dore de* Turchi " called " Sulienian nono " ; what Leo means is pro- 
bably that the princes in question were (more or less temporarily) 
suppressed— which is extremely likely — by Selim I on his conquest 
of Egypt, and that Selim was the ninth Emperor of Turkey, unless, 
indeed, Solyman (" the magnificent ")> who was the tenth Sultan, and 
reigned from 1520 to 1566, is intended. The " Dalmatian Slave ", 
to whom tradition assigned the elevation of the Menshiyeh Berber 
chief, was Gowher. 

(104) Menshiyeh, the Coptish Psoi, the capital of a Greek Nome of 
the same name, though it is improbable that the place, not appa- 
rently at any time extensive, occupies the site of Ptolemais Hermii, a 
town as large as Thebes. 

(105) Girgeh, or St. George's, a considerable town named from the 
Coptic convent sacred to the patron saint of Egypt and of England. 
When Pococke and Norden visited it the town was a quarter of a 
mile from the Nile. Now we learn (Murray, Guide Book^ p. 233) 
that by the pressure of the river on the eastern bank, part of the 
place has been washed away. 

(106) There are many Coptic monasteries in this region. The 
one named Chean (Khean) is too loosely located to be identified with 
certainty. But both the huge village monastery of (in the Egyptian- 
Arabic) Dayr el-abiad, or Amba-Shenudeh, and Dayr el-ahmar, or 
Amba Bishoi, correspond in some degree to Leo's description. 

(107) Denderah, where, close to a modem village of that name, there 
is a Ptolemaic temple to Venus, and other ruins. Tentyres, the vil- 
lage of crocodile-hunters, stood here. 

(108) Keneh, the site of the ancient Caenopolis or Neapolis. It 
still does a great trade with Kosseir (Chossir), Yambo (lambuh, 
Emba), and Jiddah. It is actually about eighty miles from the Red 

(109) Esneh is confounded by Leo with Syene, which was Assuan, a 
blunder followed by Sicard {MSm. des Missions^x. ii, p. 183), Vansleb, 
and others. Strabo (lib. xvii, p. 817), Ptolemy (lib. iv, cap. 5), and the 
Antonine Itinerary (p. 160) mention Lato or Latopolis, and in the 
NotiHa dignitatum imperii (ed. Labbe, p. 320) a corps of Egyptian 
archers is referred to as stationed at this city. Edrisi and Al-Adfai 
(cited by Makrizi) also speak of Esneh ; but if the Ansena of Abu-1- 


feda was opposite Oshmnnayn (ed. Rdnaod, p. 157) h cookl not have 
been Esnefa, but the modern village of Sheikh Abadeh, the site of the 
ancient AntinoE, also still caDed Ansena. It was a ** city of magi- 
cians", from which, according to the Arabs, Pharaoh brought the 
conjurors to compete with Moses in miracle working. Hartmann 
{Edrisii Africa^ p. 505) and Qoatrcm^re {Sf^moires^ t i, p. 273) seem 
to £amcy Abo-l-feda's Ansena identical with Leo's Asna. 

(no) Asoan, Aswan, or Oswan, occupies the site of the ancient 
Syene, the Arabic name being, however, a corruption by prefixing 
an I of the Coptic Sti€tn or Serum. This town, situated at £sh- 
Shellal or the First Cataract of the Nile, 730 miles from the 
Mediterranean, ended Leo's voyage, as it has terminated that 
of so many less famous tourists. Beyond, he was correctly enough 
informed, there were many ruins. But the most extraordinary 
circumstance connected with Leo's Nile voyage is that he passed 
close to the actual Thebes, evidently without being aware of that 
remarkable remnant of the ancient greatness of Egypt. Luxor, 
the site of the Greek and Roman Diosp<^s, he must have seen, 
but before reaching that point he had become bias/ about infidel 
antiquities. At all events, he went up to Asuan and back again 
to Keneh, whence he crossed to Kosseir on the Red Sea without 
noticing Koptos (Kobt) or Kamak. Otherwise, hb description 
is fairly complete. Asuan is still — or was until the Sudan was 
partially closed to caravans — a great place of trade with inner 
Africa, Suakim and the Red Sea ports, and the population is 
about as mixed (as Leo declares) as the language of the races beyond 
the First Cataract In those days this region was dominated by the 
Bejas, the Egyptian jurisdiction ending, as did latterly the Roman 
rule, at Asuan (Strabo, lib. 17). 



the Historic of Africa, and 

of the memorable things 

therein contained. 

Wherein he entreateth of the principall riuers, and 

of the strange liuing creatures, plants, and 

minerals of the same countrey. 

Oftlie riuer of Tensist 

He riuer of *Tensist (that we may * o tchH^. 
begin in Barbarie from the westerne 
part of Africa) springing foorth of 
the mountaines of Atlas which are 
next vnto the citie of Hanimmei, to 
witte, about the east part of the 
territorie of Maroco, and continuing 
his course northwarde ouer the plaines, receiueth many 
other riuers thereinto, and at Azafi a towne of Duccala 
dischargeth hisstreames into the maine Ocean. Into this 
mightie riuer of Tensist fall two other great riuers, called 
Siffelmel and Niffis ; the one whereof springeth out of 
Hanteta a mountaine of Maroco ; and the other issuing 
foorth of mount Atlas neere vnto Maroca, and winding 
it selfe along the plaines of that region, disemboqueth at 
last into the saide mightie riuer. And albeit the riuer 
Tensist be for the most part of an exceeding depth, yet 


may it in diuers places be waded ouer, where the water 
reacheth vnto the stirrups of an horseman : but a footemen 
must strippe himselfe naked to passe ouer the same. 
Neerc vnto Maroco there is a bridge of fifteene arches 
builte by king Mansor vpon this riuer : which bridge is 
accounted one of the most curious buildings in all Africa. 
Three of the saide arches were demolished by Abu Dubus 
the last king and patriarke of Maroco, to the ende he might 
hinder the passage of Jacob the first Fezsan king of the 
Marin familie : but this attempt of his was to none effect, 
as it sufficiently appeered by the successe thereof. 

Of the two riuer s called Teseuhin, 

THe two riuers called by this one name, springing each 
of them, three miles asunder, out of mount Gugideme, 
and running through the plaines of Hascora, exonerate 
themselues into the riuer called Lebich. These two riuers 
(as I haue said) haue one onely name, being either of them 
(according to the African language) called Teseut in the 
singular number, and in the plural Teseuhin, which sig^i- 
fieth listes or borders. 

Of Quadelhabidy that is to say^ the riuer ofseruants. 

QVadelhabid taking his original among the high and 
chill mountaines of Atlas, and running through 
certaine narrow and vneeuen valleis, holdeth on his course 
by the confines of Hascora and Tedle, and then stretching 
northward ouer a certaine plaine, falleth at length into the 
riuer of Ommirabih. In Maie when the snow melteth, this 
riuer increaseth to some bignes. 

Of the riuer of Ommirabih. 

THe mightie riuer of Ommirabih issuing also forth of 
the lofty mountaines of Atlas where the prouince of 
Tedle bordereth vpon the kingdome of Fez, passeth through 


certain plaines called Adachfun, and being afterward 
streitned among the narrow valleis, it runneth vnder a 
stately bridge built by Ibulhasen the fourth king of the 
Marin family : from thence trending southward it watereth 
the plaines situate between the regions of Duccala and 
Temesne, and lastly disburdeneth it selfe vnder the wals of 
Azamor into the maine Ocean. About the end of Maye 
they take great store of fishes in this riuer called by the 
Italians Lasche, wherwith all Azamur being sufficiently 
stored, they salt the said fishes and send many ships ful of 
them into Portugal 1. 

Of the riuer of Buregrag, 

BVregrag arising out of one of the mountaines of Atlas, 
and continuing his course by sundrie vallies, woods, 
and hils, proceedeth on ouer a certaine plaine, and neere 
vnto the townes of Sala and Rabat, being the vtmost 
frontiers of the Fezsan kingdome, it falleth into the Ocean 
sea. Neither haue the two foresaid townes any other port 
or harbour, but within the mouth of the said riuer onely, 
which is so difficult to enter, that vnlesse the pilote be 
throughly acquainted with the place, he is in great hazard 
of running his ship vpon the shoulds : which shoulds serue 
instead of bulwarkes to defend either towne from the fleets 
of the Christians. 

Of the riuer of Baht, 

THis riuer issuing foorth of mount Atlas, stretcheth 
northward by the woods and mountaines, and 
running among certaine litle hils, disperseth it selfe vpon 
the plaines of the prouince of Azgar, and from thence it 
falleth into certaine fens, lakes, and moist valleies, where 
they take great store of eeles, and of the foresaid fishes 
called Lasche. The inhabitants Hue vpon cattell, and 
fishing, and by reason of the plentie of milke, fish, and 


butter which they eate, they are much subiect vnto the 
disease called in Italian Morphia. This riuer may con- 
tinually be waded ouer, except it be much increased by 
abundance of raine and melted snowe. 

Of the riuer of Subu, 

THe riuer of Subu beginneth vpon mount Selilgo, 
standing in Cheuz, a prouince of the Fezsan king- 
dome. And it springeth out of a great fountaine in the 
midst of a vaste and solitarie woode, and runneth by 
diuers mountaines and hils : from whence extending vpon 
the plaines, it approcheth within sixe miles of Fez, diuideth 
in sunder the regions of Habat and Azgar, and at length 
about Mahmora, a place not farre from Sala, exonerateth 
it selfe into the Ocean sea. Into this river fall diuers others, 
two of which, namely Guarga and Aodor, spring out of 
the mountaines of Gumera, and the residue from the 
mountaines of the terrltorie of Teza. And although Subu 
be a large riuer, yet may it in sundry places be waded 
ouer, except in winter and the spring, when it cannot be 
crossed but in certaine dangerous and small boats. The 
same riuer also which runneth through the citie of Fez 
called in the language of that country, The riuer of perles, 
entereth into the foresaid riuer of Subu. This riuer of 
Subu aboundeth exceedingly with fish, and especially with 
the foresaid fishes called Lasche, which are there of no 
reckoning. The mouth thereof neere vnto the Ocean sea, 
being very deepe and broad, is nauigable for ships of great 
burthen, as the Portugals and Spaniards haue found by 
often experience : and were not the inhabitants so sloth- 
full, it might vsually and commodiously be .sailed vport : 
yea, if the corne which is carried by the merchants of Fez 
ouer land through the region of Azgar, were conueighed by 
water vp this riuer, it might be solde at Fez for half the 


Of the riuer of Lucus. 

LVccus issuing forth of the mountaines of Gumera, and 
stretching westward ouer the plaines of Hebat and 
Azgar, passeth by the city of Casar Elcabir, and neere vnto 
Harais a city of Azgar vpon the borders of Habat, dis- 
chargeth it selfe into the main Ocean : in the mouth of this 
riuer lyeth the hauen of the foresaid city, being very 
difficult to enter. 

Of the riuer of MuluUo. 

MVluUo arising out of mount Atlas betweene the cities 
of Teza, and Dubdu, runneth through the dessert 
and barren plaines of Terrest and Tasrata, and at length 
exonerateth it selfe into the riuer Muluia. 

Of the riuer of Muluna, 

THe famous riuer of *Muluna taking his originall from * Or Muluia. 
that part of Atlas which is situate in the region of 
Cheuz, about fine and twentie miles from the citie of 
Gherseluin, and passing ouer dishabited and drie plaines, as 
also amidst the deserts of Angad and of Caret, and by 
the foote of mount Beni leznaten, falleth not farre from 
the towne of Chasasa into the Mediterran sea. This 
riuer a man may wade ouer alwaies in sommer, in the 
mouth whereof are caught most excellent fishes. 

Of the riuer of Za, 

THis riuer springing out of mount Atlas runneth through 
a certaine plaine of the desert of Angad, whereas 
the kingdomes of Fez and of Telensin confine one vpon 
an other : which though it be exceeding deepe, yet neuer 
did I see the water thereof thicke or muddie. It aboundeth 
with fishes, but the inhabitants being destitute of fit 
instruments, can not take them, neither indeed be the 
waters conuenient to fish vpon, bicause they are so cleere. 


Of the riuer of Tefne. 

THe small riuer of Tefne issuing foorth of the moun- 
taines bordering vpon Numidia, and continuing a 
northerly course ouer the desert of Angad, falleth into the 
Mediterran sea, about fifteene miles from Telensin, and it 
affourdeth nought but a fewe small fishes. 

Of the riuer Mina. 

THis riuer flowing out of certaine mountaines neere 
vnto Tegdent, passeth through the fieldes of the 
citie of Batha, and thence runneth northerly into the 
Mediterran sea. 

Of the riuer Sele, 

THis great river falling from the mountaines of 
Guanferis, and descending through barren plaines 
to the confines of the kingdomes of Telensin and. Tenez, 
separateth Mezagran from Mustuganin, and then entreth 
into the Mediterran sea : in the mouth of which riuer are 
caught very excellent fishes of diuers kinds. 

Of the riuer Sessaia, 

THis small riuer beginning from mount Atlas, passeth 
ouer the plaine of Mettegia neere vnto Alger, and 
not farre from the ancient towne of Temendesust dis- 
chargeth it selfe into the Mediterran sea. 

Of that which is called The great riuer. 

THis riuer ariseth out of the mountaines adioining vpon 
the region of Zeb, from whence running along, it 
disemboqueth into the Mediterran sea about three miles 
from Bugia. It ouerfloweth not but in rainie and snowie 
weather : neither vse the people of Bugia to fish therein, 
hauing the sea so neere them. 


Of the riuer called Susgmare, 

IT springeth out of the mountaines bordering vpon 
mount Auras, and passeth on through the barren 
fields vnto the territorie of the citie Constantina, and 
gliding along by the borders thereof, it receiueth a small 
riuer ; and so holding a Northerly course it falleth into 
the Mediterran sea about the same place where it sepa- 
rateth the fields of Chollo from the fieldes of the castle 
called legel. 

Of the riuer ladog, 

THis small riuer issuing foorth of the mountaines neere 
Constantina, and stretching by the same mountaines 
towards the east, disburdeneth it selfe into the sea not 
farre from the citie of Bona. 

Of the riuer called Guadilbarbar, 

IT prbceedeth out of certaine mountaines adioining vpon 
the fieldes of the citie called Vrbs, and gliding by the 
hils and mountaines, it runneth in such a crooked chanell, 
that such as trauell from Bona to Tunis, must crosse ouer 
it without either boates or bridges aboue twentie times. 
And so at length it falleth into the sea not farre from the 
forsaken port of Tabraca, and about fifteene miles from the 
citie of Bege. 

Of the riuer of Megerada, 

THe mightie riuer of Megerada springing foorth of the 
mountaines neere vnto the citie Tebessa, vpon the 
borders of the prouince of Zeb, continueth a northerly 
course, vntil at a place called Gharel Meleh, fortie miles 
distant from Tunis it exonerateth it selfe into the Medi- 
terran sea. In rainie weather it so increaseth, that trauellers, 
bicause there are neither boates nor bridges, are constrained 
to staie two or three daies by the riuers side till it be de- 


creased, especially within sixe miles of Tunis. And 
hereby you may see how the Africans of these times de- 
generate both in wit and courage from the ancient Africans, 
who made the people of Rome to tremble so often at their 


Of the riuer of Copts, 

T proceedeth from a certaine southerne desert, and 
passing through sandie plaines, falleth into the sea by 
A riuer of hot a townc of that Very name. The water thereof is salt, and 

and salt water. 

SO hot, that whosoeuer listeth to drinke of it, must set it a 
cooling for the space of an hower. Thus much concern- 
ing the principall riuers of Barbarie : let vs nowe proceede 
on to describe the Numidian riuers. 

Of the riuers of Numidia ; and first of the riuer 
called Sus, 


'He great riuer of Sus flowing out of the mountaines of 
Atlas, that separate the two prouinces of Hea and 
Sus in sunder, runneth southward among the saide moun- 
taines, stretching into the fields of the foresaid region, and 
from thence trending westward vnto a place called 
* Or Guart- * Gurtucssen, where it dischargeth it selfe into the maine 
guessen. Qcean. In winter time it mightily ouerfloweth, but in 

sommer it is verie shallow. 

Of the riuer of Darba, 

THis riuer taking his originall from mount Atlas about 
the confines of Hascora, passeth southward to the 
prouince called Darha : from whence proceeding through 
the deserts, it is dispersed among certaine fieldes and 
pastures, where bicause of the abundance of grasse, the 
Arabians feede their camels. In sommer it is so dried vp, 
that a man shall not wet his shooes in going ouer it : but it 
so increaseth in winter, that it cannot be passed ouer in 


boats. And by extreme heate of the sunne the waters 
thereof prooue bitter. 

Of the riuer of Ziz. 

THis riuer springing out of the mountaines of Atlas 
inhabited by the people called Zanaga, and running 
along by many other mountaines and by the city of Gher- 
seluin, holdeth on his course through the fields of Cheneg, 
Metgara, and Reteb, and entreth the territorie of the city 
Segelmesse: from whence it proceedeth by the desert 
castle of Sugaihila, and beyond the said castle falleth into 
a lake amidst the sandie deserts, where no inhabitants are 
to be found, whither notwithstanding the Arabian hunters 
vsually resort, for that they finde great store of game 

Of the riuer of Ghir. 

THE riuer of Ghir issuing also forth of Mount Atlas, 
stretcheth southward by certaine deserts, and then 
passing through the region of Benigumi, transformeth it 
selfe likewise into a lake in the very midst of the 

Whereas in the beginning of this my discourse, intreat- 
ing of the diuision of Africa, I described the riuer called 
by Ptoletney Niger, it would here be superfluous to make 
any repetition thereof : wherefore let vs now proceede vnto 
the description of Nilus. 

Of the mightie riuer of Nilus, 

THE course of this riuer is in very deed most admir- 
able, and the creatures therein contained are exceed- 
ing strange, as namely sea-horses, sea-oxen, crocodiles, and 
other such monstrous and cruel beasts, (as we will after- 
ward declare) which were not so hurtfull either in the 
ancient times of the Egyptians or of the Romaines, as 


they are at this present : but they became more dangerous 
euer since the Mahumetans were lords of Egypt. Mesfmdi 
in his treatise of the memorable thinges of his time, 
reporteth that when Humeth the sonne of Thaulon was 
lieutenant of Egypt vnder Gibsare Mutauichil the Califa 
of Bagdet, namely in the yeere of the Hegeira 270. there 
was a certaine leaden image about the bignes of a croco- 
dile found among the ruines of an old Egyptia temple, 
which in regard of the Hieroglyphick characters & con- 
stellations, engrauen theron, serued instead of an inchant- 
met against all crocodiles ; but so soone as the saide 
lieutenant caused it to be broken in peeces, the crocodiles 
began then to inuade men, and to doe much mischiefe. 
Howbeit what the reason should be, why the crocodiles 
betweene Cairo and the Mediterran sea are harmelesse, 
and those aboue Cairo towards the maine land, should 
deuoure and kill so many persons, it goeth beyond my 
skill to determine.^ But, to returne vnto the description 
of Nilus, it increaseth (as we have saide) for the space of 
fortie daies, beginning from the seuenteenth of lune ; and 
it continueth iiist so long time in decreasing. For whereas 
in the higher Ethiopia it raineth most abundantly about 
the beginning of May, the course and inundation of the 
water is hindred all the moneth of May, & some part of 
lune, before it can attaine vnto the plaine countrey of 
Egypt. Concerning the originall fountaine of this riuer, 
Sundry opini- there are manifold opinions, and all of them uncertaine. 

ons concerning ^ , , . , /v- i . /• 

Nilus. Some there are which amrme the same to spring out of 

the mountaines, called by themselues, The mountaines of 
the moone ; and others say that it beginneth vpon certaine 
plaines situate beneath the foote of the saide mountaines, 
and issueth out of sundrie fountaines, being a great way 
distant one from another. Howbeit the former of these 
two auouch, that Nilus with great violence falleth down from 
the saide mountaines into certaine deepe caues vnder the 


ground, and commeth foorth againe at the foresaide foun- 
taines. Both of which opinions are false : for neuer did 
any man as yet see where Nilus taketh his originall. The 
Ethiopian merchants which resort for traffike vnto the 
citie of Dancala, affirme that Nilus towards the south is 
enlarged into such a mightic lake, that no man can perceiue 
which way the course thereof trendeth : and that after- 
ward being diuided into manifold branches running in 
saueral chanels, and stretching themselues east and west, 
it hindereth the passage of traueilers, so that they cannot 
compasse those intricate windings and turnings. Likewise 
diuers Ethiopians inhabiting vpon the plaines in manner 
of the Arabians, say that many of them traueiling fiue 
hundred miles southward to seeke their camels which were 
straied away in the heate of their lust, found Nilus to be 
in all places alike, that is to say, dispersed into manifolde 
armes and lakes, and that they discouered sundrie desert 
and barren mountaines, where the foresaide Meshudi 
affirmeth emraulds to be found : which seemeth more pro- 
bable then that which the same author affirmeth concern- 
ing sauage men, which wander vp and downe like wilde 
goates, and feede vpon the grasse of the deserts in manner 
of beasts. But if I recorded all the fables which our 
writers report concerning Nilus, I shoulde seeme ouer 
tedious vnto the Reader. 

Of the strange beasts and other lining creatures of 

MY purpose is not in this discourse to make a coplete 
history of the liuing creatures in Africa, but only of 
such as are either not to be founde in Europe, or such as 
differ in any respect from those that are founde : And 
heere I intend to describe in order certaine beasts, fishes, 
and foules, omitting many things reported by Plinie, who 
was doubtlesse a man of rare and singular learning, not- 



withstanding by the default and negh'gence of certaine 
authors which wrote before him, he erred a little in some 
small matters concerning Africa : howbeit a little blemish 
ought not quite to disgrace all the beautie of a fairc and 
amiable bodie. 

Of the Elephant. 

THis wittie beast keepeth in the woods, & is found in 
great numbers in the forrests of the land of Negros. 
They vse to go many in one copany ; and if they chance 
to meet with any man, they either shun him or giue place 
vnto him. But if the Elephant intendeth to hurt any man, 
he casteth him on the groud with his long snout or trunk, 
& neuer ceaseth trampling vpon him till he be dead. 
And although it is a mightie and fierce beast, yet are there 
great store of them caught by the Ethiopian hunters in 
manner following. These hunters being acquainted with 
The manner of ^^ y^ooAts^ and thickets whcrc they kecpc, vse to make 

taking eU- ^ ^ * 

phants in among the trees a rounde hedge of strong boughes and 

Ethiopia. /• , . « . , , /. 

raftes, leaumg a space open on the one side therof, and 
likewise a doore standing vpon the plaine grounde which 
may bee lift vp with ropes, wherewith they can easily 
stoppe the said open place or passage. The elephant 
therefore comming to take his rest vnder the shady 
boughes, entreth the hedge or inclosure, where the hunters 
by drawing the saide rope and fastening the doore hauing 
imprisoned him, descend downe from the trees, and kill 
him with their arrowes, to the end they may get his teeth 
and make sale of them. But if the elephant chauceth to 
breakc through the hedge, he murthereth as many men as 
he can finde. In Ethiopia the higher, and India, they 
haue other deuises to take the elephant, which least I 
should seeme oucr-tedious, I passe ouer in silence. 


Of the ieast called Giraffa, 

THis beast is so sauage and wilde, that it is a very rare 
matter to see any of them : for they hide themselves 
among the deserts and woodes, where no other beasts vse 
to come ; and so soone as one of them espieth a man, it 
flieth foorthwith, though not very swiftly. It is headed 
like a camell, eared like an oxe, and footed like a * : * ^^^ *^ ?. 

' ' word wanting 

neither are any taken by hunters, but while they are very "«J^^ <^»if»- 

Of the CamelL 

CAmels are gentle and domesticall beasts, and are 
found in Africa in great numbers, especially in the 
deserts of Libya, Numidia, and Barbaria. And these the 
Arabians esteeme to be their principall possessions and 
riches : so that speaking of the wealth of any of their 
princes or gouernors, he hath (say they) so many thousand 
camels, and not so manie thousand ducates. Moreouer 
the Arabians that possesse camels, Hue like lords and 
potentates in great libertie, bicause they can remaine with 
their camels in barren deserts, whither no kings nor princes 
can bring armies to subdue them. These kindes of beasts 
are to be seene in * all parts of the worlde, to wit, in Asia, * /« aii parts 

of the world 

Africa, and Europe. And they are vsed in Asia by the which the 
Tartars, the Curdians, the Dalemians, and the Turcomans, time knew. 
In Europe the Turkes vse them to carrie burthens vpon, 
as likewise do all the Arabians in Africa, and the inhabi- 
tants of the Lybian deserts ; yea kings in their armies vse 
camels also, to conueigh their victuals and carriages : 
howbeit the African camels farre excell them of Asia ; 
for trauailing fortie or fiftie daies togither, without any 
prouender at all, they are vnladen in the euening, and The African 

,, . , ^,, , ,/., camels are the 

turned loose mto the next fieldes, where they feede vpon best, 
grasse, brambles, and the boughes of trees ; which hardnes 




the camels of Asia cannot endure, but when they set foorth 
any iourney, they must be well pampered and full of flesh. 
Experience hath taught, that our camels hauing trauailed 
laden fiftie daies togither without any prouender ; haue so 
wasted, first the flesh of their bunches, secondly of their 
bellies, and lastly of their hips, that they haue scarce beene 
able to Carrie the weight of lOO. pounds. But the mer- 
chants of Asia giue their camels prouender, halfe of them 
being laden with wares, and the other halfe with prouender, 
and so their whole carouan of camels goeth foorth and 
returneth home laden : by which meanes they keepe them 
in good plight, and reape double gaines by their labour. 
Contrariwise the African merchants trauailing with mer- 
chandise into Ethiopia, bicause they returne emptie, and 
bringe backe with them things of no great weight, so soone 
as they arriue with their leanc and galled camels in Ethi- 
opia, they sell them halfe for nought vnto the inhabitants 
of the deserts. And they that returne into Barbaric or 
Numidia, need very fewe camels ; namely for themselues 
to ride vpon, for to carrie their victuals, their money, and 
other light commodities. Of camels there are three kinds ; 
whereof the first being called Hugiun are grosse, and of a 
tall stature, and most fit to carrie burthens, but ere fowre 
yeeres end they grow vnprofitable : after which time euery 
camell but of meane stature will carrie a thousand pounds 
of Italian weight. When any of the saide camels is to be 
laden, being beaten vpon his knees and necke with a 
wande, he kneeleth downe, and when he feeleth his load 
sufficient, he riseth vp againe. And the Africans vse to 
gelde their camels which they keepe for the burthen, 
putting but one male camell among ten femals. The 
second kinde of camels called Becheti, and hauing a double 
Camels of a bunch, are fit both to carrie burthens, and to ride vpon : 
^ftfus!*other' and these are bred onely in Asia. The thirde kinde called 
Vromedarus. Raguahill,^ are camels of a slender and low stature, which 

Three kinds 
ef camels. 


albeit they are vnfit to carry burthens yet do they so 
excell the two other kindes in swiftness, that in the space 
of one day they will trauell an hundred miles, and will so 
continue ouer the deserts for eight or ten daies togither 
with very little prouender : and these doe the principal 
Arabians of Numidia and the Moores of Libya vsually 
ride vpon. When the king of Tombuto is desirous to 
sende any message of importance vnto the Numidian 
merchants with great celeritie, his post or messenger riding 
vpon one of these camels, will runne from Tombuto to 
Darha or Segelmesse, being nine hundred miles distant, in 
the space of eight daies at the farthest : but such as trauell 
must be expert in the way through the deserts, neither will 
they demaund lesse than fiue hundred ducates for euery 
iourney. The saide camels about the beginning of the 
spring inclining to their lust and venerie, do not onely hurt 
one another, but also will deadly wound such persons as 
haue done them any iniury in times past, not forgetting 
light and easie stripes : and whomsoeuer they lay holde on 
with their teeth, they lift him vp on high, and cast 
him downe againe, trampling vpon him with their feete, and 
in this madde moode they continue fortie daies togither. 
Neither are they so patient of hunger as of thirst ; for they 
will abstaine from drinke, without any inconuenience, for The camels 

great absH- 

fifteen daies togither : and if their guides water them once nencefrom 
in three daies, they doe them great hurt, for they are not 
vsually watred but once in fiue or nine daies, or at an 
vrgent necessitie, once in fifteene daies. Moreouer the 
saide camels are of a gentle disposition, and are indued as 
it were with a kinde of humaine reason : for when as 
betweene Ethiopia and Barbarie they haue a daies iourney 
to trauell more than their woont, their masters cannot 
driue them on, being so tired, with whips, but are faine to 
sing certaine songs vnto them ; wherewith being exceed- 
ingly delighted, they performe their iourney with such 


swiftnes, that their saide masters are scarce able to follow 
How ihe them. At my being in Cairo I sawe a camell dance ; 
Cairo leame which arte of dancing howe he learned of his master I will 

to dance. 

heere in fewe words report. They take a yoong camell, 
and put him for halfe an hower togither into a place h*ke 
a bathstoue prepared for the same purpose, the floore 
whereof is het with fire : then play they without vpon a 
drum, whereat the camell, not so much in regard of the 
noise, as of the hot pauement which oflFendeth his feete, 
lifteth vp one legge after another in maner of a dance, and 
hauing beene accustomed vnto this exercise for the space 
of a yeere or ten moneths, they then present him vnto the 
publike view of the people, when as hearing the noise 
of a drum, and remembering the time when he trode 
vpon the hot floore, he presently falleth a dancing and 
leaping : and so, vse being turned into a kind of nature, 
he perpetually obserueth the same custome. I could here 
report other matters concerning the same beast, which for 
breuities sake I omit. 

Of the /torse of Barbarie, 

THis name is giuen vnto the Barbarie horses through- 
out Italy and all Europe, bicause they come foorth 
of Barbarie, and are a kinde of horses that are bred in 
those regions ; but they which so thinke are deceiued : for 
the horses of Barbarie differ not in any respect from other 
horses : but horses of the same swiftnes & agilitie are in 
the Arabian toong called throughout all Egypt, Syria, Asia, 
Arabia Felix, and Deserta, by the name of Arabian horses : 
and the historiographers affirme, that this kinde of wilde 
horses, ranging vp and downe the Arabian deserts, and 
being broken and managed by the Arabians euer since 
the time of Isniael, haue so exceedingly multiplied and 
increased, that they haue replenished the most part of 
Africa : which opinion sauoureth of truth : for euen at this 


present there are g^eat store of wilde horses founde both 
in the African and Arabian deserts. And I myselfe sawe 
in the Numidian desert a wilde colte of a white colour, 
and hauing a curled maine. The most certaine triall of 
these horses is when they can ouertake the beast called 
Lant or the Ostrich in a race : which if they be able to 
performe, they are esteemed woorth a thousand ducats or 
an hundred camels. Howbeit very fewe of these horses 
are brought vp in Barbarie, but the Arabians that 
inhabite the deserts, and the people of Libya bring vp 
great numbers of them, vsing them not for trauell or war- 
fare, but onely for hunting, neither do they giue them any 
other meate but the milke of camels, and that twise euery fformfedde 

' Ttnth camels 

day and night, to the ende they may keepe them nimble, ^fV*. 
liuely, and of spare flesh ; and in the time of grasse they 
suffer them to feede in pastures, but then they ride not 
vpon them. But those that the princes of Barbarie bring 
vp, are not of such swiftnes, but being fedde with pro- 
uender, are more beautifuU and comely to the eie ; and 
these they vse vpon an vrgent necessitie, when they woulde 
escape the danger of their enimies. 

Of the wilde horse, 

THe wilde horse is one of those beasts that come sel- 
dome in sight. The Arabians of the desert take the 
wilde horse and eat him, saying that the yoonger the horse 
be, the sweeter is his flesh : but he will hardly be taken 
either with horses or dogs. In the waters where this beast 
keepeth they lay certaine snares, couering them ouer with 
sand, wherein his foote being caught he is intangled and 

Of the beast called Lant or Dant, 

THis beast in shape resembleth an oxe, sauing that he 
hath smaller legs and comelier horns. His haire is 
white, and his hoofs are as blacke as iet, and he is so 


exceeding swift, that no beast can ouertake him, but onely 
the Barbary horse, as is beforesaid. He is easlier caught 
in sommer then in winter, because that in regard to the 
extreme fretting heat of the sand his hoofs are then strained 
and set awry, by which meanes his swiftnes is abated, like 
as the swiftnes of stagges & roe-deer. Of the hide of this 
Targets made bcast are made shields and targets of great defence, which 

of a sktn. 

will not be pierced but onely with the forcible shot of a 
bullet ; but they are sold at an extreame price. 

Of the wilde oxe, 

IT resembleth the tame oxe, saue that it is lesse in 
stature, being of a gray or ashe-color, and of great 
swiftnes. It haunteth either the deserts, or the confines 
of the deserts. And the flesh thereof (they say) is ver}' 

Oftlie wild ass e. 

THis beast also being found either in the deserts or 
vpon the borders thereof, is of an ash-colour. In 
swiftnes they are surpassed onely by the Barbary horses, 
and when they see a man, they bray out a loude, kicking 
and wincing with their heeles, and standing stone-still, till 
one approcheth so near them, that he may touch them 
with his hand & then they betake themselues to flight. 
By the Arabians of the deserts they are caught with snares, 
and other engines. They goe in companies either when they 
feede or water themselues. Their flesh is hot and vnsauorie, 
and hath a wilde tast : but being set a cooling two dayes 
after it is sodden, it becometh very sauory and pleasant. 

Of the oxen vpon t/ie mountaines of Africa, 

A LI the oxen vpon the mountaines of Africa being tame 
cattell are of so meane a stature, that in comparison 
of other oxen they seeme to be but heifers of two yeeres 


old : but the mountainers, vsing them to the plough, say 
that they are strong and will indure much labour. 

Of the beast called Adimmain, 

IT is a tame beast, beeing shaped like a ramme, and of 
the stature of an asse, and hauing long and dangle 
cares. The Libyans vse these beasts instead of kine, and 
make of their milke great store of cheese and butter. 
They haue some wooU, though it be but short. I my selfe 
vpon a time being merily disposed, road a quarter of a mile 
vpon the backe of one of these beasts. Very many of them 
are in the deserts of Libya, and but few in other places : 
and it is a rare matter to see one of them in the Numidian 

Of t lie African Ramme, 

THere is no difference betweene these rammes of Africa 
and others, saue onely in their tailes, which are of a 
great thicknes, being by so much the grosser, but how much 
they are more fatte, so that some of their tailes waigh 
tenne, and other twentie pounds a peece, and they become 
fatte of their owne naturall inclination : but in Egypt there 
are diuers that feede them fatte with bran and barly, vntill 
their tailes growe so bigge that they cannot remooue them- 
selues from place to place : insomuch that those which 
take charge of them are faine to binde little carts vnder 
their tailes. to the end they may haue strength to walke. 
I my selfe sawe at a citie in Egypt called Asiot, and 
standing vpon Nilus, about an hundred and fiftie miles from 
Cairo, one of the saide rams tailes that weighed fower- 
.score pounds, and others affirmed that they had seenc one 
of those tailes of an hundred and fiftie pounds weight. All 
the fatte therefore of this beast consisteth in his taile ; 
neither is there any of them to be founde but onely in 
Tunis and in Egypt. 


Of the Lyon. 

THe Lyon is a most fierce and cruell beast, being 
hurtfull vnto all other beasts, and excelling them 
both in strength, courage, and crueltie, neither is he onely 
a deuourer of beasts, but of men also. In some places one 
Lyon will boldly encounter two hundred horsemen. They 
range without all feare among the flocks and droues of 
cattell, and whatsoeuer beast they can lay holde on, they 
cary it into the next woode vnto their whelpes : yea some 
Lyons there are (as I haue before said) that will vanquish 
and kill fiue or sixe horsemen in one companie. Howbeit 
such Lyons as Hue vpon the colde mountaines are not so 
outragious and cruell : but the hotter the places be where 
they keepe, the more rauenous and bolde are they, as 
namely vpon the frontiers of Temesna, and of the kingdome 
of Fez, in the desert of Angad neere Telensin, and betweene 
the citie of Bona and Tunis, all which are accounted the 
most famous and fierce Lyons in all Africa. In the spring, 
while they are giuen to lust and venerie, they haue most 
fierce and bloudie conflicts one with an other, eight or 
twelue Lions following after one Lyonesse. I haue heard 
many both men and women report, that if a woman 
chanceth to meete with a Lyon, and sheweth him her priuie 
parts, he will with crying and roaringe, cast his eies vpon 
the grounde and so depart. Beleeue it they that list But 
this I am well assured of, that whatsoeuer a Lyon getteth 
in his pawes, though it be a camell, he will carrie it away. 
I my selfe was twice in great hazard to haue beene deuoured 
of Lyons, but by the goodnes of God I escaped them. 

Of the Leopard, 

THese beasts liuing in the woods of Barbarie, will not 
for all their great strength and crueltie hurt any 
man, vnlesse it be very seldome, when as they meete with a 


man in a narrow passage, and cannot shun him, or when 
they are checked and prouoked vnto furie : for then they 
will flie vpon a man, laying holde vpon his visage with 
their talents, and plucking oflF so much flesh as they can 
catch, insomuch that sometimes they will crush his braines 
in peeces. They inuade not any flockes or droues of tame 
cattell, but are at deadly feude with dogs, whom they will 
kill and deuoure. The mountainers of the region of 
Constantina hunt them on horsebacke, stopping all passages 
where they might escape. The Leopard ranging vp and 
downe, and finding euery place so besette with horsemen 
that he cannot get away, windeth and turneth himselfe on 
all sides, and so becommeth a fit marke for the hunters to 
discharge their darts and arrowes vpon. But if the 
Leopard chanceth to escape, that man that lets him passe, is 
bounde by an vsuall custome to inuite the residue of the 
hunters vnto a banquet. 

Of the beast called Dabuh. 

THis beast called by the Arabians Dabuh, and by the 
Africans lesef, in bignes and shape resembleth a 
woolfe, sauing that his legges and feete are like to the legs 
and feete of a man. It is not hurtful vnto any other beast, 
but will rake the carkeises of men out of their graues, and 
will deuour them, being otherwise an abiect and silly 
creature. The hunters being acquainted with his denne, 
come before it singing and playing vpon a drum, by which 
melodie being allured foorth, his legs are intrapped in a 
strong rope, and so he is drawne out and slaine. 

Of the ciuei-cat, 

THese Cattes are naturally wilde, and are found in the 
woods of Ethiopia. The merchants taking their 
yoong whelps or kittes, feede them with milke, branne, and The manner of 
flesh, and keepe them in cages or grates. But their odori- dueiT" 


ferous excrement (which is nought else but their sweat) 
they gather twice or thrise euery day in manner following: 
first they driue them vp and downe the grate with a wande, 
till they sweate, and then they take the saide sweate from 
under their flankes, their shoulders, their necks, and their 
tailes : which excrement of sweate is commonly called 

Of the Ape, 

OF Apes there are diuers and sundrie kindes, those 
which haue tailes, being called in the African toong 
Monne, and those which haue none, Babuini. They are 
found in the woods of Mauritania, and vpon the mountaines 
of Bugia and Constantina. They represent the shape of 
man, not onely in their feete and hands, but also in their 
visages, and are naturally indued with woonderfull witte 
and subtiltie. They Hue vpon grasse and come, and go in 
great companies to feede in the corne fieldes, and one of 
their companie which standeth centinell or keepeth watch 
and ward vpon the borders, when he espieth the husband- 
man comming, he crieth out and giueth as it were an 
alarme to his fellowes, who euery one of them flee 
immediately into the next woods, and betake themselues to 
the trees. The shee apes carrie their whelpes vpon their 
shoulders, and will leape with them in that sort from one 
tree to another. Such of them as are taught, will do 
woonderfull feates, but they are angrie and curst, notwith- 
standing they will soone be appeased. 

Of the Conies of Africa, 

THere are great store of wilde Conies in Mauritania, 
and vpon the mountaines of Gumera ; which albeit 
they are accounted wilde, yet in my opinion they seeme 
tame, for their flesh diflereth neither in taste nor colou*' 
from the flesh of tame conies. 


Of the strange fisJus of Africa ^ and first of the 
fish called A mbara, 

THe fish called Ambara, being of a monstrous shape 
and bignes, is neuer seen but when it is cast vp dead 
vpon the sea-shore : and some of these fishes there are 
which containe twentie fiue cubites in length. The head of 
this fish is as hard as a stone. The inhabitants of the 
Ocean sea coast affirme that this fish casteth foorth Amber; 
but whether the said Amber be the sperma or the excrement Amb^r, 
therof, they cannot well determine. Howsoeuer it be, the 
fish may in regard of the hugenes be called a whale. 

Of the sea-horse, 

THis creature is commonly found in the riuers of Niger 
and Nilus. In shape it resembleth an horse, and in 
stature an asse, but it is altogether destitute of haire. It 
liueth both in the water and vpon the lande, and swimmeth 
to the shore in the night season. Barkes and botes laden 
with wares and sayling downe the riuer of Niger are greatly 
endangered by this sea-horse, for oftentimes he ouer- 
whelmeth and sinketh them. 

Of the sea-oxe. 

THe sea-oxe being couered with an exceeding hard 
skinne is shaped in all respects like vnto the land- 
oxe ; saue that in bignes it exceedeth not a calfe of sixe 
moneths olde. It is found in both the riuers of Niger and 
of Nilus, and being taken by fishers, is kept a long time 
aliue out of the water. I my selfe sawe one at Cairo led up 
and downe by the neck in a chaine, which (they say) was 
taken at the city of Asna standing vpon the bank of Nilus, 
about foure hundred miles from Cairo. 


Of ttu Tortoise, 

THis might be numbred among the land-creatures, 
because it liueth for the most part in the deserts. In 
the Libyan deserts are found verie many as big as a tunne. 
And Bicri the Cosmographer in his booke of the regions 
and lourneis of Africa reporteth, that a certaine man being 
weary of trauelling, ascended to his thinking, vpon an high 
stone lying in the desert, to the end he might free himselfe 
from the danger of serpents and venemous beasts ; who 
hauing slept soundly thereupon all night found himselfe in 
the morning remooued three miles from the place where he 
first lay downe, and thereby vnderstood that it was not a 
stone but a tortoise wheron he reposed himselfe, which 
lying still all the day long creepeth for foode in the night- 
season, but so slowly, that her pace can hardly be perceiued. 
I my selfe haue seen some of these tortoises, as big as a 
barrell, but neuer any so huge as the last before mentioned. 
The flesh of a tortoise not aboue seuen yeres old being 
A medicine for eaten scucn daics together is said to be a perfect medicine 

the leprosie. ° ^ 

against the leprosie. 


Of the Crocodile. 

^His cruell and noisome beast commonly frequenteth 
the riuers of Niger and Nilus, and containeth in 
length twelue cubites and aboue, the taile thereof being as 
long as the whole bodie besides, albeit there are but fewe 
of so huge a bignes. It goeth vpon fower feete like a 
Lizard, neither is it aboue a cubite and a halfe high. The 
taile of this beast is full of knots, and the skin thereof is so 
exceeding hard, that no crossebowe will enter it. Some 
praie vpon fishes onely, but others vpon beasts and men. 
The craft or Which lurking about the bankes of the riuer, do craftily 

the Crocodile ^ ' -^ 

in taking both lay waitc for men and beastes that come the same way, 

men and beasts. 

about whom suddenly winding their tailes, they draw them 


into the water, and there deuour them. Howbeit some of 
them are not so cruell by nature: for if they were, no 
inhabitants coulde Hue neere vnto the riuers of Nilus and 
Niger. In eating they mooue the vpper iawe onely, their 
neather iawe being ioined vnto their breast-bone. Not 
many yeeres sithens, passing vp the riuer of Nilus towards 
the citie of Cana, standing in the vpper part of Egypt, 
fower hundred miles from Cairo, on a certaine night whilest 
wee were in the midst of our iourney, the moone being 
ouershadowed with clouds, the marriners and passengers 
all fast a sleepe, and the barke vnder sailes, I my selfe 
studying by candle-light in my cabben, was called vpon by 
a deuout olde man in the barke, who bestowed the same 
night in watching and praier, and saide vnto me, call (I 
praie you) some of your company, who may helpe me to 
draw vppe this peece of woode floting vpon the water, 
which will serue to morrow for the dressing of our dinner. 
My selfe sir (quoth I) will come and helpe you, rather then 
wake any of our company in the dead of the night. Nay 
(quoth the old man) I will trie whether I be able to drawe 
it vp alone or no. Arid so when the barke was neere vnto 
the woode, as he supposed, holding a rope in his hande to 
cast into the water, he was sodainly intangled with a 
crocodiles long taile, and was in a moment drawen vnder 
the water. Whereupon I making a shoute, all the people 
in the barke arose, and striking sailes wee staide for the 
space of an hower, diuers in the meane time leaping into 
the water to seeke the man, but altogither in vaine : and 
therefore all of them affirmed that he was caught by a 
crocodile. As we sailed farther we sawe great numbers of 
crocodiles vpon the bankes of Islands in the midst of Nilus 
lie beaking them in the sunne with their iawes wide open, 
whereinto certaine little birdes about the bignes of a thrush 
entring, came flying foorth againe presently after. The 
occasion whereof was tolde me to be this : The crocodiles 


Utile Hrds fly- by rcason of their continuall deuouring of beasts and fishes, 

ing into the 

crocodiles hauc certaine peeces of flesh sticking fast betweene their 
wormesfi-om forked teeth, which flesh being putrified, breedeth a kind 
teeth. of wormes wherewith they are cruelly tormented. Where- 

fore the saide birds flying about, and seeing the wormes, 
enter into the crocodiles iavves, to satisfie their hunger 
therewith. But the crocodile perceiuing himselfe freed 
from the wormes of his teeth, offereth to shut his mouth, 
and to deuour the little birde that did him so good a tume, 
but being hindred from his vngratefull attempt by a pricke 
which groweth vpon the birds head, he is constrained to 
open his iawes and to let her depart. The shee crocodile 
laying egges vpon the shore, couereth them with sand ; 
and so soone as the yoong crocodiles are hatched, they 
crawle into the riuer. Those crocodiles that forsake the 
riucr and haunt the deserts become venemous ; but such as 
continue in Nilus, are destitute of poison. In Egypt there 
are many that eate of the flesh of the crocodile, and affirme 
it to be of an excellent taste. His larde or grease is soldc 
^ very deere at Cairo, and is saide to be very medicinable for 
Th£ manner of q\^^ and Cankered woundes. They take the crocodile in 

taking the ' 

crocodile, manner following ; The fishers binding a strong and large 
rope vnto some tree or poste standing for the nonce vpon 
the banke of Nilus, fasten vnto the end thereof an iron 
hooke of a cubite long, and about the thicknes of a mans 
finger, and vpon the hooke they hang a ramme or a goate, 
by the bleating noise whereof the crocodile being allured, 
commeth foorth of the water, and swalloweth vp both the 
baite and the hooke, wherewithal feeling himselfe inwardly 
wounded, he strugleth mightily, & beateth the ground, the 
fishers in the meane time pulling and slacking the rope, till 
the crocodile falleth down vanquished & dead : then they 
thrust him in with certaine darts and iauelins vnder the 
shoulders and flanks where his skin is most tender, and so 
make a quicke dispatch of him. His backe is so harde 


and thicke, that an harquebuse or caliuer will scarce pierce 
it. Of these beasts I sawe aboue three hundred heads 
placed vpon the wals of Cana, with their lawes wide open, 
being of so monstrous and incredible a bignes, that they 
were sufficient to haue swallowed vp a whole cowe at once, 
and their teeth were great and sharpe. The Egyptian 
fishers vse to cut off the heads of crocodiles, and to set 
them vpon the wals of their cities, and so doe hunters vse 
the heads of wilde beasts. 

Of the dragon. 

IN the caues of Atlas are founde many huge and 
monstrous dragons, which are heauie, and of a slowe 
motion, bicause the midst of their body is grosse, but their 
necks and tailes are slender. They are most venemous 
creatures, insomuch that whosoeuer is bitten or touched by 
them, his flesh presently waxeth soft & weake, neither can 
he by any meanes escape death. 

Of the Hydra. 

THis serpent being short in proportion of body, and 
hauing a slender taile and necke, liueth in the Libyan 
deserts. The poison thereof is most deadly, so that if a 
man be bitten by this beast, he hath none other remedie, 
but to cut off the wounded part, before the poison disperseth 
it selfe into the other members. 

Of the creature called Dub. 

THis creature lining also in the deserts, resembleth in 
shape a Lizzard, sauing that it is somewhat bigger, 
and containeth in length a cubite, and in bredth fower 
fingers. It drinketh no water at all, and if a man poure 
any water into the mouth thereof, it presently dieth. It 
laieth egges in manner of a tortoise, and is destitute of 
poison. The Arabians take it in the deserts : and I my 



selfe cut the throate of one which I tooke, but it bled a 
very little. Being flaied and rested, it tasteth somewhat 
like a frogge. In swiftnes it is comparable to a Lizzard, 
and being hunted, if it chanceth to thrust the head into an 
hole, it can by no force be drawne out, except the hole be 
digged wider by the hunters. Hauing beene slaine three 
daies togither, and then being put to the fire, it stirreth 
it selfe as it were newelie dead. 

Of the GuaraL 

THis beast is like vnto the former, sauing that it is 
somewhat bigger, and hath poison both in the head 
and taile, which two parts being cut off, the Arabians will 
eate it, notwithstanding it be of a deformed shape and vgly 
colour, in which respects I loathed alwaies to eate the flesh 

Of the Camelion, 

THe camelion being of the shape and bignes of a lizzard, 
is a deformed, crooked, and leane creature, hauing a 
long and slender tayle like a mouse, and being of a slowe 
pace. It is nourished by the element of ayer, and the sun- 
beames, at the rising wherof it gapeth, and tumeth it selfe 
vp and downe. It changeth the colour according to the 
varietie of places where it commeth, being sometimes black 
and sometimes greene, as I my selfe haue seen it It is at 
great enmity with venemous serpents, for when it seeth any 
How the came- He sleeping vnder a tree, it presently climeth vp the same 

lion killeth the ^ ^ > f J f 

serpent, tree, and looking downe vpon the serpents head, it voideth 

out of the mouth as it were, a long threede of spittle, with 
a round drop like a perle hanging at the end, which drop 
falling wrong, the camelion changeth his place, till it may 
light directly vpon the serpents head, by the vertue wherof 
he presently dyeth. Our African writers haue reported 
many things concerning the properties and secret qualities 
of this beast, which at this present I do not wel remember. 


Oftfie Ostrich, 

SOmewhat we will here say concerning the strange birdes 
and fowles of Africa, and first of the ostriche, which 
in shape resembleth a goose, but that the neck and legges 
are somewhat longer, so that some of them exceede the 
length of two cubites. The body of this birde is large, and 
the winges therof are full of great feathers both white and 
black, which wings and feathers being vnfitte to fly withall, 
do helpe the ostriche, with the motion of her traine, to 
runne a swifte pace. This fowle liueth in dry deserts, and 
layeth to the number of ten or twelue egges in the sandes, 
which being about the bignes of great bullets, waigh fifteene 
pounds a piece ; but the ostrich is of so weake a memorie, 
that shee presently forgetteth the place where her egges 
were laide. And afterward the same, or some other 
ostriche-henne finding the said egges by chance, hatcheth 
and fostereth them as if they were certainly her owne : the 
chickens are no sooner crept out of the shell, but they 
prowle vp and downe the deserts for their foode : and 
before their fethers be growne, they are so swift, that a man 
shall hardly ouertake them. The ostriche is a silly and 
deafe creature, feeding vpon any thing which it findeth, be 
it as hard and vndigestible as yron. The flesh especially 
of their legges, is of a slymie and strong tast ; and yet the 
Numidians vse it for foode, for they take yong ostriches 
and set them vp a fatting. The ostriches wander vp and 
downe the deserts in orderly troupes, so that a far off a 
man would take them to bee so many horsemen, which 
illusion hath often dismaied whole carouans. Being in 
Numidia I my selfe ate of the ostriches flesh, which 
seemed to haue not altogether an vnsauory tast. 



Of the Eagle, 

OF eagles there arc diuers kindes, according to their 
naturall properties, the proportion of their bodies, 
or the diuersitie of their colours : and the greatest kinde of 
eagles arc called in the Arabian toong Nesir. The Africans 
teach their eagles to pray vpon foxes and woolues ; which 
in their encounter seaze vpon the heads of the saide beasts 
with their bils, and vpon the backes with their talents, to 
A strange auoidc the dancfer of biting. But if the beast tume his 

narration, " ^ 

belly vpwarde, the eagle will not forsake him, till she hath 
either peckt out his eies, or slaine him. Many of our 
African writers affirme, that the male eagle oftentimes 
ingendring with a shee woofe, begetteth a dragon, hauing 
the beake and wings of a birde, a serpents taile, the feete of 
a woolfe, and a skin speckled and partie coloured like the 
skin of a serpent. Neither can it open the eie-lids, and it 
liueth in caues. This monster albeit my selfe haue not 
scene, yet the common report ouer all Africa affirmeth that 
there is such an one. 

Of the foul e called Nesir, 

THis is the greatest foule in all Africa, and exceedeth a 
crane in bignes, though the bill, necke, and l^s arc 
somewhat shorter. In flying this birde mounteth vp so 
high into the aire, that it cannot be discerned ; but at the 
sight of a dead carkase it will immediately descend. This 
birde liueth a long time, and I my selfe haue scene many 
of them vnfeathered by reason of extreme old age : where- 
fore hauing cast all their feathers, they retume vnto their 
nest, as if they were newly hatched, and are there nourished 
by the yoonger birds of the same kinde. The Italians call 
it by the name of a Vulture, but I thinke it to be of another 
kinde. They nestle vpon high rockes, and vpon the tops 
of vvildc and desert mountaines, especially vpon mount 


Atlas : and they are taken by such as are acquainted with 
those places. 

Oftlu birde called Bezi^ or the hauke, 

THis bird called in Latine Accipiter^ is very common in 
Africa. But the best African haukes are white, 
being taken vpon certaine mountaines of the Numidian 
deserts, and with these haukes they pursue the crane. Of 
these haukes there are diuers kinds, some being vsed to flie 
at partriges and quailes, and others at the hare. 

Of the Bat. 

THese vgly.night-birdes are rife all the world ouer : but 
in certaine caues of Atlas there are many of them 
founde as bigge and bigger then doues, especially in their 
winges : which albeit my selfe neuer sawe,yet haue I heard 
of them by diuers persons. 

Oftheparrat or poppiniay. 

THese parrats are commonly founde in the woods of 
Ethiopia : but the better sort of them, and such as 
will imitate mans voice more perfectly, are the greene ones. 
Parrats there are as big as a doue, of diuers colours, some 
red, some blacke, and some ash-coloured, which albeit they 
cannot so fitly expresse mans speech, yet haue they most 
sweete and shrill voices. 

Of the locustes. 

OF locustes there are sometimes scene such monstrous 
swarmes in Africa, that in flying they intercept the 
sunne-beames like a thicke cloude. They deuoure trees, 
leaues, fruites, and all greene things growing out of the 
earth. At their departure they leaue egges behinde them, 
whereof other yoong locusts breede, which in the places 
where they are left, will eate and consume al things euen to 


the very barke of trees, procuring thereby extreme dearth 
of come, especially in Mauritania. Howbeit the inhabi- 
tants of Arabia deserta, and of Libya, esteeme the comming 
of these locusts as a fortunate boading : for seething or 
drying them in the sun, they bruise them to powder, and 
so eate them. 

And nowe let thus much suffice to haue spoken of the 
African beastes, foules, fishes, serpents, &c. which are either 
not to be found in Europe, or such as differ from creatures 
of the same kinde there. Wherefore hauing once briefly 
intreated in the chapters following of certaine minerals, 
trees, and fruits of Africa, I purpose then to conclude this 
my present discourse. 

Whereas mine author lohn Leo intreateth but briefly of 
these locustes, which God vseth as a most sharp scourge 
between times to disciple all the nations of Africa ; I 
thought it not vnmeete to adde two other relations or 
testimonies of the same argument : the one being 
reuerend in regard of the authors antiquitie ; and the 
other credible and to be accepted, for that the reporter 
himselfe was a most diligent and faithfuU eie-witnes of 
the same. 


The first testimonie, taken out of the ii. chap. 

of the fift booke of Paulus Orosius 

contra Paganos. 

Of an ftuge and pernicious companie of Locusts in Africa ^ 

which after they had wasted the countrey, being 

drowned in the sea, and cast vp dead on the 

s/tore, bred a most woonderfull pestilence 

both of man and beast, 

N the consulship of Marcus Plautius 
HypsceuSy and Marcus Futuius Flaccus^ 
Africa scarce breathing from bloudie 
warres, an horrible and extraordinarie 
destruction ensued. For whereas now 
throughout all Africa, infinite multi- 
tudes of locustcs were gathered 
togither, & had not only quite deuoured the corne on the 
grounde, and consumed the herbes with part of their 
rootes, and the leaues and tender boughes of the trees, but 
had gnawne also the bitter barke and drie woode ; being 
with a violent and sudden winde hoised aloft in mightie 
swarmes, and carried a long time in the aire, they were at 
length drowned in the African sea. Whose lothsome and 
putrified carcases being by the waues of the sea cast vp in 
huge heapes farre and wide along the shore, bred an 
incredible stinking & infectious smell : whereupon followed 
so general a pestilence of al liuing creatures, that the 
corrupt dead bodies of foules, cattell, and wilde beasts 
dissolued by the contagion of the aire, augmented the furie 
of the plague. But how great and extraordinarie a death 
of men there was, I cannot but tremble to report : for in 
Numidia, where Micipsa was then king, died fowerscore 
thousand persons ; and vpon the sea-coast next adioining 


to Carthage and Vtica, aboue two hundred thousand are 
saide to haue perished. Yea in the citie of Vtica it selfe 
were by this meanes swept from the face of the earth thirtie 
thousand braue soldiers which were appointed to be the 
garrison for all Africa. And the destruction was so sudaine 
and violent, as they report, that out of one gate of Vtica, in 
one and the same day, .were carried aboue fifteene hundred 
dead corpes of those lustie yoong gallants. So that by the 
grace and fauour of almightie God (through whose mercy, 
and in confidence of whom, I doe speake these things) I 
may boldly affirme ; that albeit sometime in our daies the 
locusts in diuers parts, and vsually, doe some domage 
which is tolerable : yet neuer befell there in the time of the 
Christians so insupportable a mischiefe, as that this scourge 
of locusts, which being aliue are by no means sufferable, 
should after their death prooue farre more pernicious : and 
which also liuing, the fruits of the earth would haue beene 
quite deuoured ; it had beene much better they had neuer 
died, to the plague and destruction of all earthly creatures. 
Hitherto Pau/us Orosius. 


The second testimonie taken out of the 32. and ;i;i. 
chapters of the Ethiopian historic of Francis 
Aluarez, which for the satisfaction of euerie 
Reader, I haue put downe with all parti- 
cularities and circumstances. 

Of the great multitude of Locusts, and the infinite 

damage that t/iey procure in the dominions of 

Prete lanni, Otap, 32. 

N this quarter and throughout all the 
dominion of Prete lanni, there is an 
horrible and great plague, to wit an 
innumerable companie of Locustes, 
which eate and consume the come, 
and trees of fruite ; and so great is 
the number of these creatures, as it is 
not credible, for with the multitude of them the earth is 
couered, and the aire so ouerspred, as one may hardlie 
discerne the sunne : and further I affirme, that it is a thing 
most strange to him who hath not seene it ; and if the 
domage they performe were generall through all the 
prouinces and kingdomes of Prete lanni, his people wouldc 
die with famine, neither coulde men possiblie there inhabite: 
But one yeere they destroy one prouince, and the next 
yeere another prouince : as if for example, they waste the 
kingdome of Portugall or Castile this yeere, an other yeere 
they are in the quarters of Lenteio, an other in Estre- 
madura, an other in Beira, or betweene the riuer Dorus and 
Minius, an other on the mountaines, an other in old 
Castilia, Aragon or Andaluzia, and otherwhiles in two or 
three of these prouinces at once ; and wheresoeuer they 
come, the earth is more wasted and destroied by them, then 


if it had beene all ouer consumed with a fire. These locusts 
are as bigge as the greatest grashoppers, hauing yellow 
wings. Their comming into the countrie is knowne a day 
before : not for that we can see them, but we know it by 
the sunne, who is yellow of colour, this being a signe that 
they draw neere to the countrie, as also the earth looketh 
yellowe, by reason of the light which reflecteth from their 
wings : whereupon the people in a manner become 
presentlie halfe dead, saying, we are vndone, for the 
Ambati, that is to say, the locustes are come. And I can 
not forbeare to set downe that which I sawe three sundrie 
times, and first in Barua, where we had now befene for the 
space of three yeeres, and heere we heard it saide often, 
that such a countrey and such a realme was destroied by 
the Locusts : and being in this prouince we sawe the sunne 
and the vpper part of the earth looke all yellow, the people 
being in a manner halfe dead for sorrow: But the day 
following it was an incredible thing to see the number of 
these creatures that came, which to our iudgement couered 
fower and twentie miles of lande, as afterward we were 
enformed. When this scourge and plague was come, the 
priestes of that place came and sought me out, requesting 
me to giue them some remedie for the driuing of them 
away, and I answered, that I could tel them nothing, but 
only that they shoulde deuoutly pray vnto God, that he 
woulde driue them out of the countrie. And so I went to 
the Ambassadour, and told him, that it would be very good 
to goe on procession, beseeching God that»hee woulde 
deliuer the countrie, who peraduenture in his great mercie 
might heare vs. This liked the Ambassadour very well : 
and the day following we gathered togither the people of 
the land, with all the priests, and taking the consecrated 
stone, and the crosse, according to their custome, all we 
Portugals sung the Letanie, and appointed those of the 
land, that they should lift up their voices aloud as we didi 


saying in their language Zio marina Christos, which is as 
much to say, as Lord God haue mercy vpon vs : and with 
this manner of inuocation we went ouer a peece of grounde, 
where there were fieldes of wheate, for the space of a mile, 
euen to a little hill : and heere I caused many of these ^ strange 

^ ^ exorcisme. 

locustes to be taken, pronouncing ouer them a certaine 
coniuration, which I had about me in writing, hauing made 
it that night, requesting, admonishing, and excommuni- 
cating them, enioining them within the space of three 
howers to depart towards the sea, or the lande of the 
Moores, or the desert mountaines, and to let the Christians 
alone: and they not performing this, I summoned and 
charged the birdes of heauen, the beasts of the earth, and 
all sorts of tempests, to scatter, destroy, and eate vp their 
bodies: and to this effect I took a quantitie of locusts, 
making this admonition to them present, in the behalfe 
likewise of them absent, and so giuing them libertie, I 
suffered them to depart. It pleased God to heare vs 
sinners, for in our returne home, they came so thicke vpon 
our backes, as it seemed that they woulde haue broken our 
heads, or shoulders, so hard they strooke against vs, as if 
we had beene beaten with stones and cudgels, and in this 
sort they went towards the sea: The men, women, and 
children remaining at home, were gotten vpon the tops, or 
tarrasses of their houses, giuing God thankes that the 
locusts were going away, some afore, and others followed. 
In the meane while towardes the sea, there arose a great 
cloude with thunder, which met them full in the teeth, and 
continued for the space of three howers with much raine, 
and tempest, that filled all the riuers, and when the raine 
ceased, it was a fearefull thing to behold the dead Locustes, 
which were more then two * yardes in height vpon the * Orfathomes. 
bankes of the riuers, and in some riuers there were mightie 
heapes of them, so that the morning following there was 
not one of them found alive vpon the earth. The 


people of the places adioining hearing this, came in great 
numbers to enquire how this matter was effected ; many of 
the inhabitants said, these Portugals be holy men, and by 
the power of their God, they haue killed and driuen away 
the locusts : others saide, especially the priests and friers 
of those places neere about, that we were witches, and by 
power of enchantments had driuen away the saide creatures, 
and that for this cause we feared neither lions, nor any 
other wilde beast : Three daies after this effect, there 
came vnto vs a Xuum, that is, a captaine of a place called 
Coiberia, with men, priests, and friers, to request vs, that 
we woulde for the loue of God helpe them, saying that 
they were in a manner destroied by the locustes ; and that 
place was a daies iourney off towards the sea. They came 
to vs about euening, and at the same instant, I and fewer 
other Portugals departed awaie with them, we went all 
night, and came thither an hower within daie, where we 
found, that all those of the count rey, with many of the 
other places adioining were assembled togither, for they 
were also molested by the locusts. And assoone as we 
were come, we went our procession rounde about the land, 
which was seated vpon an high hill, from whence we might 
discerne manie countries and places all yellow by reason of 
the multitude of locusts. Such inuocations and ceremonies 
being ended, as we performed in the other place, we went 
to dinner, & the men that were borderers, requested vs to 
goe with them, promising vs great rewardes : It pleased 
God, that as soon as we had dined, we saw all the earth so 
cleared that there was not soe much as one locust to be 
scene : The people seeing this and not being satisfied with 
the fauour and grace receiued, they requested vs to goe and 
blesse their possessions, for they were yet afraid least the 
locusts would returne ; and so wee departed. 


Of the dommage we sawe done in another prouince by 

the Locustes, in two sundrie places. 

Chap. 33. 

AN other time also we sawe the Locustes, being in a 
towne called Abuguna : Prete lanni sent vs to this 
towne which is in the kingdome of Angote, and distant 
from Barua, where we continued, thirtie daies iourney, to 
the ende that there we might be furnished with victuals : 
Being come thither, I went with the Ambassadour 
ZagasabOy who came into Portugal), and fiue Genoueses, 
towards a certain towne & a moutaine called Aguoan, & 
we trauailed fiue daies through places all desert & destroied, 
which places were sowen with Maiz, hauing stalkes as great 
as those props which we vse about our vines, and we might 
see them all broken and troden vnderfoote, as if there 
had beene a tempest, and this had the locusts done. Their 
wheate, barley, and Taffo da guza were so eaten, as it 
seemed they neuer had beene either tilled or sowne. The 
trees were without leaues, and their barkes all gnawne & 
eaten, and there was not so much as a spire of grasse, for 
they had deuoured every thing ; and if we had not beene 
aduised, and foreseene the same (for when we departed, we 
laded our mules with victuals) we and our beastes had died 
togither for hunger. The countrey was couered all ouer 
with winglesse locustes ; and they saide, that those were 
the seede of them, which had deuoured all, and that when 
they had gotten wings, they would go seeke out the rest, 
the number of these was so great, as I am loath to report, 
bicause I shoulde not perhaps be credited : but this I may 
well affirme, that I sawe men, women, and children, sit as 
it were amazed amongst these locusts, and I saide vnto 
them, why sit you thus halfe dead, and doe not kill these 
creatures, and so reuenge your selues of the wrong, that 
their fathers and mothers haue done you, or at least that 


those which you kill may be able to doe you no more 
harme ? They answered, that they had not the hart, to 
withstand the scourge of God which hee had sent vpon 
them for their sins : And all the people of this place de- 
parted hence, so that we found the waies full of men and 
women on foot, with their children in their armes, and vpon 
their heads, going into other countries, where they might 
finde victuall, and it was great pittie to behold them. We 
being in the saide prouince of Abuguna, in a place called 
Aquate, there came such swarmes of locustes as were 
innumerable: which one day began to fall vpon the 
grounde about nine of the clocke in the morning, and 
ceased not while night ; where they lighted, there they 
staide, and then the next day in the morning went away : 
so that at three of the clocke in the afternoone there was 
not one of them to be seene, and in this short time they 
left the trees vtterly destitute of leaues. On the same day 
and hower there came an other squadron, and these left 
neither tree nor bough vngnawen and eaten, and thus did 
they for fiue days one after another : they said that those 
were yoong ones which went to seeke their fathers, and 
they did the like, as those we sawe without wings : the 
space that these locustes tooke vp, was nine miles, for 
which circuit there remained neither barke nor leaues vpon 
the trees, & the countrey looked not as though it had bin 
burnt, but as though it had snowed thereupon, and this 
was by reason of the whitenes of the trees which were 
pilled bare by the Locustes, and the earth was all swept 
cleane : It was Gods will that the haruest was alreadie in : 
wee coulde not vnderstande which way they afterwards 
went, bicause they came from the sea warde, out of the 
kingdome of Daucali, which belongeth to the Moores, who 
are continually in warre, as also we coulde by no meanes 
knowe the ende of their iourney or course. Thus much 
out of Francis Aluarez. 


Of the minerals : And first of minerall salt, 

THe greater part of Africa hath none other salt but such 
as is digged out of quarries & mines, after the maner 
of marble or free stone, being of a white, red, and graie 
colour. Barbaric aboundeth with salt, and Numidia is 
indifferently furnished therewith : but the lande of Negros, 
and especially the inner part of Ethiopia, is so destitute 
thereof, that a pound of salt is there solde for halfe a ducate. 
And the people of the saide regions vse not to set salt 
vpon their tables ; but holding a crum of salte in hands, 
they licke the same at euery morsell of meate which they 
put in their mouthes. In certaine lakes of Barbaric all the 
sommer time there is faire and white salt congealed or 
kerned, as namely in diuers places neere vnto the citic of 

Of the minerall called Antimonie. 

THis minerall growing in many places of Africa in the 
lead-mines is separated from the lead by the helpe of 
brimstone. Great plentie of this minerall is digged out of 
the bottome of mount Atlas, especially where Numidia 
bordereth vpon the kingdome of Fez. Brimstone likewise 
is digged in great abundance out of other places of Africa. 

Of Euphorbium. 

EVphorbium is the iuice or gumme of a certaine herbe 
growing like the head of a wilde thistle, betweene 
the branches wherof grow certain fruits as big in compassc 
as a greene cucumber ; after which shape or likenes it 
beareth certain little graines or seedes ; and some of the 
said fruits are an elle long, and some are longer. They 
grow not out of the branches of the herbe but spring out of 
the firme ground, and out of one flag you shall see some- 
times 20. and sometimes 30. of them issue foorth. The 


people of the same region, when the said fruits are once 
ripe, do prick them with their kniues, and out of the holes 
proceedeth a liquor or iuice much like vnto milke, which by 
little and little, groweth thick and slimy. And so being 
growen thick, they take it off with their kniues, putting it 
in bladders & drying it. Arid the plant or herb it selfe is 
full of sharp prickles. 


OF pitch there are two kindes, the one being naturall, 
and taken out of certaine stones, which are in 
fountaines ; the water wherof retaineth the vnsauorie smell 
and tast of the same ; and the other being artificial, and 
proceeding out of the iuniper or pine-tree : and this arti- 
ficiall pitch I saw made vpon mount Atlas in manner 
following. They make a deepe and round furnace with an 
hole in the bottome, through which hole the pitch may fall 
downe into an hollow place within the ground being made 
in form of a little vessel : and putting into the said furnace 
the boughes of the foresaid trees broken into small pieces, 
they close vp the mouth of the furnace, and make a fire 
vnder it, by the heate wherof the pitch distilleth forth of 
the wood through the bottome of the furnace into the 
foresaide hollow place : and so it is taken vp and put in 
bladders or bagges. 

0/ tfu fruite called Maus or Alusa, 

THis fruite growing vpon a smal tree which beareth 
large and broade leaues of a cubite long, hath a most 
excellent and delicate taste, and springeth forth about the 
bignes of a small cucumber. The Mahumetan doctours 
affirme, that this was the fruite which God forbad our first 
parents to eat in Paradise, which when they had eaten they 
couered their naked nes with leaues of the same fruit, as 
being of all other leaues most meete for that purpose. 


They grew in great abundance at Sela a towne of the 
kingdome of Fez ; but in farre greater plenty in the land 
of Egypt, and especially at Damiata. 

Of Cassia. 

THe trees bearing Cassia are of great thicknes, hauing 
leaues like vnto the mulberie-tree. They bear a 
broad and white blossome, and are so laden with fruits, 
that they are constrained to gather great store before they 
be ripe, least the tree should breake with ouermuch waight. 
And this kinde of tree groweth onely in Egypt. 


Of the fruit called Tetfez, 

Erfez is to be called rather by the name of a root then 
of a fruit, and is like vnto a mushrom or toad-stoole, 
but that it is somewhat bigger. It is enclosed with a white 
rinde and groweth in hot and sandy places. Where it 
lyeth, it may easilie be perceiued by the swelling and 
opening of the ground. Some of them are as bigge as a 
walnut, and others as a limon. The phisicians, which call 
it Camha, affirme it to be a refrigeratiue or cooling fruit. 
It groweth in great plentie vpon the Numidian deserts, and 
the Arabians take as great delight in eating of the same as 
in eating of sugar. This fruit being stued vpon the coles, 
and afterward made cleane, and sodden in fat broath they 
esteeme for great dainties. Also the Arabians seeth it in 
water and milk, and so eat it. It groweth likewise plenti- 
fullie in the sandes neare vnto the towne of Sela. Of the 
date or palme-tree, because we haue sufficiently spoken in 
our description of Segelmesse in Numidia, we will here in 
this place say nothing at all. 



Of the Egyptian figg called by the Egyptians 
themselues Giumeis, 

THe tree of this figg resembleth other fig-trees both in 
outward forme and in leaues, but it is of an exceed- 
ing height : neither doth the fruit grow among the leaues, 
or vpon the ends of the twigs, but out of the very body of 
the tree, where no leaues at all grow. These figs tast like 
vnto other figes, but they haue a thicker skin and are of a 
tawnie colour. 

Of the tree called Ettalche. 

IT is an high and a thornie tree, hauing such leaues as 
the iuniper hath, and bearing a gum like vnto mastick, 
wherwith the African apothecaries vse to mingle and 
adulterate their mastick, because it hath the same colour 
and yealdeth some smell also. There are found likewise 
such trees in the Numidian and Lybian deserts and in the 
land of Negros : but the trees of Numidia being cut in the 
midst, consist of white wood like vnto the trees before- 
named, and the Lybian trees of a brownie or tawnie wood, 
but the trees of the land of Negros are extreame black 
within. And that black pith or hart of this tree, wherof 
musical instruments are made, is called by the Italians 
Sangu. That wood which is of the browne or tawnie 
colour is vsed by the African phisicians for the curing of 
the French poxe, whereupon it is commonly called by the 
name of pock-wood. 

Of t lie root called Tauzarghente, 

THis root growing in the westerne part of Africa vpon the 
Ocean sea shore, yeeldeth a fragrant and odoriferous 
smel. And the merchants of Mauritania carry the same 
into the land of Negros, where the people vse it for a most 


excellent perfume, and yet they neither burne it nor put 
any fire at all thereto : for being kept onely in an house, it 
yeeldeth a naturall sent of it selfe. In Mauritania they 
sell a bunche of these rootes for halfe a ducate, which being 
carried to the land of Negros is sold again for eightie or 
one hundred ducates and sometimes for more. 

Of the roote called Addad. 

THe herbe thereof is bitter, and the roote it selfe is so 
venemous, that one drop of the water distilled 
therout, will kill a man within the space of an hower, which 
is commonly knowen euen to the women of Africa. 

Of the root called Sumag, 

THis roote growing also vpon the westerne part of 
mount Atlas, is said to be verie comfortable and 
preseruative vnto the priuie parts of man, & being drunk 
in an electuarie, to stir vp venereal lust, &c. Neither must 
I here omit that which the inhabitants of rrtount Atlas do 
commonly report, that many of those damosels which keepe 
cattel vpon the said mountaines haue lost their virginity by 
none other occasion, but by making water vpon the said 
roote : vnto whom I would in merriment answere, that I 
beleeued all which experience had taught concerning the 
secret vertue of the same roote. Yea they affirmed more- 
ouer, that some of their maidens were so infected with this 
roote, that they were not only deflowred of their virginitie, 
but had also their whole bodies puffed vp and swolne. 


Hese are the things memorable and woorthie of know, 
ledge, seene and obserued by me lohn Leo^ through- 

out al Africa, which countrey I haue in ♦ all places traueiled \'[¥^ f^' "* 
quite ouer : wherein whatsoeuer I sawe woorthy the Numidia, 

^ ^ Libya, the 

obseruation, I presently committed to writing: and thosQ lande of Ne- 
things which I sawe not, I procured to be at large declared Egypt. 



vnto me by most credible and substantial! persons, which 
were themselues eie-witnesses of the same : and so hauing 
gotten a fitte oportunitie, I thought good to reduce these 
my trauels and studies into this one volume. 

Written at Rome in the ye ere of Christ 
1526. and vpon t/ie tenth of March. 

Heere endeth the description of Africa written by 

John Leo, borne in Granada, and brought 

vp in Barbarie. 

A briefe relation concerning the 

dominions^ reuenues, forces, and maner of 

gouernment of sundry the greatest princes either 

inhabiting within the bounds of Africa, or 

at least possessing some parts thereof 

translated^ for the most part^ out of 


F*ricke hath euer beene the least knowen 
and haunted parte in the world, 
chiefly by reason of the situation 
thereof vnder the torride Zone ; 
which the ancients thought to be vn- 
habitable. Whose opinion, although 
in verie deede it is not true, bicause 
we knowe that betweene the two Tropickes there are most 
fruitefull countries, as namely Abassia, and the kingdomes 
of Angola, & Congo, with all India, new Spaine, and 
Brasile ; yet neither is it altogither false : For no part of 
the world hath greater deserts, nor vaster wildernes, then 
this of Africa. These deserts, which extend themselues 
from the Atlanticke Ocean euen vnto the borders of Egypt, 
for more then a thousand miles, and runne out sometimes 
two hundred, and otherwhiles 300. miles in bredth, diuide 
Africke into two parts : whereof the southerly part was 
neuer throughly knowne to the people of Europe, as also 
Atlas, which diuideth Numidia from Africa the lesse, is 
some impediment to the same: And towards the east it 
seemeth that nature also ment to conceale the same, by 
those deserts that lye bewixt the Red sea and the lande of 
Egypt. In the first times after the floud we finde mention 


very often made of the kingdomes of Egypt, and Ethiopia : 
and as for Ethiopia the notice we had thereof, was but 
obscure and confused : But Egypt, by reason of the com- 
modious situation thereof betweene the Mediterran, and 
the Red seas, hath alwaies beene renowmed and famous : 
yea king Sesostris that Egyptian monarch enlarged his 
empire from the Atlantick Ocean, euen to the Euxine sea : 
Afterwards the kings of Numidia, & Mauritania, & the 
Carthaginians flourished in those prouinces which are 
bounded by the Mediterran sea. In our times, wherein all 
Africke hath beene and is daily enuironed, there is suffi- 
cient knowledge had of the Marine parts thereof, but for the 
inland prouinces there is not so much knowne as might be, 
rather through want of writers then for default of discouerie 
& trade. Now therfore leauing those parts of Africa which 
are possessed by the Turke and the king of Spaine, to a 
briefe narration in the last place, we haue reduced al the 
residue of our relations to three princes : that is, to Prete 
lanni, the Monomotopay and the XeriffOy who is king of 
Maroco and Fez; for the rest referring you to lohn Leo^ 
and the discourse prefixed before him : the Xeriffo raigneth 
betweene Atlas and the Atlanticke Ocean ; Prete lanni 
about the center of Africke : and the Monomotapa hath his 
Empire towards the Sinus Barbaricus, or the Barbarian 

The Empire of Prete lanni. 

THe Empire of Prete lanni answereth not certainly in 
effect, (although it be very large) vnto the fame and 
opinion which the common sort, and most writers haue of 
it : For lateliest of any other Horatio Malugucci in a 
certaine discourse of his, touching the greatnes of states at 
this day, would needes haue his dominion to be greater 
then any other princes, but the king of Spaine. I confesse 
indeede, that in times past his state had most ample and 


large confines, as may be iudged by the multitude of 
kingdomes, with which he adorneth and setteth foorth his 
stile ; for he entitleth himselfe king of Goiame, a kingdome 
seated beyond Nilus, and of Vangue, and Damut situate 
beyond Zaire : and yet it is at this day euidently knowne, 
that his Empire scarcely reacheth vnto Nilus : yea and 
lohn Barros writeth, that the Abassins haue little notice of 
that riuer, by reason of the mountaines lying betweene 
them and it. The hart or center of his state, is the lake 
Barcena : for on the east it extendeth from Suaquen, as 
farre as the entrance of the Red sea, for the space of an 
hundred and two and twentie leagues : howbeit betwixt 
the Red sea and it, there thwarteth a long ranke of moun- 
taines, inhabited by the Moores, who also commaund the 
sea-coast On the west it hath another ridge of moun- 
taines along the channell of Nilus, enhabited by the 
Gentiles, who pay tribute vnto the Prete, On the north it 
confineth with an imaginarie line drawne from Suaquen 
to the furthest part of the isle of Meroe, which is an 
hundred and fiue and twentie leagues long : From hence it 
maketh as it were a bow, but not very crooked, towards 
the south, euen to' the kingdome of Adel, (from the moun- 
taines whereof springeth that riuer which Ptolomey calleth 
Raptus, and placeth to the south of Melinde) for the space 
of two hundred and thirtie leagues ; all which distance is 
bordered vpon by the Gentiles : from whence it turneth 
and endeth eastward at the kingdome of Adel, whose head 
citie is Arar, in the northerly latitude of nine degrees : So 
that this whole empire, little more or lesse, amounteth to 
sixe hundred threescore and twelue leagues in circuite : 
The countrie (which is distinguished with ample plaines, 
pleasant hils, and high mountaines, most of them manurable, 
and well inhabited) bringeth foorth barley and myll (for it 
abounded! not greatly with other sortes of graine) and like- 
wise Taffo da guza, another good and durable seede : But 


there is mill, and Zaburro (which we call the graine of 
India, or Ginnie wheate) great plenty, with al sorts of our 
pulse, and some also vnknowen to vs. Some of them weare 
clothes of cotton : but the greater part are clad in sheeps 
skinnes, and those which are more honourable, in the skins 
of Lyons, Tigres, and Ounces. They haue all kindes of 
our domesticall creatures, as hennes, geese, and such like, 
as also abundance of kine, and wild swine, harts, goats, 
hares, but no conies, besides panthers, lyons, Ounces, and 
elephants. To conclude, there cannot be a countrie more 
apt then this, for the generation and increase of all plants 
and creatures. True it is, that it hath little helpe or 
furtherance by the industrie of the inhabitants, because 
they are of a sloathfuU dul nature, and capacitie. They 
haue flaxe, and yet make no cloath, sugar canes, and know 
not the arte of getting the sugar thereout ; yron, and haue 
no vse thereof, but to take all smithes to be negromancers : 
They haue riuers, and waters, and know not how to better 
their possessions by them. They conceaue not greatly of 
hunting or fishing : whereupon the fieldes are full of birdes 
and wild beastes, and the riuers and lakes, of fish. An 
other reason of their slacknes and negligence, is the euill 
intreatie of the communaltie by those of the mightier sort : 
for the poore seeing euery thing taken from them that they 
haue, sow no more, then verie necessity vrgeth them vnto. 
Their speech also is without any rule or prescription, and 
to write a letter, requireth a great assembly of men, and 
many dayes to deliberate thereon. The nobles, cittizens, 
and peasants Hue distinctly and apart, and any of these 
may purchase nobility by some famous, or worthie act 
The first borne inherite all things. 

There is not in all the countrie a castel, or fortified place, 
for they thinke as the Spartanes did, that a country should 
be mayntained and defended by force of armes, and not 
with rampires of earth or stone. They dwell for the most 


part dispersed in townes and villages. Their trade of 
marchandise is performed by exchanging one thing for 
another, supplying the ouerplus of their prises with wheat 
or salt : pepper, incense, myrrhe, & salt, they sell for the 
waight in gold. In their bargaines they vse gold also, but 
by waight, siluer is not ordinary among them. Their 
greatest city is the Princes court, which is neuer firme and 
resident in one place, but remoueth here & there, and 
remaineth in the open fieldes vnder tentes. This courte 
comprehendeth ten, or more miles in compasse. 

His gauemment. 

PRete lanni his gouernment is very absolute, for he 
holdeth his subiects in most base seruitude, and no 
lesse the noble and great, then those of meaner qualitie and 
condition, intreating them rather like slaues, then subiects : 
and the better to doe this, he maintaineth him selfe 
amongst them in the reputation of a sacred and diuine 
person. Al men bow at the name of the Prince, and touch 
the earth with their hand: they reuerence the tent wherein he 
lyeth, and that when he is absent also. The Pretes in times 
past were wonte to be scene of the people but onely once 
in three yeeres space, and afterwardes they shewed them- 
selues thrice in a yeere, that is on Christmas, and Easter 
daye, as also on holy Rood day in September. Panusius 
who now raigneth, albeit he is growen more familiar then 
his predecessors, yet when any commission commeth from 
him, the partie to whom it is directed heareth the wordes 
thereof naked, from the girdle vpward, neither putteth he 
on his apparrell, but when the king permitteth him. The 
people though they bind it with an oath, yet do they 
seldome speake truth, but when they sweare by the kinges 
life, who giueth and taketh away, what great signiorie 
it pleaseth him, neither may he, from whom it is taken, so 
much as shew him selfe agreeued therewith. Except the 


gluing of holy orders and the administration of the sacra- 
ments, he disposeth as well of the religious as of the laye 
sort, and of their goodes. 

On the way he rideth, enuironed with high and long red 
curtaynes, which compasse him on euery side. He weareth 
vsually vpon his head, a crowne halfe gold, halfe siluer, and 
a crosse of siluer in his hand : his face is couered with a 
peece of blew taifata, which he lifteth vp, or letteth downe, 
more or lesse, according as he fauoreth them that he treateth 
withall : and sometimes he only sheweth the end of his 
foot, which he putteth forth from under the said curtaines. 
They that carrie and returne ambassages, come not to his 
curtaine, but with long time, diuers ceremonies, and sundry 
obseruations. None hath slaues but himselfe, to whome 
euery yeere his subiects come to do homage. This prince 
(as the Abassins report) descendeth from a sonne of 
Salomon^ & the Queen of Saba, called Meilech: they 
receiued the faith vnder Queene Candaces, in whose time 
the familie of Caspar began to raigne and flourish in 
Ethiopia, and from him after thirteene generations came 
John called the holie. This man about the time of Con- 
stantinus the Emperor, because he had no children, leauing 
the kingdome to his brother Caius eldest sonne, he inuested 
Baltasar, and Melchior, younger brothers, one in the king- 
dome of Fatigar, and the other in Giomedi : whereupon 
the royall blood grew to be deuided into three families, 
namely that of Baltasar, that of Caspar, and the third 
Melchior, ordayning that the Empire aboue all others 
should be giuen by election to some of the foresaid families, 
soe it were not to the eldest borne. For these first borne 
there were particular kingdomes appointed. And to auoide 
scandale aud tumult, hee decreed that the Emperours 
^Ofthismoun- brothers with his neerest kindred should be enclosed as in 

taine read in ^ a t 

the discourse a Strong castell, within * mount Amara ; where he would 

before the be- , , , -r^ .1.1 

ginningofLeo. also hauc the Empcrours sonnes to be put, who cannot 


succeed in the Empire, nor haue any state at all, for which 
cause the Emperour ordinarily marrieth not at all. 

His forces both in reuenues and people, 

HE hath two kindes of reuenues, for one consisteth in 
the fruits of his possessions, which he causeth to be 
manured by his slaues, and oxen. These slaues multiplie 
continual! ie, for they marrie among themselues and their 
sonnes remaine in the condition of their progenitors. An 
other great reuenue cOmeth of his tributes, which are 
brought vnto him, from all those that hold dominion vnder 
him. And of these, some giue horses, some oxen, some 
gold, some cotton, and others other thinges. It is thought 
he hath great treasure as well of cloaths and iewels, as of 
gold, and also that he hath treasuries and large magazins 
of the same riches, so that writing once to the king of 
Portugal, he offered to giue for the maintenance of war 
against the Infidels, an hundred thousand drams of gold, 
with infinite store of men and victuall. They say, that he 
putteth ordinarilie euerie yeere into the castel of Amara 
the value of three millions of ducates. It is true, that 
before the dayes of King Alexander they layde not vp so 
much golde, because they knew not how to purifie it : but 
rather iewels and wedges of gold. Also his commings-in 
may be said to bee of three sorts : for some he raiseth as 
it were, out of his crowne-landes : another part he leuieth 
of the people, that pay him so much for an house, and the 
tenth of all those mines that are digged by others then by 
himselfe : and a third reuenue he draweth from his tribu- 
tarie princes and gouernours: and these giue him the 
entire reuenues of one of their cities, so as he choose not 
that city wherein they make their residence. But though 
his wealth and reuenues be great, yet are his people of 
little worth, as well because he holdeth them in the estima- 
tion of slaues, by meanes whereof they want that generositie 


of minde, which maketh men ready to take vp armes, & to 
be couragious in dagers : as also it seemeth they haue euer 
their handes bound with that awefuU reuerence which they 
beare towards their Prince, and the feare they haue of him : 
and further, in that they haue no armes of defence but bad 
headpeeces, halfe sculles, and coats of maile, carried thither 
by the Portugals. Hereunto may be added his want of 
fortresses : for neither hauing strong places whither to 
retire, nor armes to defend themselues ; they and their 
townes remaine as a pray to the enemie ; their offensiue 
armes being vnfeathered arrowes, and some darts. They 
haue a lent of fiftie daies continuance, which through the 
great abstinence, wherein they passe all that time, doth so 
weaken and afflict them, that neither for those dales, nor 
many other following, they haue the strength to stirre 
abroad : whereupon the Moores attend this opportunitie, 
and assaile them with great aduantage. Francis Aluares 
writeth, that Prete lanni can bring into the field an 
hundred thousand men : neuerthelesse in time of neede it 
hath beene scene, that he could make nothing so many. 
He hath a militarie religion, or order of knighthood, vnder 
the protection of Saint AnthoniCy whereunto euerie noble 
man must ordaine one of euery three male children, but 
not the eldest. And out of these are constituted twelue 
thousand knights or gentlemen for the kings guarde. The 
ende of this order is, to defend the confines of the empire, 
and to make head against the enimies of the faith. 

Princes confining vpon the Prete lanni, 

THis Prince, as farre as we can certainly vnderstand, 
confineth especially with three other mightie princes : 
one is the king of Borno ; another the great Turke ; and 
the third the king of Adel. The king of Borno ruleth ouer 
that countrey which extendeth from Guangara towards the 
east, about fiue hundred miles, betweene the deserts of Seu, 


and Barca, being of an vneeuen situation, bicause it is 
partly mountainous, and partly plaine. In the plaines 
there dwelleth a very ciuill people in populous and much 
frequented villages, by reason of the abundance of graine, 
as also there is some concourse of merchants thither. On 
the mountaines. shepheardes of great and smal beasts do 
inhabite, and their chiefe sustenance is mill : They lead a 
brutish life, without religion, with their wiues and children 
in common : They vse no other proper names, but those 
which are taken from the qualitie or forme of mens persons : 
the lame, the squint eied, the long, the stuttering. This 
king of Borno is most mightie in men, vpon whom he laieth 
no other imposition but the tenth of their fruits ; their 
profession is to robbe and steale from their neighbours, and 
to make them slaues : in exchange of whom, they haue of 
the merchants of Barbaric, horses. He hath vnder him 
many kingdomes, and people, partly white, and partly 
blacke. He molesteth the Abassines exceedingly with 
theftes, leadeth away their cattell, robbeth their mines, & 
maketh their men slaues. They fight on horse-backe after 
the Gynnet fashion, they vse lances with two heads, & darts 
& arrowes : they assaile a countrey sometimes in one part, 
and otherwhiles in another, suddenly: but these may 
rather be termed theeues and robbers then right enimies. 

The Turke confineth with Abassia on the east ; as like- 
wise the king of Adel, who hemmeth it in betweene the 
east and the south. They disturbe the Prete exceedingly, 
restraining the limites of his Empire, and bringing his 
countrey into great miserie : For the Turkes besides the 
putting of a great part of Barnagasso to sacke and spoile ; 
(vpon which they entred the yeere of our Lord, 1558.) 
although they were driuen out againe, haue further taken 
all that from the Pr^/^ which he possessed on the sea coast: 
especiallie the portes and townes of Suaquen and Ercoco : 
In which two places, the mountaines lying betwixt Abassia 


and the red sea, doe open, and make a passage, for conuei- 
ance of victual, and trafficke, betweene the Abassins, and 
the Arabians : And it is not long, since the Lord Bamagasso 
was constrained to accord with the Turke, and to buie the 
peace of his countrie with the tribute of a thousand ounces 
of gold by the yeere. Also the king of Adel procureth 
hym no lesse molestation : This man confineth with the 
kingdome of Fatigar, and extendeth his dominion euen to 
the Red sea, where he hath Assum, Salir, Meth, Barbora, 
Pidar, and Zeila. At Barbora manie shippes of Aden and 
Cambaia arriue with their marchandize for exchange; 
from whence they receiue much flesh, honie, wax, and 
victuals for Aden ; and gold, luorie, and other thinges for 
Cambaia. A greater quantitie of victuall is carried from 
Zeila, because there is aboundance of waxe, and honie, with 
corne and diuers fruites, which are laden for Aden, and for 
Arabia, and beastes also, as namely sheepe, with tayles 
wayghing more then fiue and twentie poundes, with their 
heads and necks all blacke, but the rest of them is white : 
as also certaine other all white with tayles a fathome long, 
and writhen like a vine branche, hauing thropples vnder 
their throtes like bulles. There be also certaine kine with 
branched homes like to wild hartes, being blacke in colour 
and some others red, with one onely home vpon their fore- 
heads of an handfull and an halfe long, turning backward. 
The chiefe city of this kingdome is Arar eight and thirtie 
leagues from Zeila towards the South east. This king being 
a Mahumetan by a perpetuall profession of making war 
against the christians of Abassia, who are the subiects of 
the PretCy hath obteined of those Barbarians the surname 
of Holy : He stayeth his oportunitie while the Abassins be 
weakened, and brought downe with that long and hard 
fast of fiftie daies, when they can scarcely go about their 
domesticall affaires ; and then he entreth into the countrey, 
sacketh the townes, leadeth the people away into seruitude, 


and doth a thousand iniuries vnto them. The Abassin 
slaues are of great valew out of their owne countrey: 
whereupon the bordering, and other Princes both farre and 
neere csteeme them much, and many of them by meanes of 
their industrie in seruice, of slaues haue become captaines 
and great Commanders, in Arabia, Cambaia, Bengala, and 
Sumatra: Bicause the Mahumetan princes of the east, being 
all tirants ouer kingdomes vsurped from the Gentiles, for 
securitie of their state, put no trust in their owne subiects : 
but arme themselues with a multitude of strange slaues, to 
whom they commit their persons, and the gouemment of 
their kingdome. And among all other slaues the Abassines 
beare away the bell, aswell for fidelitie, as for sound and 
good complexion. And bicause the king of Adel, with the 
multitude of these Abassin slaues, which he taketh in the 
townes and territories of Prete Iannis filleth all Egypt, and 
Arabia (in exchange of whom he hath armour, munition, 
and soldiers, both from the Turke, and the Arabian Princes) 
in the yeere of our Lord 1550. Claudius king of Abassia, 
being after this sort sorely oppressed by Gradaamed king 
of Adel, who now for the space of fowerteene yeeres had 
with continuall incursions greeuously molested, and dis- 
turbed him, enforcing him to leaue his confines, and to 
retire into the hart of his empire, demaunded aide of 
Steptiano Gama, the Indian Viceroy of lohn the third 
king of Portugale, who was then with a good fleete vpon 
the red sea. Whereupon he sent him fower hundred 
Portugals, with a good quantitie of armes, and small shot, 
vnder the gouernment of Christopher da Gama his brother. 
With these men by the benefit of shot, he ouerthrew the 
enimie in two battailes ; but in the third, the king of Adel 
hauing receiued a thousand Turkish harquebuziers from 
the gouernour of Zebit, with ten peeces of artillerie, the 
Abassins were put to flight, and discomfited, and their 
captaine taken prisoner, and put to death. But the king 


of Adel afterwards sending backe the said Turkes, he and 
his people were sodainly assailed, neere the riuer of Zeila, 
and mount Saual, by king Claudius with threescore 
thousand foote, and fiue hundred Abassin horse, togither 
with those Portugales, who remained of the former ouer- 
throw, one of whom wounded Gradamed dangerously. 
But in the moneth of March, the yeere of our Lord 1559. 
king Claudius being set vpon againe by the Malacai Mores, 
he was slaine in the battaile : and the enimie-king acknow- 
ledging so great a victorie from the handes of God, 
triumphed vpon an asse. 

Adatnas brother vnto king Claudius succeeded him, 
against whom (for he was halfe a Mahumetan) the best part 
of the Abassine nobilitie rebelled, and he was defeated by 
the Barnagasso in the yeere 1 562. who hauing thus for a 
while disturbed the affaires of Ethiopia, it seemed that they 
were at length asswaged, & reestablished vnder Alexander, 
by the aide of the Portugals, who haue carried thither 
armes as well of offence, as defence, and stirred vp the 
mindes and courages of the Abassines, by their example, 
to warre ; For all those that remained of the discomfiture 
giuen to Christopher Camay and diuers others which came 
thither afterwards, and do daily there arriue and staie, do 
marrie wiues, and haue children ; and Alexander permitted 
them to elect a iudge, who might execute iustice among 
them : so that they haue, and do daily bring into Abassia, 
the manner of warfare in Europe, with our vse of armes, 
and the manner of fortifying passages and places of im- 
portance. Afterwards certaine Florentines went into those 
countries, partly vpon pleasure, and partly for affaires of 
merchandize. For Francesco di Medici great Duke of 
Florence, had some commerce with the Abassines. The 
Prete therefore giues entertainment, and maketh much of 
the Frankes, (for so do they call the people of Europe) and 
hardly giueth them license to depart out of his kingdome. 


Besides these the Prete lanni hath diuers other enimies, 
amongst whom is the king of Dancali, to whom the towne 
and port of Vela vpon the red sea pertaineth ; he confincth 
with Balgada. The Moores also vexe him greatly, which 
inhabite the prouince, called Dobas, deuided into fower- 
teene Signiories ; for though they be within the confines of 
Prete lanni his empire, yet notwithstanding for the most 
part they rebell from him : they haue a lawe, that none of 
them may marrie, before he first giue testimoniall that he 
hath slaine twelue Christians. 

Of the Emperour of Monomotapa, 

Concerning the state of this mightie Emperour, and of 
his neighbour of Mohenemugi, and of the limits of 
both their dominions, as likewise of the Amazones and 
Giacchi the chiefe strength of their militarie forces, and 
other memorable matters ; to auoide tedious repetitions, I 
referre the reader to the discourse going before the booke : 
saue onely that I will heere annexe a briefe testimony out of 
Osorius lib 4 de reb gest. Eman. which may adde some 
small light vnto the treatise before mentioned. 

But (saith he) in this part of Ethiopia lying beyond the 
cape of good hope which is bounded by the south Ocean, 
there is a most ample kingdome called Benomotapa, where- 
unto before such time as the Portugals discouered those 
parts, all the kings vpon that coast were most obedientlie 
subiect. It aboundeth with gold beyond all credite : which 
is taken euen out of their riuers and lakes. Yea many Benomotapa 
kings there are which pay yeerely tribute of gold vnto this gold. 
king of Benomotapa. The people worship no Idols, but 
acknowledge one God the creatour of heauen and earth. 
In habite and apparell they are not much vnlike to other 
Ethiopians. They worship their king with woonderfull 
superstition. This king in his scutcheon or coate of armes The kings 
hath two signes of maiestie. One is a certaine little spade ^^^^' 

3 fi 



A discreet 

with a handle of iuorie. The other are two small dartes. 
By the spade he exhorteth his subjects to husbandrie, that 
they may not through sloth and negligence let the earth lie 
vntilled, and so for want be constrained to play the theeues. 
The one of his darts betokeneth, that he will be a seuere 
punisher of malefactors ; & the other, that he will by 
valour & force of armes resist all forren inuasions. The 
sonnes of his tributarie kings are trained vp in his court ; 
both to the end that by this education they may leame 
loialtie and loue towards him their soueraigne, and also 
that they may remaine as pledges to keepe their fathers in 
awe and due obedience. He is continually guarded with a 
mightie armie ; notwithstanding he be conioined in most 
firme league with all his neighbour-princes. For by this 
meanes he supposeth that warre cannot procure him any 
danger at all, knowing right well that oftentimes in the 
midst of peace it is readie to disturbe the securitie of 
Princes. Euery yeere this king sendeth certaine of his 
A yeereiy courticrs and seruants to bestow in his name newe fire vpon 
custome of dis- all the priuces and kings within his dominions, that from 
f^om the king them it may be distributed vnto others also. Which is 

to his tributarie , . r ii • t^l l • 

princes. donc m manner followmg. The messenger bemg come to 

the house of any prince, his fire is immediately quenched. 
Then there is a new fire kindled by the messenger : and 
foorthwith all the neighbours resort thither to fetch of the 
said new fire for their houses. Which whosoeuer refuseth 
to performe, is helde as a traiterous rebell, and receiueth 
such punishment as is liable to high treason ; yea if need 
be, an armie is leuied to apprehend him, to the end that 
being taken, he may be put to such torments as are corre- 
spondent to his disloialtie. Hitherto Osorius, 


The XeriffOy commonly called The king of Maroco, 
SuSy and Fez, 

AMong all the princes of Africa, I suppose that there is 
not anie one, who in richnes of state, or greatnes of 
power, may be preferred before the Zeriffo: In that his 
dominion, which comprehendeth all that part of Mauritania, 
called by the Romaines Tingitana, extendeth it selfe north 
& south from Capo Boiador, euen to Tanger, and east and 
west from the Atlanticke Ocean, as farre as the riuer 
Muluia, and somewhat further also, in which space is com- 
prehended the fairest, fruitful lest, best inhabited, and most 
ciuill part of all Africk, and among other the states, the 
most famous kingdomes of Maroco and Fez. With the 
particular description whereof, and of all the prouinces, 
cities, townes, riuers, mountaines, &c. therein contained, the 
Reader may satisfie himselfe to the full in the second and 
third bookes of the historie o{ lohn Leo before set downe. 

These kingdomes besides their natural fertilitie, are very 
traffickable ; for though the king of Fez hath no hauen 
of importance vpon the Mediterranean sea, neuerthelesse 
the English, French, and other nations traffick much to his 
ports vpon the Ocean, especially to * Larache, Santa Cruz, *i?^^'^''i^'^^j7f^ 
Cabo de Guer, and in other places perteining partly to the ^^'^^^ ^"^*^^ ^^^ 

name of Lha- 

kingdome of Fez, and partly to Maroco ; and they bring rais. 
thither copper, and brasse, with armes and diuers commo- 
dities of Europe, for which among other things they returne 

But because these kingdomes of Maroco and Fez, and 
diuers other Signiories, and Principalities, at first separate 
and deuided, were vnited not long sithence vnder one 
Prince, who is called * the Xeriffo, it will not be much from * OrMiramo- 


our purpose (because among the accidents of our times, I 
think there is not any one, more notable or wonderfull then 
this) to set downe here how the matter passed. 

3 R 2 


About the yeere of our Lord 1508 a certaine Alchaide 

The martyr how ]jorne in Tiffumedet a towne of Dara, whose name was 

aspired to the Mahumet BcTtametto, and who caused himselfe to be called 

Maroco. Sus, Zcriffo^ being a subtile man, and of a minde no lesse 

ambitious, then learned in those sciences, whereunto the 

Mahumetans are most addicted, began to grow famous in 

the townes of Numidia. This man vaunting himselfe to 

be descended of Mahumets progenie, was possessed with 

an imagination (trusting in the deuision of the States of 

Affricke, wherein then the Portugals bore great sway) of 

* Or the king- taking into his owne hands all * Mauritania Tingitana. 

domes of Maro- /. i • i /• i • , 

co,andFeM. For performance of this, he first sent his three sonnes, 
Abdely Abnet, and Mahumet, in pilgrimage to Mecca and 
Medina, there to visit & do reuerence to the sepulchre of 
their Seductor Mahunut. The yoong men performed this 
voyage with so great fame and reputation of sanctitie and 
religion (if these words may be vsed, in declaring of such 
an impietie) that in their returne, the people came out to 
meete them, kissed their garments, and reuerenced them as 
saints. They fayning themselves to be rauished into deepe 
contemplation, went vp and downe the streetes sighing, 
and crying out in words interrupted with lamentation & 
yerning : Ali, Aid ; and they liued of nothing but almes. 
Their father hauing taken them home with great mirth and 
ioy : but yet not minding to suffer this sudden applause & 
credit, which they had obtayned by such a pilgrimage, to 
freeze and wax cold ; he sent two of them which were 

* Or Abnet. * Afftet and Mahumet to Fez; where being courteously 

rcceiued by the king, one of them became a Reader in the 
Amodoraccia, a most famous colledge of that citie, and the 
yoongest was made tutor to the same kings yoong sonnes. 
These two seeing themselues so entirely beloued of the 
king, and in so great fauour with the people, being aduised 
by their father, and taking occasion vpon the damage 
which the Arabians & Moores did to those of their owne 


law and sect, vnder the ensignes of the Portugals, in whose 
paie they serued. They demaunded leaue of the king to 
display a banner against the Christians, putting him in 
hope, (as indeed it fell out) that they would easily draw 
those Moores vnto him, who were followers of the crowne 
of Portugall, and by this meanes secure the prouinces of 
Sus, Hea, Ducala, Maroco, with others molested, & euilly 
entreated by the Portugals. This request was contradicted 
by Mullet Nazer, brother to the king : for (said he) " if 
these men, vnder pretence of holines, and defence of their 
law, shall haue some prosperous proceedings with armes in 
hand, it will not afterwards be in thy power (O king) to 
bridle or bring them downe : for armes make men 
couragious, & by victories they prooue insolent, & the 
rout of ambitious people are alwaies desirous of innouation." 
But the king who had a great opinion of their sanctitie, 
making small account of the reasons his brother alleaged 
vnto him, gaue them a banner, and drumslade, and twentie 
horse to accompanie them, with letters of recommenda- 
tion to the Arabians, the princes, and the cities of Barbarie. 
With these beginnings many people running headlong 
after their fame, they ouercame Ducala, and the countrey 
of *Saphia, and went forward euen as farre as Cabo A^* Or Azapu. 
Guer (which places then were subiect to the Portugals) and 
finding themselues strong, both in retinue and credite, they 
demanded of the people (who at that time liued for the 
most part freely, and came in to none, but such as they 
liked of themselues) that seeing they now tooke vp armes 
for the Mahumetane law against the Christians, they should 
aide them with their tenthes due vnto God : the which 
were presently yeelded vnto them by the people of Dara, 
and so they seazed by little and little vpon Tarodant 
(where their father was made gouernour) and likewise of 
Sus, Hea, Ducala, and other places adioining. They first 
planted themselues in Tednest, and then in Tesarote, and 


in a conflict ouerthrew Lopes Barriga, a famous captaine 
amongst the Portugals : but so they lost their owne elder 
brother therein. And afterwards by fairc words entring 
into the citie of Maroco, they poisoned the king, and in his 
stead made Amet Zeriffo to be proclaimed king of Maroco. 
In the meanewhile the Arabians of Ducala, & Xarquia 
came to hand blowes with those of Garbia, each partie 
holding themselues in the Xeriffoes fauour ; but the Zeriffos 
perceiuing the skirmish to grow hot, and that many both 
of the one and of the other party went to wrack, turned 
their armes against them both, and enriched themselues 
with their spoiles. In former times they vsed to send vnto 
the king of Fez the fift of all those booties which they got ; 
but after this victory, making no reckoning of their said 
custom, they presented him only with six horses, and six 
camels, & those but silly ones : wherat being mooued, he 
sent to demand of them the fift part of their spoiles, and 
the tribute that the king of Maroco paid him, threatning 
otherwise warre vpon them. But in the meane while, this 
man dying, Amet his sonne, who was scholler to the 
yoonger Zeriffo, was not onely content, but further con- 
firmed Amet in the Signiorie of Maroco, so that in some 
small matter he would acknowledge the kings of Fez for 
soueraigne Princes ouer that citie. But on the other side 
the Xeriffi, whose reputation and power daily encreased, 
when the time of paying tribute came, sent to certifie this 
yoong king, that being lawfull successors to Mahumet, they 
were not bound to paie tribute to any, and that they had 
more right to Afifrica then he : so that if he would haue 
them his friends, so it were ; otherwise if he ment to diuert 
them from this their warre against the Christians, they 
should not want courage nor power to defend themselues. 
Wherewith the Fessan king being offended, proclaimed 
warre against them, and went himselfe in person to the 
siege of Maroco : but at the very first he was driuen to 


dislodge : and afterwards returning with eighteene thousand 

horse, amongst whom were two thousand harquebuziers, or 

bowmen, he was vanquished by the Xeriffi, who had no 

more but seuen thousand horse, and twelue hundred 

harquebuziers which were placed on the way at the passage 

of a riuer. By meanes of this victorie the Xeriffi shooke 

off the tribute of that countrie, and passing ouer Atlas, they 

tooke Tafilete, an important citie : and partly by faire 

meanes, partly by force, they brought diuers people of 

Numidia to their obedience, as also those of the moun- 

taines. In the yeere of our Lord 1 536. the yoonger Xeriffo 

who was now called king of Sus, hauing gathered togither 

a mightie armie, and much artillerie, taken in part from the 

king of Fez, and partly cast by the French Renegados, he ArtuUfiecast 

went to the enterprise of Cabo de Guer, a very important Rmegados. 

fortification, held then by the Portugals, which was built 

and fortified first at the charge of Lopes Sequeira: and 

afterward, knowing their opportunitie from the king Don 

Emanuel^ there was fought on both sides a most terrible 

battell. In the end, fire taking hold on the munition, and 

vpon this the souldiers being daunted that defended the 

fortresse, the Xeriffo entred thereinto, tooke the towne, and 

made the greatest part of the garrison his prisoners. By 

this victorie the Zeriffi brought in a manner all Atlas and 

the kingdome of Maroco to their obedience, & those 

Arabians who serued the crowne of Portugall. Whereupon 

klng/oAn the third seeing that his expences farre exceeded 

the reuenues which came in, of his owne accord gaue ouer 

Safia, Azamor, Arzilla, and Alcazar, holds which he had on 

the coast of Mauritania. 

This prosperitie was an occasion of grieuous discord 
betwixt the Brothers : the issue whereof was, that the 
younger hauing in two battels subdued the elder (whereof 
the second was in the yeere of our Lord 1554) and taken 
him prisoner, he banished him to Tafilet : and afterwards 


turning his armes against the king of Fez, after hauing 
taken him once prisoner, and then releasing him, he yet 
the second time (because he brake promise) got him into 
his handes againe, depriued him of his estate, and in the 
end caused both him and his sonnes to be slaine ; and by 
meanes of his owne sonnes he also tooke Tremizen. 

In the meane while Sal Araes viceroy of Algier fearing 
the Xeriffos prosperous successe, gathered together a great 
armie, with which he first recoured Tremizen, & afterwards 
defeating the Xeriffo, conquered Fez, and gaue the gouem- 
ment thereof to Buasson Prince of Veles : but this man 
ioyning battaile with the Xeriffo, lost at one instant both 
his citie and kingdome. In the ende Mahutnet going to 
Tarodant was vpon the way slaine in his pauilion by the 
treason of some Turkes, suborned thereunto by the viceroy 
of Algier, of whom one Assen was the chiefe : who together 
with his companions went into Trodant, and there made 
hauocke of the kinges treasures : But in their returne home, 
they were all, but fiue, slaine by the people, in the yeere 
1559: and Mullet Abdala the Xeriffos sonne, was pro- 
claimed and saluted king. 

Let thus much suffice to haue bin spoken of the Xeriffo : 
whose proceed inges appeare much like to those of Ismael 
the Sophie of Persia. Both of them procured followers by 
bloud and the cloake of religion : both of them subdued in 
short time many countries : both of them grew great by 
the ruine of their neighbours both of them receiued 
greeuous checkes by the Turkes, and lost a part of their 
states : for Selym tooke from Ismaely Cacamit and diuers 
other cities of Diarbena : And the viceroy of Algier did 
driue the Xeriffo out of Tremizen, and his other quarters : 
And euen as Selim won Tauris, the head citie of Persia, 
and afterwardes gaue it ouer : so Sal Araes took Fez the 
head citie of Mauritania, and then after abandoned the 


Tlu Xeriffo his reuenues, or cominges in, 

THe Xeriffo is absolute Lord of all his subiects goods, 
yea and of their persons also. For though he charge 
them with neuer so burdensome tributes, and impositions ; 
yet dare they not so much as open their mouthes: He 
receiueth from his tributarif vassals, the tenthes, and first 
fruits of their corne and cattail. True it is, that for the 
first fruits he taketh no more but one for twentie, and the 
whole being aboue twentie, he demandeth no more then 
two, though it amount to an hundred. For euery dayes 
tilth of grounde he hath a ducate and a quarter, and so 
much likewise for euerie house ; as also, he hath after the 
same rate of euerie person aboue fifteene yeers old, male, or 
female ; and when need requireth, a greater sum me : and 
to the end that the people may the more cheerefullie pay 
that which is imposed vpon them, he alwaies demaundeth 
halfe as much more as he is to receiuc. Most true it is, 
that on the mountaines there inhabite certaine fierce and 
vn tamed people, who by reason of the steep, craggie, and 
inexpugnable situation of their count rie cannot be forced 
to tributes ; that which is gotten of them, is the tenth of 
their come and fruits, onely that they may be permitted to 
haue recourse into the plaines. Besides these reuenues, the 
king hath the towles and customes of Fez, and of other 
cities : For at the entring of their goods, the naturall 
citizen payeth two in the hundred, and the stranger ten. 

He hath further, the reuenues of milles, and many other 
thinges, the summe whereof is very great : for the milles 
yeelde him little lesse then halfe a royall of plate, for euerie 
Hanega of corne that is ground in Fez, where, (as they say) 
there are aboue foure hudred mils. The moschea oiprindpaii 


Caruuen had fourescore thousand ducates of rent: the femp/e in Fez, 
colledges and hospitals of Fez had also many thousB,nds, and an ha/% 
Al which the king hath at this present. And further he 1^^ //^. 3?" 


is heire to all the Alcaydes, and them that haue pension of 
him, and at their deaths he possesseth their horses, armour, 
garments, and al their goodes. Howbeit if the deceased 
leaue any sonnes apt for the seruice of the warres, he 
granteth them their fathers prouision ; but if they be but 
young, he bringeth vp the male children to yeeres of seruice, 
and the daughters, till they be married. And therefore, 
that he may haue some interest in the goods of rich men, 
he bestoweth vpon them some gouernment, or charge, with 
prouision. Wherefore for feare of confiscation after death, 
euery one coueteth to hyde his wealth, or to remoue far 
from the court, and the kings sight For which cause the 
citie of Fez commeth far short of hir ancient glorie. 
Besides, his reuenues haue beene augmented of late yeeres 
by mightie sums of gold, which he fetcheth from Tombuto 
and Gago in the lande of Negros ; which gold (according 
to the report of some) may yeerely amount to three millions 
of ducates. 

His Forces, 

THe Xeriffo hath not any Fortresses of great import- 
ance, but only vpon the sea-coast, as Cabo de Guer, 
Larache, and Tetuan : for as the Turks and Persians do, so 
he placeth the strength of his state in armed men : but 
especially in horse. And for this cause he standeth not 
much vpon his artillerie ; although hee hath very great 
store (which his predecessors tooke from the Portugals and 
others) in Fez, Maroco, Tarodant, and in the foresaide 
portes ; causing also more to bee cast, when neede 
requireth ; for he wanteth not masters of Europe in this 
Science. He hath an house of munition in Maroco, where 
they make ordinarily six and fortie quintals of powder 
euery moneth ; as likewise also caliuers and steele-bowes. 
In the yeere of our Lord 1569. a fire tooke hold on these 
houses with such furie, that a great part of the citie was 


destroied therewith. But for the Xeriffoes forces, they are 

of two sorts : the first is of two thousand seuen hundred 

horse, and two thousand harquibuziers, which he hath 

partly in Fez, but most in Maroco (where he is resident) 

beinjy as it were of his daily guard. The second is of a 

roiall squadron of sixe thousand gentlemen, being all of 

noble parentage, and of great account These men are 

mounted vpon excellent horses, with furniture and armes, 

for varietie of colour most beautifull, and for riches of 

ornament beyonde measure estimable : for euery thing 

about them shineth with gold, siluer, pearle, iewels, and 

whatsoeuer else may please the eie, or satisfie the curiositie 

of beholders. These men, besides prouision of come, oile, 

butter and flesh, for themselues, their wiues, children, and 

seruants, receiue further in wages, from seuentie to an 

hundred ounces of siluer a man. The third sort of forces 

which he hath, consisteth of his ♦ Timariotti : for the Th^se are a 

Xeriffo granteth to all his sons, and brothers, and other order, like 

persons of account or authoritic among the people ol which hold 

Africke, or to the princes of the Arabians, the benefite oi vnderthe ^^ 

great Lordships & tenures for sustentation of his Cauallarie : ^kni^his service. 

and the Alchaides themselues till the fields, and afterwardes 

reape rice, oile, barly, butter, sheepe, hens, and monie, and 

distribute the same monethly to the souldiers ; according 

to the seuerall qualitie of their persons. They also giue 

them cloth, linnen, and silke to apparell themselues, armes 

of offence, and defence, and horses, with which they serue 

in the warres, and if they die or be killed, they allow them 

other. A thing which was also vsed in Rome, towards 

them that serued on publike horses. Euerie one of these 

leaders contendeth to bring his people into the fielde well 

ordred, for armes, apparell, and horses : besides this, they 

haue betweene fower and twentie and thirtie ounces of 

siluer wages euery yeerc. His fourth militarie forces, are 

the Arabians, who Hue continually in their Auari, (for so 


they call their habitations, each one of them consisting of 
an hundred, or two hundred pauilions) gouemed by diuers 
Alchaides, to the end they may be readie in time of need. 
These serue on horse-backe, but they are rather to be 
accounted theeues, then true soldiers. His fift kinde of 
forces militarie, are somewhat like vnto the trained soldiers 
of Christian princes ; and among these, the inhabitants of 
cities and villages of the kingdome, and of the mountaines 
are enrolled. It is true, that the king makes but little 
account of them, & very seldome puts armes into their 
hands, for feare of insurrections and rebellions, except in 
the warres against the Christians, for then he cannot con- 
ueniently forbid them: For it being written in their law, that 
if a Moor kil a Christian, or is slaine by him, he goeth 
directly into Paradise, (a diabolicall inuention) men, women, 
and those of euery age and degree, run to the warres hand 
ouer head, that at least they may there be slaine ; and by 
this meanes (according to their foolish opinion) gaine 
heauen. No lesse zeale, to our confusion, may we perceiue 
in the Turks especially for defence of their sect : for one 
would thinke they went to a marriage, and not to the warre, 
scarcely being able with patience to attend their prefixed 
time of going thither. They repute them holy and happie, 
that die with armes in hand against their enimies ; as on 
the contrarie, those men vnhappie, and of little woorlh, 
that die at home, amidst the lamentation of children, and 
outcries of women. 

By the things aboue set downe, we may easily com- 
prehend, what numbers of men the Xeriffo can bring into 
the field : but yet we may learne better by experience. 
For Mullet Abdala in the yeere 1562. besieged Mazagan 
with two hundred thousand men, choaking the ditch with a 
mountaine of earth, and beating downe the walles thereof 
with his Artillerie : but for all this, he was enforced by the 
valour of the Portugals, and the damage which he receiued 


by their mines, to giue ouer his siege. Besides, this Prince 
can not continue a great war, aboue two, or three moneths : 
and the reason hereof is, because his forces liuing on that 
prouision which he hath daylie comming in, as well for 
sustenance as for aparrell, and not being able to haue all 
this conducted thither, where the war requireth, it followeth 
of necessitie, that in short time they must needs returne 
home for their maintenance of life : and further it is an 
euident thing, that no man can protract a war at length, 
except he be rich in treasure. Molucca who ouerthrew 
Sebastian king of Portugal, had in pay vnder his ensignes 
fortie thousand horse, and eight thousand foote besides 
Arabians and aduenturers : But it is thought, he could haue 
brought into the field, seuentie thousand horse, and more 
foot then he did. 

Of the dominions and fortresses which the king of Spaine 
hath vpon the Isles and viaine landes of Africa^ and 
of the great quantity of treasure and other com- 
modities which are brought from thence. 

BEsides Oran, Mersalquibir, Melilla and Pennon which 
the king of Spaine possesseth within the streights ; 
as likewise ^euta, Tanger, and Arzil, which by the title of 
Portugal he holdeth very neere the streights of Gibraltar ; 
and Mazagan in like sort without the streights mouth, 
twentie miles to the southward of Arzil : he hath along the 
coast of Affrick, from Cape de Guer, to that of Guardafu, 
two sorts of states : for some are immediately vnder him, 
and others are as it were his adherents. The Hands of 
Madera, Puerta Santo, the Canaries, the Isles of Arguin, of 
Cabo Verde, the isle Del Principe, with that of Sant 
Thomas, and others neere adioining, are immediately vnder 
his dominion. These islands are maintained with their 
owne victuall, and prouision, and yet they haue also some 
out of Europe, as in like manner they send some thither : 


especially sugars and fruits, wherewith the isle of Madera 
woonderfuUy aboundeth, as also with wine. And the iland 
of Sant Thomas likewise hath great abundance of sugars. 
These States haue no incumbrance, but by the English and 
*he^r"muct^ French men of warre,* which for all that go not beyond 
"^Mr.^^ '^ ^^P^ Verde. At the ilands of Arguin, and at Sant George 
de la Mina, the Portugals haue planted factories in forme 
of fortresses, by meanes of which, they trade with the 
bordering people of Guinie and Libya, and get into their 
hands the gold of Mandinga, and other places neere about 
Among the adherent Princes, the richest and most honour- 
able, is the king of Congo, in that his kingdome is one of 
the most flourishing and plentifull countries in all Ethiopia. 
The Portugals haue there two Colonies, one in the citie of 
S. Saluador, and an other in the island Loanda. They 
haue diuers rich commodities from this kingdome, but the 
most important is euery yeere about 5000. slaues, which 
they transport from thence, and sell them at good round 
prizes in all the isles and maine lands of the west Indies : 
and for the head of euerie slaue so taken vp, there is a good 
taxe paid to the crowne of Portugall. From this kingdome 
one might easily go to the countrie of Prete lanni, for it is 
not thought to be very farre of: and it doth so abound 
with Elephants, victuall, and all other necessarie things, as 
would bring singular ease and commodity to such an enter- 
prise. Vpon the kingdome of Congo confineth Angola, 
with whose prince of late yeeres Paulo Dias a Portugall 
captaine made war: and the principall occasion of this 
warre are certain mines of siluer, in the mountaines of 
Cabambe, no whit inferior to those of Potossi ; but by so 
much are they better, as fine siluer goeth beyond that which 
is base, and course. And out of doubt, if the Portugals 
had esteemed so well of things neere at hand, as they did 
of those farther off and remote, and had thither bent their 
forces wherewith they passed Capo de bueno esperan^a, 


and went to India, Malaca, and the Malucoes ; they had 
more easily, and with lesse charge found greater wealth : 
for there are no countries in the world richer in gold and 
siluer, then the kingdomes of Mandinga, Ethiopia, Congo, 
Angola, Butua, Toroa, Maticuo, Boro, Quiticui, Monomo- 
tapa, Cafati, and Mohenemugi. But humane auarice 
esteemeth more of an other mans, then his owne, and 
things remote appeerc greater then those neere at hand. 
Betweene Cabo de buena esperanga, and Cape Guardafu, 
the Portugals haue the fortresses of Sena, Cephala, and 
Mozambique. And by these they continue masters of the 
trade with the bordering nations, all which abound in gold 
and iuorie. By these fortresses they haue special commo- 
ditie, for their nauigation to the Indies ; bicause their 
fleetes sometimes winter, and otherwhiles victuall, and 
refresh themselues there. In these parts the king of 
Melinde is their greatest friend, and those of Quiloa, and 
other neighbour-islands, are their tributaries. The 
Portugals want nothing but men. For besides other 
islands, which they leaue in a manner abandoned, there is 
that of Saint Laurence, one of the greatest in all the world 
(being a thousand two hundred miles long, and fower 
hundred and fower-score broad) the which, though it be 
not well tilled, yet for the goodnes of the soileit is apt and 
fit to be manured, nature hauing distinguished it with 
riuers, harbours, & most commodious baies. These States 
belonging to the crowne of Portugall, feare no other but 
such sea-forces, as may be brought thither by the Turkes. 
But the daily going to and fro of the Portugall fleetes, 
which coast along vp and downe those seas, altogither 
secureth them. In the yeere 1589. they tooke neere vnto 
Mombaza, fower gallies, and a galliot, belonging to the 
Turkes, who were so bold as to come euen thither. 


The dominions of the great Turke in Africa, 

THe great Turk possesseth in Africa all the sea-coast 
from Valez de Gumera, or (as some hold opinion) 
from the riuer Muluia, which is the easterne limitie of the 
kingdome of Fez, euen to the Arabian gulfe or Red sea, 
except some few places (as namely Mersalcabir, Melilla, 
Oran, and Pennon) which the king of Spaine holdeth. In 
which space before mentioned are situate sundrie of the 
most famous cities and kingdomes in all Barbarie ; thaj; is 
to say, Tremizen, Alger, Tenez, Bugia, Constantina, Tunis, 
Tripolis, and all the countrey of Egypt, from Alexandria 
to the citie of Asna, called of old Siene, togither with some 
part of Arabia Troglodytica, from the towne of Suez to 
that of Suachen. Also in Africa the grand Signor hath 
fiue viceroies, called by the names of Beglerbegs or Bassas, 
namely at Alger, Tunis, Tripolis, at Missir for all Egypt, 
and at Suacher for those places which are chalenged by the 
great Turke in the dominions of Prete lanni. Finally, in 
this part at Suez in the bottome of the Arabian gulfe, is 
one of his fower principall Arsenals, or places for the 
building, repairing, docking, and harbouring of his warlike 
gallies, which may lie heere vnder couert, to the number of 
fiue and twentie bottomes. 

A stimmarie discourse of the manifold 

Religions professed in Africa : 

and first of the Gefttiles. 

Frica containeth fower sorts of people 
different in religion : that is to say, 
Gentiles, lewes, Mahumetans, and 
Christians. The Gentiles extend 
themselues along the shoare of the 
Ocean, in a manner from Cabo 
Blanco, or the white Cape, euen to 
the northern borders of Congo ; as likewise, from the south- 
erly bounds of the same kingdome, euen to Capo de buena 
Esperan^a: & from thence, to that of De los Corrientes: 
and within the land they spred out from the Ethiopick 
Ocean, euen vnto Nilus, and beyond Nilus also from the 
Ethiopick, to the Arabian sea. These Gentiles are of 
diucrs sorts, for some of them haue no light of God, or 
religion, neither are they gouerned by any rule or law. 
Wherupon the Arabians call them Cafri, that is to say, 
lawlesse, or without law. They haue but fewe habitations, 
and they Hue for the most part in caues of mountaines, or 
in woods, wherein they finde some harbour from winde and 
raine. The ciuilest among them, who haue some vnder- 
standing and light of diuinitie and religion, obey the 
Monomotapa, whose dominion extendeth with a great 
circuite, from the confines of Matama, to the riuer Cuama : 
but the noblest part thereof is comprehended betweene the 
mightie riuer of Magnice or Spirito Sancto, and that of 
Cuama, for the space of sixe hundred leagues. They haue 
no idols, and beleeue in one only God, called by them 



Mozimo. Little differing from these we may esteeme the 
subiects of Mohenemugi. But among all the Cafri, the 
people called Agag or Giacchi, are reputed most brutish, 
inhabiting in woods and dens, and being deuourers of mans 
flesh. They dwell vpon the left banke of Nilus, betweene 
the first and second lake. The Anzichi also haue a 
shambles of mans flesh, as we haue of the flesh of Oxen. 
They eate their enimies whom they take in war ; they sell 
their slaues to butchers, if they can light on no greater 
prise : and they inhabit from the riuer Zaire, euen to the 
deserts of Nubia. Some others of them are rather addicted 
to witchcraft, then to idolatric : considering that in a man, 
the feare of a superior power is so naturall, that though he 
adore nothing vnder the name and title of a God, yet doth 
he reuerence and feare some superioritie, although he know 
not what it is. Such are the Biafresi, and their neighbours, 
all of them being addicted in such sort to witchcraft, as that 
they vaunt, that by force of enchantment, they can not 
onely char me, and make men die, much more molest and 
bring them to hard point : but further, raise windes and 
raine, and make the skie to thunder and lighten, and that 
they can destroy all herbes and plants, and make the 
flockes and heards of cattcll to fall downe dead. Where- 
upon they reuerence more the diuell then any thing else : 
sacrificing vnto him of their beasts and fruits of the earth, 
yea their owne bloud also, and their children. Such arc 
likewise the priests of Angola, whom they call Ganghe. 
These make profession that they haue in their hands dearth 
and abundance ; faire weather and foule ; life and death. 
For which cause it can not be expressed, in what venera- 
tiori they are held among those Barbarians. In the yeere 
1587. a Portugall captaine being in a part of Angola with 
his souldiers, a Ganga was requested by the people to 
refresh the fields, which were drie and withered, with some 
quantitie of water. Hee needed no great intreatie, but 


going forth with diuers little bels, in presence of the 
Portugals, he spent halfe an hower in fetching sundry 
gambols & skips, & vttering diuers superstitious murmur- 
ings : and behold, a cloud arose in the aire, with lightning 
and thunder. The Portugals grew amazed ; but all the 
Barbarians with great ioy admired and extolled vnto 
heauen, their Ganga, who now gaue out intolerable brags, 
not knowing what hung ouer his head : For the windes 
outragiously blowing, the skie thundring after a dreadfull 
manner, in stead of the raine by him promised, there fell a 
thunderbolt, which like a sword cut his head cleane from 
his shoulders. Some other idolaters not looking much 
aloft, worship earthly things : such were the people of 
Congo before their conuersion, and are at this day those, 
that haue not yet receiued the Gospel 1. For these men 
worship certaine dragons with wings, and they foolishly 
nourish them in their houses, with the delicatest meates 
that they haue. They worship also serpents of horrible 
shape, goats, tygers, and other creatures, and the more they 
fearc and reuerence them, by how much the more deformed 
and monstrous they are. Amongst the number of their 
godis also, they reckon bats, owles, owlets, trees, and herbes, 
with their figures in wood and stone: and they do not 
onely worship these beasts Huing, but euen their very skins 
when they are dead, being filled with straw, or some other 
matter : and the manner of their idolatrie is, to bow,downe 
before the foresaid things, to cast themselues groueling 
vpbn the earth, to coucr their faces with dust, and to offer 
vnto them of their best substance. Some lifting vp their 
mindes a little higher, worship starres, such be the people 
of Guinie, and their neighbours, who are enclined to the 
worship of the sunne, the greatest part of them : and ihey 
hold opinion, that the soules of those dead that liued well, 
mount vp into heauen, and there dwell perpetually neere 
vnta the sunne. Neither want there amongst these, certaipe 

3 S2 


others so superstitious, as they worship for God the first 
thing they meete withall, comming out of their houses. 
They also hold their kings in the account & estimation of 
Gods, whom they suppose to be descended from heauen, & 
their kings to maintaine themselues in such high reputation, 
are serued with woonderfull ceremonies, neither will they 
be seene but very seldome. 

Of the lewes. 

THe lewes who haue bene dispersed by god throughout 
the whole world, to confirme vs in the holie faith, 
entered into Ethiopia in the Queen of Sabas daies, in 
companie of a son that Salomon had by her, to the number 
(as the Abassins affirme) of twelue thousand, and there 
multiplied their generation exceedingly. In that they not 
onely filled Abassia, but spred themselues likewise all ouer 
the neighbour prouinces. So that at this day also the 
Abassins affirme, that vpon Nilus towards the west, there 
inhabiteth a most populous nation of the lewish stock, 
vnder a mightie K. And some of our modeme Cosmo- 
graphers set downe a prouince in those quarters, which they 
call The land of the Hebrewes, placed as it were vnder the 
equinoctiall, in certaine vnknowne mountaines, betweene 
the confines of Abassia, and Congo. And likewise on the 
north part of the kingdome of Goiame, and the southerly 
quarter of the kingdome of Gorham there are certaine 
mountaines, peopled with lewes, who there maintaine 
themselues free, and absolute, through the inaccessible 
situations of the same. For in truth by this means, the 
inhabitants of the mountaines (speaking generally) are the 
most ancient, and freest people : in that the strong situation 
of their natiue soile secureth them from the incursions of 
forraine nations, and the violence of their neighbours. 
Such are the Scottes in Britaine, and the Biskaines in 
Spaine. But to return againe to our purpose : the Anzichi, 


who extend from the bankes of the riuer Zaire, cuen to the 
confines of Nubia, vse circumcision, as also diuers other 
bordering people do, a thing that must necessarilie haue 
been brought in by the lewes, & yet remayning stil in vse, 
after the annihilation of the Mosaicall law amongst them. 
Some also think, that the people called Cafri or Cafates at 
this day, who are gentiles, draw their originall from the 
lewes, but being enuironed on euery side by Idolaters, they 
haue by little and little swarued from the law of Moses : 
and so are become, as it were, insensibly, Idolaters. On 
the other side, the lewes being woonderfully increased in 
Spaine, passed one after an other into Affricke and Mauri- 
tania, and dispersed themselues euen to the confines of 
Numidia, especiallie by meanes of traffick, and the pro- 
fession of goldsmithes, the which being vtterly forbidden 
the Mahumetans, is altogether practised amongst them by 
the lewes, as are likewise diuers other mechanicall crafts, 
but principallie that of black smithes. A thing which 
notablie appeareth in mount Sessaua in the kingdome of 
Maroco, and in mount Anteta. It is said that Eitdeuet, a 
towne in the kingdome of Maroco, was inhabited by the 
lewes, of the stock fas they affirme) of Dautdy who not- 
withstanding by little and little are growne Mahumetans. 
The lewes encreased afterwards in Affirick, when first 
Emanuell king of Portugal, put them forth of their 
dominions : For then many went ouer into the kingdomes 
of Fez and Maroco, and brought in thither the artes and 
professions of Europe vnknowne before to those Barbarians. 
In Bedis, Teza, Elmedina, Tefsa, and in Segelmesse euery 
place is full of them. They passe also by way of traffick 
euen to Tombuto, although lohn Leo writeth how that king 
was so greatly their enemie, that he confiscated the goods 
of those that traded with them. It importeth me not to 
speake of Egypt, because it hath euer beene, as well by 
reason of the neernes of Palestina, as for the commodity of 


traffick, whereiinto they are much enclined, as it were, their 
second countrie. Here in great number, and in a manner 
in all the cities and townes thereof, they exercise mechanic 
call arts, and vse traffick and merchandize, as also take 
vpon them the receit of taxes and customes : but aboue all 
other places, in. Alexandria and Cairo, where they amount 
to the number of fiue and twentie thousand, and the ciuiller 
sort among them do vsually speake the Castilian toung. 

Thus much may suffice to haue bin spoken concerning 
the lewes. It now remaineth, that we come to intreat of 
the Mahumetans of Africa. Concerning whotfi, before we 
make any particular relation, it will not be amisse ; for the 
readers more perfect instruction, to speake Somewhat in 
generall : as namely of the sinister proceedings of their 
first seducer Mahumet ; of the variety and propagation of 
their damned sects oUer the east and south parts of the 
world ; of the fower principall nations which are the main- 
teiners and vpholders of this diabolicall religion ; and of 
sundry other particulars most worthie the obseruation. 


Of Mahumet^ and of his accursed religion in generalL 

Ahmnet his father, was a certaine prophane Idolater 
called Abdaldy of the stock of Ismael, and his 
* OrEmina mother was one *Hennina a lew, both of them being of 
very humble, and poore condition. He was borne in the 
yeere of our Lord 562. and was endowed with a graue 
countenance and a quick wit. Being growne to mans 
estate, the Scenite Arabians, accustomed to rob, and runnie 
all ouer the countrie, tooke him prisoner, and sold him to 
a Persian merchant, who discerning him to be apt, and 
subtile about busines, affected and held him in such account, 
that after his death his mistresse remaining a widow, 
scorned not to take him for her husband. Being therefore 
inriched by this meanes, with goods and credit, he raised 
vp his minde to greater matters. The times then answered 


very fitly for one that woulde disturbe or worke any in- 
nouation. For the Arabians vpon some euill entreatie 
were nialecontented with the Emperour Heracltus, The 
heresies of Arrius .and Nestorius^ had in a miserable sort 
shaken and annoied the church of God. The lewes, though 
they wanted power, yet amounted they to a great number. 
The Saracens preuailed mightily, both in number and 
force. And the Romaine Empire was full of slaues 
Mahumet therefore taking hold on this opportunitie, framed 
a law, wherein all of them should haue some part, or 
prerogatiue. In this, two Apostata lewes, and two here- 
tikes, assisted him : of which one was /(7A«, beingascholler 
of Nestorius schoole ; and the other Sergius^ of the sect 
of Arrius, Whereupon the principall intention of this 
cursed law was wholie aimed against the diuinitie of our 
Sauiour lesus Christ, wickedly oppugned by the lewes and 
Arrians. He perswaded this law, first by giuing his wife 
to vnderstand, and his neighbours by her meanes, and by 
little and little others also, that he conuersed with the 
angell Gabriell^ vnto whose brightnes he ascribed the 
falling sicknes, which many times prostrated him vpon the 
earth : dilating and amplifying the same in like sort, by 
permitting all that which was plausible to sense and the 
flesh ; as also by offering libertie to all slaues that would 
come to him, and receiue his law. Wherefore being pro- 
secuted hard by the masters of those fugitiue slaues led 
away by him, he fledde to Medina Talnabi, and there 
remained some time. From this flight the Mc^humetans 
fetch the originall of their Hegeira. But questionlesse 
there was nothing that furthered more the enlargement of 
the Mahumetan sect, then prosperitie in armes, and the 
multitude of victories ; whereby Mahumet ouerthrew the 
Persians, became lord of Arabia, and draue the Romaines 
out of Syria. And his successors afterwards extended 
their empire from Euphrates to the Atlantick Ocean, and 


from the riuer Niger to the Pirenei mountaines, and beyond. 
They occupied Sicilia, assailed Italy, and with continuall 
prosperitie, as it were, for three hundred yeeres, either 
subdued, or encumbred, both the east & west But to 
returne to Mahumet his law, it embraceth circumcision, & 
maketh a difference between meats pure, & vnpure, partly 
to allure the lewes. It denieth the Diuinitie of Christ, to 
reconcile the Arrians, who were then most mightie ; it 
foisteth in many friuolous fables, that it might fit the 
Gentiles : & looseth the bridle to the flesh, which is a thing 
acceptable to the greatest part of men. Whereupon Auicen 
(though he were a Mahumetan) writeth thus of such a law: 
Lex nostra (saith he) quavi dedit Mahumeth^ &c. that is to 
say. Our LaWy which Mahumet gaue vs, regardeth tlu 
disposition offelicitie or misery ^ according to the body. But 
there is another promise^ ivhich concerneth the minde, or the 
soule: whichwise Diuines had a farre greater desire to 
apprehend^ then that of the body^ which though it be giuen 
vnto them^ yet respect they it not^ nor /told it in any estima- 
tion in comparision of that felicitie which is a coniunction 
with truth, 
Ori/aiy, Mahumet being dead, *AIU^ Abubequer^ Omar^ and 

Odoman his kinsemen, each of them pretending to be his 
true successor, wrote distinctly euerie one by himselfe. 
Vpon which there did arise fower seuerall sects, ^///was 
head of the sect Imemia, being followed by the Persians, 
Indians, and many Arabians, and Gelbines of Africa. 
Abubequer gaue foundation to the sect Melchia, embraced 
generally by the Arabians, Saracens and Africans. Omar 
was author of the Anesia, which is on foote among the 
Turks in Syria, and in that part of Africk which is called 
Zahara. Odman left behind him the Banesia,or Xefaia, as 
we may terme it, which wanteth not followers among the 
foresaid nations. Of these fower sects, in processe of time, 
haue growen sixtie eight other verie famous, besides some 


of lesse renowne and fame. Among the many Mahometan 
sects, there are the Morabites, who lead their Hues for the 
most part in Hermitages, and make profession of Morall 
Philosophie, with certaine principles differing from the 
Alcoran. One of these was that Morabite, which certaine 
yeeres past, shewing Mahumet his name imprinted in his 
brest (being done with Aqua Fortis, as I suppose, or some 
such thing) raised vp a great number of Arabians in Africk, 
and laide siege to Tripolis ; where being bctraied by his 
captaine, he remained the Turkes prisoner, who sent his 
skin to the grand Signor. This man being in prison, said 
to an Italian slaue, his familiar, who went to visite him ; I 
greeue at nothing but you Christians, who haue abandoned 
me. In that the knights of Malta onely sent him small 
succour, of powder and shot. These Morabites affirme, (to 
declare some of their fooleries) that when AlU fought, he 
killed ten thousand Christians with one blow of a sworde, 
and that this sword was an hundred cubits long. Then 
there is the foolish, and brutish sect of Cobtini. One of 
these shewed himselfe not many yeeres sithence in the 
market places and quarters of Algier, mounted on a reed, 
with a bridle and raines of leather, giuing the multitude to 
vnderstand, that vpon that horse in one night, he rid an 
hundred leagues ; and he was for this greatly honored and 

In tract of time, there grew amongst the Mahumetans, 
through the vanitie of their law, and the incredible variety 
and difference of opinions, great disorders : For their sect 
being not onely wicked, and treacherous (as we haue 
declared) but also grosse aud foolish, those that made pro- 
fession thereof to defend and maintaine it, were enforced to 
make a thousand interpretations and constructions, far 
sometimes from reason, and otherwhiles from the expresse 
words of Mahumet him selfe. The Califas endeuoured 
mightily to reformc this ; but their prouisions of greatest 


importance were two. For first, Moauia (this man 
florished about the yeere of our Lord" 770) called an 
assembly of learned and iudiciall men, to establish that 
which in their sect should be beleeued, and to this end he 
caused all the bookes of Mahumet,and his successors, to be 
gathered together. But they not agreeing amongst them- 
selues, he chose out of them, sixe of the most learned, and 
shutting them within an house, with the said writings, he 
commaunded them, that euery one should make choise of 
that which seemed best vnto him. These men reduced 
the Mahumetan doctrine into sixe books, setting downe 
the pennaltie of losse of life, to them that should otherwise 
speake, or write of the law. But because the Arabians 
gaue their mindes to Philosophie, in the vniuersities of 
Bagdet, Fez, Maroco, and Cordoua (and being of piercing 
and subtile wits) they could not but looke into the fopperies 
of their sect. There was added vnto this another prouiso, 
which was a statute, that forbad them the studie of Philo- 
sophie: by meanes of which statute, their Vniuersities 
before most flourishing, haue within these fower hundred 
yeeres daily declined. At this day the sects of Mahumetan 
impietie are distinguished more through the might and 
power of those nations that follow them, then of themselues: 
and the principall nations are fower, that is to say, Arabians, 
Persians, Tartars, and Turks. The Arabians are most 
superstitious, and zealous. The Persians stand more vpon 
reason and nature : the Tartars hold much gentilisme and 
simplicitie : and the Turkes (especially in Europe) are most 
of them Libertines, and Martialistes. 

The Arabians, as they that esteeme it for great glorie, 
that Mahumet was of their nation, and buried in Mecca (or 
as others thinke in Medina Talnabi) haue laboured with all 
arte, and yet procure to spread their sect ouer the whole 
world. In India they first preuailed with preaching, and 
afterwards with armes. Considering that seuen hundred 


yeeres sithencc (king Perimal reigning iu Malabar) they 
began there to sow this cockle : and to bring the Gentiles 
more easily within their net, they tooke (and at this daie 
take) their daughters to wife, a matter greatly esteemed 
of them, by reason of these mens wealth. By this policie 
and the traffike of spices, which yeelded them infinite 
profite, they quickly set foote, and fastned it in India. 
They built townes, and planted colonies, and the first place, 
where they grew to a bodie, was Calicut, which of a small 
thing, by their concourse and traffike, became a mightie 
citie. They drew king Perwtal to their sect, who at their 
perswasion resolued to go and end his daies at Mecca ; and 
for that purpose he put himselfe onward on the voiage, 
with certaine ships laden with pepper and other precious 
comrtiodities : but a terrible tempest met him in the midst 
of his course, and drowned him in the sea. They inhabite 
in Malabar, where two sorts of Arabians or Moores (as we 
may terme them) haue more exceedingly increased and 
preuailed, then in any other part of the Indies : one is of 
strangers that arriuc there by reason of the traffike of 
Arabia, Cambaia, and Persia : and the other be those that 
dayly are borne of a Moorish father, and a mother Gentile, 
or both of father and mother Moores, and these (who are 
called Nateani, and differ from the other people, in person, 
customes, and habit) make as it were a fourth part of the 
inhabitants of that countrey. From Malabar, they went to 
the Maldiue, and Zeilan. Here they began to take vpon 
them the managing of the customs and impositions of 
cities and townes ; and by making them greater then in 
times past, they attained to the grace and fauour of the 
Princes and Lords, together with great reputation and 
authority, yea preeminence and superiority ouer the 
common people : and favouring those who embraced their 
sect, daylie preached and diuulged by the Papassi ; but 
holding their hands heauie ouer such as shewed themselues 


repugnant, they incredibly aduanced Mahumetisme. After- 
wards perceiuing themselues strong and mightie, both in 
richesse, and followers, they seized on the townes and 
cities. So that at this day, they commaund a good part of 
the Maldiuae, and the ports of the most noble iland of 
Zeilan, except that of Columbo where the Portugals haue 
a fortresse. By like stratagem are they become masters of 
the west part of Sumatra, within little more then these b^o 
hundred yeeres, first preuailing by trade, and commerce, 
then by marriage and affinitie, and last of all by armes. 
From hence going forwarde, they haue taken into their 
hands the greatest part of the ports of that large Archi- 
pelago of the Lu^ones, Malucos, lauas, &c. They are 
Lords of the citie of Sunda, in the greater laua, they enioy 
the greatest part of the Hands of Banda, and Maluco; 
they raigne in Burneo, & Gilolo. They came once as far 
as Lu^on, a most noble Iland, and one of the Philippinas, 
& had planted therein three colonies. On the other side, 
they conquered vpon the firme land, first the rich kingdome 
of Cambaia, & there established their sect, as they did the 
like, in all the places adioining ; from hence they went to 
Bengala, and became Lords thereof. They cut oflF by little 
and little, from the crowne of Siam, the state of Malaca, 
(which the Portugals holde at this day) as likewise those of 
lor, and Pam ; and more then two hundred leagues along 
the coast Finallie they are entred into the most ample 
kingdome of China, and haue built Moscheas in the same ; 
and if the Portugals in India and the Malucos, and after- 
wards the Spaniards in the Philippinas had not met them 
on the way, and with the gospell and armes, interrupted 
their course, they would at this instant haue possessed 
infinite kingdomes of the east : yea in this they are so 
industriout and bould, to our confusion, that euen the 
Arabian mariners, that go in the Portugall ships will tarrie 
behind in the Gentile-townes, there to publish their sect ; 


and in the yeere 1555. one of these men had passed euen 
as far as lapon, for this purpose ; so that if the Portugals 
had not remedied it in due time, he would peradventure 
haue wrought there some alteration. 

The Persian nation, as touching their sect, a little before 
our time, haue beene made renowmed among those bar- 
barous people, by the valor and armes of Ismael^ called the 
Sophi. This man accounting himselfe to be of the race 
and blood of Alle, brought his owne sect into credit and 
reputation, and waged warre against those borderers, who 
would not accept of it. He wore a redde Turbant, with 
twelue points or corners, in memoriall of the twelue sonnes 
of Ocefiy the sonne of Alle^ willing that all his followers 
should weare the like ; and many people came in vnto him, 
and in a maner all those nations which inhabite betweene 
the riuers Euphrates and Abianus, and between the Caspian 
sea & the Persian gulphe. Tammas his sonne sent the 
said twelue-comered Turbant to the Mahumetan Princes of 
Malabar and Decan, perswading them to receiue it with 
his sect, and bestowing the title of a king, on whomesoeuer 
would accept of it, but no others receiued it, saue Nizza- 
maluco. It is a common voice and opinion, that the 
greatest part of the Mahumetans of Syria and the lesser 
Asia follow and affect inwardly the sect of All^, and of the 
Persians ; the which the Turkes perceiuing in the vproare 
of Techelle, made a mightie slaughter of them, carrying the 
kinsemen of the slaine, and those suspected, out of Asia 
into Europe. 

But now let vs passe to the Tartars. These (*as other- g. b. b. Kei. 
whiles we declared) descended of the ten tribes of Israel, ^,'deii' Asia. 
being transported by the order and commission of Sal- 
manazar, king of the Assirians, beyond India, into the land 
of Arsareth. Here degenerating into rude and barbarous 
customes, and forgetting in a greatc part, or altogether, the 
Moysaicall ceremonies, they hardly reteined circumcision. 


They came out of this their banishment, in the yeere of our 
Lord 1 200. and in a small time, with the ruine of infinite 
nations, made themselues terrible to all the east, and no 
lesse to the north. Pope Innocent the fourth, being amazed 
at the horrible stormc, that hung ouer the head of Christen- 
dome (for they had. spread themselues like locusts euen to 
the bankes of Danubius) sent from the councell of Lyons, 
Withthis frier Frycr AscelUtio. of the order of Dominicus, with other 

Ascelhne was ' 

seni lohannes Frycrs, to the great C A N in the yeere 1 246. to exhort 

dePiofwCar- , . , , , r . , ^ ^, . 

pint, whose him to embrace the name and faith of Christ ; or at least 

voiageisput i i ^11 . . \ » r>^f\* % 

domneinthe to let the Christians alone in peace. Of baptisme he 
/AeEnJ}^ accepted not, but promised a league with the Christians, 
voia^es. j.^^ p^^ yeeres. Others notwithstanding will needes haue 

it, that he was conuerted, and that taking vp armes in 
fauour of the Christians, he caused Mustaceno the Califa of 
Baldach, to dy with famine, amidst the treasures heaped 
vp by him. But afterwards either hee, or his successor, 
together with his people, denying their Christianity, became 
Mahumetans in religion. And sithence that time, the 
Tartarian name and fame growing obscure, that of the 
Turkes began to flourish. The Tartars Petegorski not- 
withstanding vpon the mountaines of Cumania, remained 
firme in the Christian faith, but yet corrupted with the 
errors of the Greekes and Moscouites. The Colmugi neere 
the Caspian sea, continued in Paganisme, who are termed 
Capigliati, because they shaue not off their hayres, as the 
other Tartars do. The Kirgessi also be Idolators, as other- 
whiles we declared. The other Tartars that are come on 
this side of Imaus, haue all, from one to an other, embraced 
Mahumetisme. And amongst others the Zagatai, who 
through the emulation they haue with the Persians (vpon 
whome they border and contend for Empire) as concerning 
sect, follow the opinion of the Turkes, as also the Mogores 
their descendents, who in these our dayes haue enlarged 
their Empire, betweene mount Caucasus and the Ocean, 


and between Ganges, and Indus. But the Tartars of 
Cataya, resident beyond Imaus, and vpon the desert called 
Lop, remaine generalliein Idolatry, although their continue 
many Christians amongst them, of the sect of Nestorius, 
neither want there some Mahumetans. 

Now let vs come to the Turkes, who in largenes of 
Empire, are superior to the other sects. Of these, part 
inhabite in Asia, part in Europe. Those of Asia incline 
much to the opinion of the Persians, and especially they 
that inhabite in Natolia, and the borders. But those of 
Europe are generally lesse superstitious then the Asians, 
and by reason of their daily conuersation with Christians, 
they haue a deeper opinion and conceit of Christ then the 
others, yea, and many of them hold him for God, and 
Redeemer. And it is not long sithence there were diuers 
put to death in Constantinople with speciall constancie on 
their part : and it was thought that many of the grand 
Signors court held the same opinion. The Turkes, 
especially those of Europe, are of two sorts : for some are 
naturall Turkes, others accessorie, or accidentall. Naturall 
I terme them, that are borne of Turkish parents : and them 
I call accidental, who leauing our sacred faith, or the , 

Moysaicall law, become Mahumetans : the which the 
Christians performe by circumcising themselues, and the 
lewes by lifting vp a finger. Now the Christians become 
Turkes, partly vpon some extreme & violent passion. 
Cherseogli (who afterwards was great with Bazateth) turned 
Turke to bee reuenged of his father, who tooke from him 
his wife, amidst the solemnitie of the marriage. VlucciaHOrOiouchaii, 
denied the faith to be reueged of a slauc, his companion in 
the gallie, who called him scald pate. Some abiure the 
faith to release themselues of torments and cruelties ; 
others for hope of honors and temporall greatnes : and of 
these two sorts there are a great number in Constantinople, 
being thought to be Christians in hart : and yet through 


slothfulnes, or first to gather togither more wealth, or 
expecting opportunitie to carrie with them, their wiues and 
children, or for feare of being discouered in their departure 
and voiage, or else through sensualitie, and for that they 
would not be depriued of the licentiousnes and libertie of 
the life they lead, resolue not to performe that they are 
bound vnto ; deferring thus to moneth to nioneth, & from 
yeere to yeere, to leaue this Babylon & sinke of sin. But 
the greatest part of Renegados become Mahumetans with- 
out perceiuing it. In that the grand Signor sendeth euery 
fower yeers, more or lesse, according as need requireth, to 
take through his States of Europe, of euerie three christian 
male children one, at the discretion of his Commissaries, by 
way of tribute, and they take them from the age of ten, to 
the yeeres of seuenteene. These being brought to Con- 
stantinople, are without other ceremonies circumcised, and 
part of them are sent into Natolia and Caramania to learn 
the toong, religion and fashions of the Turkes : and part 
are emploied about the seruice of the Seraglios, or palaces 
of Constantinople, Pera, and Andrinople. Heere Huing 
among the Turkes, farre from their parents, separate from 
all conuersation with the faithfull, and depriued of all 
spirituall aide and helpe, without perceiuing it, they are 
made Turkes. The author of this, the most diabolicall 
institution that euer was made, was a.certaine Turkish saint, 
called AbeuiraSy in the dales of Amurath the second : and 
in the beginning the number was but three thousand, and 
afterwards they exceeded not twelue thousand, vntill the 
time of Amurath the third, who increased them to the 
number of fower and twentie thousand. But returning to 
their education : after some time they are called home 
againe to the Seraglios of the Zamoglans (for so are they 
termed, till they be enrolled among the lanissaries) to 
lemaine there vnder their heads and gouemours : and in 
short time they became lanissaries, or Spahies, and either 


they go to the warre, or are bestowed in some garrison, or 
else are resident in the court of the Turke. They are 
called The sonnes of the grand Signor: they Hue with 
great license and libertie : they do whatsoeuer pleaseth 
themselues : neither can they be iudged by any but the 
Agaes : during their Hues they are seldotimes punished, 
and yet when it is done, it is with great secrecie : in buying 
they make their owne prizes. These snares are strong 
enough to procure, that they neuer care for returning any 
more to the bosome of the church. But that which is 
woorst of all : euery new Prince bestoweth on them a great 
larges, and augmenteth their pay, at the Christians charge. 
They also kill and robbe whomsoeuer they please, especially 
the Christians throughout the whole countrie, or in march- 
ing to the warre, and the Christians dare not so much as in 
a word finde themselues agreeued : whereupon there 
groweth in them such a scornc and contempt of the 
Christian name, that they remaine strangers to it. That 
which I haue said of yoong male children taken from out 
their mothers bosomes, who without perceiuing it become 
Mahumetanes, hapneth in like manner vnto them, whom 
the pirates by sea, or soldiers by land, make slaues, 
presenting them to the grand Signor. Besides the foresaid 
deuises, the Turkes further spread abroad their sect with all 
kind of vantage and furtherance. For they abase and 
bring to extreme miserie the Christians and Moores their 
subiects, not permitting them to ride, nor beare any kinde 
of armes, nor to exercise any maner of iustice, or gouem- 
ment. They make it lawfull to take Christian women that 
are not married. If the wife of a Christian turneth Turke, 
and marrieth herselfe with a Turke, their law permitteth, 
that the Christian husband by turning Turke may take her 
againe. They forbid the Christians to repaire their ruinate 
Churches, and suffer them in no wise to reedifie them fallen 
downe, without great bribes ; and so the Christians through 



pouertie let them come to ruine : by meanes whereof the 
publike worship of God faileth, and in progresse of time 
also, the very Christian faith and beleefe. In Asia they 
will not permit the Greekes the vse of their language, but 
onely in sacred administrations, to the end that togither 
with their language, they may also loose and forget their 
Christian fashions and customes. The Spahi being Lords 
for terme of life, of infinite villages, take such young men 
into their seruitude, as best pleaseth them ; who in processe 
of time, by couersation with their maisters, and the fauours 
they hope after, and by the wicked fashions and customes 
which they learne, as also through the sinnes and vices, 
wherein they are drowned, do become Turkes. And the 
Greekes children, after the example of their companions, 
being thus fauoured and made much of, incline in such a 
sort vnto this euill, that vpon euery light occasion, they 
threaten their fathers and mothers to turne Turkes. 
Further it is forbidden the Mahumetanes to make restitu- 
tion of any place, once taken with armes, and wherein they 
haue built a Moschea. To conclude, they vse all manner 
of circumstances, by meane of which they may amplifie or 
enlarge their dominion and sect. 

Of the Mahumetans of Africa in particular. 

THe Mahumetan impietie hath spred it selfe throughout 
Africa beyond measure : this pestilence entred into 
Egypt in the yeere of our Lord 637. by the armes of Omar, 
From whence a captaine of Odoman first passed into Africa 
in the yeere 650. with fower-score thousand fighting men, 
who there defeated Gregorius Patritius. But they per- 
petually cast out of Africk the Romaines with the people of 
Absimacus, and Leontiiis the emperour, in the yeere 699. 
and wholie impatronized themselues of Barbaric. They 
pierced into Numidia & Libya in the yeere 710. and ouer- 
threw the Azanaghi, and the people of Gualata, Oden, and 


Tombuto. The yeere afterwards 973. hauing passed 
Gambea, they infected the Negroes, and the first that 
drunke of their poison were those of Melli. In the yeere 
1067. laiaia the sonne of Abubequer entred into the lower 
Ethiopia, and by little and little subuerted those people 
which confine vpon the deserts of Libya and Egypt, piercing 
euen to Nubia & Guinea. The Arabias haue augmeted 
their sect in Africk, first with force of armes, by banishing 
of the naturall inhabitants, the which they might well do, 
by reason of their infinite multitude : and of them, that 
verse of Dauid may well be vnderstood : In circuitu impij 
ambulant : secundum altiiudinem iuam, multiplicasti filios 
hominum, &c. The wicked walke round about ; according 
to thy greatnes, thou hast multiplied the sonnes of men. 
Where they could not come, nor giue no blow with armes ; 
there they haue ingrafifed themselues, by preaching and 
traffike. The heresie of ^rr/z^j furthered their enterprize, 
wherewith the Vandales and Gothes being then inhabiters 
of Africa were infected. To further their designments they 
brought in the Arabicke language and letters. They 
founded Vniuersities and Studies, both for riches of 
reuenew, and magnificence of building most notable, 
especially in Maroco, and Fez. But there is nothing that 
hath greatlier furthered the progression of the Mahumetan 
sect, then perpetuitie of victorie, & the greatnes of conquests, 
first of the Califas in the east, & afterwards of the Miramo- 
lines in Affrick : In that the greatest part of men, yea, and 
in a manner all, except such as haue fastned their confi- 
dence vpon the crosse of Christ, and setled their hope in 
eternity, follow that which best agreeth with sense, and 
measure the grace of God by worldly prosperitie. And 
yet Christ (as lustinus the Philosopher, and glorious martyr 
testifieth) promised no earthly reward to good works. 
Carnal men therefore perceiuing the empire of the Califas 
and Mahumetans continually to cncrease in the east and 

3 T 2 


west, taking^ into their hands both sea and land, (for this 
their feJicitie in armes continued three hundred yeeres, 
wherein they conquered all that which lieth betwcene the 
riuer Abianus and the Atlantike Ocean, and subdued 
Spaine, Sicilia, and a part of Italie and France) and iudging 
that temporall prosperitie and victories were the effects and 
fruits, or at least the arguments and signes of the grace 
and fauour of God, they easily fell into Apostasie, where- 
unto the impietie oi Arrius and other heretikes opened the 
way, who for long tract of time estranging themselues more 
and more from the Euangelicall truth, fell in the end into 
Atheisme : as we see hath fallen out in the course of some 
moderne enormities. But to returne from whence we haue 
digressed ; in progresse of time there grew great differences 
betweene the Mahumetans : for their sect being no lesse 
sottish and foolish, then wicked and perfidious, the main- 
teiners of it were driuen to fetch reasons farre off* for defence 
of the same. But the Arabians not contented in Africa to 
haue subiugated with armes, and with false doctrine to 
haue pestered Barbaric, Numidia, Libya, and the countrey 
of Negroes, they further on the other side assailed the 
lower Ethiopia, both by sea and land. By lande entred 
thereinto in the yeere 1067. laiaia the sonne of Abu- 
bequer, and by meanes of certaine Alfachi, he dispersed 
that pestilence into Nubia, and the neighbour prouinces. 
On the other side passing the Red sea, they first tooke 
knowledge of the coast of Ethiopia, euen to Cabo de los 
corrientes, by their continuall traffike thither: and after- 
wards being encouraged by the weakenes of the naturall 
inhabitants, they erected the kingdomes of Magadazo, 
Melinde, Mombazza, Quiloa, Mozambique, and seazed on 
some ports of the island of Saint Laurence : and gathering 
force by little and little, they enlarged their empire within 
the land, and established therein the kingdomes of Dangali 
and Adel. So that on the one side they haue spred their 


sect, from the Red sea to the Atlantike Ocean, and from 
the Mediterran sea to the riuer Niger, and farther : and on 
the other, haue taken into their hands all the easterne coast 
of Africk, from Suez to Cape Guardafii, and from this, euen 
to that De los corrientes, and the adioining islands. In 
which places though the people be not altogither Mahume- 
tans, yet haue the Mahumetans the weapons & dominion 
in their hands ; the which how much it importeth for the 
bringing in of sects, we may easily conceiue. To conclude, 
they haue often assailed the Prete lanni ; sometimes the 
Turkes, who haue taken from him the ports of the Red sea ; 
and otherwhiles the Moores, vnder the conduct of the king 
of Adel, who hath, and doth molest them greatly, leading 
into captiuitie a great number of Abassins, where they 
become for the most part Mahumetans. 

Of the Christians of Africa. 

NOw that we haue declared the miseries and darknes of 
Affrick, it remaineth that we set downe that little 
light of true religion which there is ; the which I can not 
passe ouer, without exceeding glorie to the Portugall 
nation. In that they with inestimable charge, and infinite 
trauaile, haue first sought to open the way to Ethiopia, and 
to bring the great Negus of Abassia, called by vs Prete 
lanniy to the vnion of the christian church of Europe, 
performing whatsoeuer, after this, for the conuersion of the 
princes of Guinia and Meleghette to the faith, and yet more 
happily of the king of Congo and the Princes of Angola ; 
and likewise with diuers colonies sent to the ilands of the 
Atlantick Ocean, they haue no lesse aduaced the honor of 
their owne nation, then the propagating of the christian 
faith. And finally, passing beyond Cabo de buena 
esperan^a, they haue resisted the Mahumetan sect, which 
had now extended it selfe on the backside of Africa, as far 
as Cabo de los corrientes. 


Of tlie Christians in Egypt. 

THe Christians of Egypt are partly strangers, partlie 
home-borne in the country ; strangers come thither 
in regarde of traffick which there flourisheth aboue measure, 
especiallie in the cities of Alexandria and Cairo ; by reason 
that this kingdome being most commodiously situate 
between the Red and Mediterran seas, vniteth the west 
parts of the world with the east, by meane of an infinite 
traffick ; and therefore is it as it were a ladder, whereby 
the wealth of India and of the Eoan Ocean, passeth into 
the lesser Asia, into Africke, and Europe. Whereupon 
not onely the Venetians, Florentines, and Ragusians come 
thither in great numbers ; but also the French, and English. 
The naturall Christians of Egypt, remaining after the 
spoiles and hauock of the Barbarians and the crueltie of 
the Saracens, Mamalucks, and Turkes, exceed not the 
number of fiftie thousand persons, and these dwell dispersed 
here and there, but principallie in the cities of Cairo, Messia, 
Monfalatto, Bucco, and Elchiasa, all placed vpon the bankes 
of Nilus. There are also many in the prouince of Minia, 
in which quarter appeare diuers monasteries. But among 
the monasteries of Egypt those of Saint Anthonie^ Saint 
Paul, and Saint Macarius are the principal. The first 
lieth in Troglodytica right ouer against Sait vpon a hill, 
where Saint AntJwny was said to be beaten by diuels : the 
second is seated not far from this, in the middest of a 
desert : the third standeth in the wildernes, to the west of 
Bulac. This is the monasterie which in some histories is 
called Nitria, as I thinke, bicause in that quarter the waters 
of Nilus, being thickned by the heate of the sun in low 
places, are conuerted into salt and niter. Georgia stood 
vpon Nilus, six miles from the city of Munsia, a rich and 
magnificent Conuent, so called after the name of Saint 
George. There were in the same more then two hundred 


monkes, to the notable benefite and ease of pilgrimes & 
strangers, who were there curteously lodged. But they 
dying all of the plague, (about some hundred and fiftie 
yeeres sithence,) the place was abandoned. 

Now to deliuer somewhat concerning the estates of these 
Christians : They are called by some *Cofti, and by others, * Or CoptUcc. 
Christians from the girdle vpward : for albeit they be 
baptized, as we are, yet do they circumcise themselues like 
to the lewes : so as a man may say, their Christianitie 
comes no lower then the girdle-stead. But that which is 
woorse, they haue for these looo.yeers followed the heresie 
of Euiiches,v^\)\Qh alloweth but of one nature in Christ : by 
which heresie they also separate and dismember them- 
selues, from the vnion of the Church of Europe. The 
occasion of this separation and schisme, was the Ephesine 
councell, assembled by Dioscorus in defence of Eutiches^ 
who was now condemned in the Calcedon councell by sixe 
hundred and thirtie fathers congregated togither, by the 
authoritie of Leo the first. For the Cofti fearing, that to 
attribute two natures vnto Christ, might be all one, as if 
they had assigned him two hypostases or persons, to auoid 
the heresie of the Nestorians, they became Eutichians. 
They say their diuine seruice in the Chaldean toong, often- 
times repeating Alleluia. They read the Gospell first in 
Chaldean, and then in Arabick. When the priest saieth 
Pax vobisy the yoongest amongst them laieth his hand vpon 
all the people that are present. After consecration, they 
giae a simple peece of bread to the standers by : a cere- 
monie vsed also in Greece. They exercise their function 
in the church of Saint Marke amidst the ruines of Alexan- 
dria, and in that of Suez, vpon the red sea : they obey the 
Patriarke of Alexandria, and affirme themselues to be of 
the faith of Prete lantii. In our daies two Popes haue 
attempted to reduce them to the vnion of the. Romish 
church ; Pius the fourth, and Gregorie the thirteenth. 


Pius the fourth in the yeere 1563. sent two I esu it-priests 
for this purpose to Cairo ; who staied there almost a yeere, 
but to no purpose, and with great danger of life : for one 
of them was appointed to the fire, from which he escaped 
by meanes of a merchant ; who with eight hundred crownes 
pacified the Turkes, and caused the priest sodainly to flie 
away. But Pope Gregorie entred into this enterprise 
with more hope : for Paulo Mariani a famous Christian 
merchant, was at the same time in Cairo, who for his 
wisdome, magnificence, knowledge of toongs, and long 
practise in the afiaires of the world, ioined with woonderfull 
eloquence, and presence of bodie, was in great esteeme and 
reputation, not onely among the Christians, but also with 
the Turkes, who equally loued him for his liberality, and 
honored him for his valour. This man had conference 
with the Patriarke of Alexandria about the reconciling of 
his people to the Romish church : whereunto the Patriarke 
not shewing himselfe difficult, or hard to be entreated, was 
contented to call by his letters into those parts, two priests 
of the same order, who were then with the Maronites in 
mount Libanus. In the meane while the Pope, who was 
aduertised of al this busines, taking the matter quickly in 
hand, wrote vnto the two priests, appointing one of them to 
go dircctlie to Cairo ; and the other to returne back to 
Rome. Wherefore in the yeere 1582 in the moneth of 
October one of the said priests arriuing at Cairo, was 
courteouslie receiued by Mariani, and afterwards conducted 
to the Patriarke, who also made shew of great ioy and 
consolation. One might likewise perceiue a reasonable 
disposition in others who had any authority among the 
Cofti. He aduertised the Pope of all ; who sent a certaine 
other priest, with one breefe to the Patriarke, and an other 
to the lesuites, wherein he exhorted them to go forward, 
and to bring the vnion, whereof so assured hope was con- 
ceiued, to good effect. The Patriarke receiued the breefe 


with great reuerence, he kissed it, and according to their 
custome, laid it vpon his head, and afterwards demanded 
what it comprehended : the which with great feeling, and 
contentment hauing vnderstood, within fewe daies he 
instituted a Synod of some bishops, and certaine other 
principall persons of the nation. Heere the said priests 
hauing declared vnto them vpon how little ground they, 
who at the first receiued the faith from Saint Marke^ were 
sequestred from the western church by the authoritie of one 
heretike, tooke much paines afterward in making them 
capable of the difference that is betwecne a nature and an 
Hypostasis or person, to their exceeding great admiration, 
bicause they were in a manner destitute of all learning. 
For the Patriarke euen from his youth had led his life in 
the monasterie of Saint Macarius, farre not onely from the 
studies of learning, but also from the conuersation of men, 
neither appeered there any greater knowledge in the 
bishops. They had scarcely any booke of the ancient 
fathers, and yet those they had, were all dustie, and eaten 
with mothes: That whereof they made chiefest account, 
was an old volume, being torne and rent, which they called 
The confession of the Fathers, full of diuers dreames and 
fables, whereof notwithstanding, and of some other Arabicke 
bookes, the priests made speciall good vse, for the conuinc- 
ing of them in their errors. Also hauing framed a corn- 
pendium of most necessarie doctrine, they caused diuers 
copies of the same to be drawne, and gaue them to the 
learned of the Cofti, to be considered of, who wondring at 
the strangenes of the things propounded vnto them, and 
not knowing how to answer the arguments of the priestes, 
demaunded time to search their owne writings, and to see 
what opinion their predecessors had held as concerning 
that point. In the meane while, they came often to the 
priests, and inquired of them the doctrine and forme of 
speech vsed in the Romish church. Whereupon they 


shewed them how greatly the same church had euer 
detested heresies : and how scuerely it had condemned the 
impietie oi Nestor ius, and contrariwise highly esteemed the 
authoritie of Cy villus Alexandrinus^ and the decrees of the 
first Ephesine Councell. Neither (bicause it confesseth 
two natures in Christ, ioined in one person without con- 
fusion) doth it therefore inferre two hypostasis or persons. 
In that a nature and a person are not the selfe same things. 
The which may cleerely be vnderstoode by the deepe 
mysterie of the holy Trinitie, wherein we acknowledge one 
nature, and three Hypostasis or persons. We auer therfore, 
that there are two natures in Christ, one diuine, which he 
hath eternally from his Father, the other humane, which 
he tooke temporally from the immaculate wombe of his 
mother ; both of them ioined in one hypostasis or person. 
By these and other like demonstrations, they cleered the 
vnderstandings, and confirmed the mindes of the Cofti. 
Howbeit, all this notwithstanding, the Synod being againe 
assembled (wherein were present, the Patriarke, fiue bishops, 
diuers abbots of monasteries, and thirtie other principall 
persons) they plainly answered the priests that they had 
turned ouer their Annales & writings, & were resolued in 
no wise to depart from the doctrine and faith of their pre- 
decessors. This vnlooked-for answer, though it greatly 
troubled and displeased the priests, yet were they deter- 
mined still to continue, and to proceed further in the 
enterprise. Whereupon declaring vnto them againe, how 
farre they were by Dioscorus meanes estranged from the 
doctrine taught in the Nicen, Constantinopolitan, and first 
Ephesine councels, grounded on the authoritie of holy 
Scripture, and the ancient Fathers : and that to disallow of 
two natures in Christ, was no other but to denie that he 
was neither true God nor man, (a matter abhominable, not 
only to their eares, but euen to their very vnderstadings) 
they preuailcd so much, as that the matter was yet deferred 


off to an other moneth. Being therefore congregated the 
third time, it seemed that God himselfe furthered this 
affaire more then vsually : for first with common consent 
they abrogated the law of circumcision, and withall after a 
disputation of sixe howers continuance, it was decreed, that 
as concerning the truth of this point, the priests were to be 
beleeued, that there were two natures in Christ, and that 
the Cofti though they auoided the name and title of two 
natures, yet denied they not, but that Christ was true man, 
and true God. Onely they were warie of the two natures, 
for feare of falling by litle & litle into two hypostases. 
Thus this busines being brought to so good a passe, was by 
the ambition and obstinacie of one man vtterly crossed and 
hindred. This was the Vicar or Suffragan to the Patriarke, 
who aspiring himselfe to the Patriarkship, and seeing that 
if he followed this vnion begun with the Romaine church, 
he could not attainc to that dignitie, but by the Popes 
authoritie, (which he altogither misdoubted) he first made 
the decree of two natures to be deferred, commanding 
afterwards that none should subscribe thereunto, and finally 
caused the Patriarke wholie to giuc ouer this busines, and 
to retire himselfe into the wildernes ; whereas he continued 
for certaine months. Afterwards the priests vnderstanding 
where he was, wrot vnto him a letter, signifying therein, 
what a special desire they had to see him, and what domage 
the retiring of himselfe would procure to the sillie sheepe 
recommended vnto him by God, if he ratified not fully 
those things which were decreed vpon in the last assemblie. 
He curteously answered, making shew, that he would 
returne, when he had visited his dioces, and in the meane 
while they should expect him at Cairo. But while he 
thought vpon returne, his owne death interrupted him. 
The Cofti haue a law, or customc, that betweene the death 
of one Patriarke and the creation of an other, there must 
be in a maner an whole yecres space, for so long it is 


requisite, say they, that the church should bewaile the 
death of her spouse. Whereupon the priests, not to loose 
so much time, determined to go home into Italy, to 
acquaint the Pope with the successe of all things, and 
afterwards (neede so requiring) to returne. The Cofti 
vnderstanding thus much, writ letters to the Pope, wherin 
they partly thanked him for the care he had of them ; & 
partly lamented, that their recSciliation with the Romish 
church was not fully confirmed and finished. While the 
priests were about to depart on Saint Mathewes day in the 
morning, there came a route of armed Turkes to their 
lodging. These layde hands suddenly on two priests, and 
another companion of theirs, and on three Fryers of the 
order of Saint Francis, lodged in the same house. No man 
knew the reason of this hurly burly, but for as much as 
could be learned, all this grew through the enuie of a 
Frenchman. This man aspiring to the degree of ConsuU 
or Gouernor ouer his nation, which Mariani had obtayned, 
maliciously gaue the Bassa of Cairo to vnderstad, that 
Mariani suborned the people against the grad Signor, & 
that he had order from the K. of Spaine to leuie Christian 
men. And that to this end he kept in his house certaine 
priests, who practised in this behalf with Mariani for the 
king. There was nothing that more preiudiced the priests, 
then the Cofties letters, which bred a vehement suspition in 
the Turkes, that such an vnion might be concluded with 
the Roman Church, as might worke some extraordinarie 
innouation. They were therefore cast into a filthie and 
stinking prison. The Venetian ConsuU assayed first by 
word of mouth, and after by suite and supplication, to 
asswage the furie and anger of the Bassa ; Howbeit he 
receiued such bitter and nipping answeres, that he himselfe 
was also afraid. But nothing preuaileth further with the 
Turkes then money. For it seemeth that with this onely 
their sauage furie is mitigated, and their fiercenes appeased. 


Fiue thousand crownes therefore were disbursed for the 
priests libertie, wherein the Cofti shewed themselues verie 
friendly, the richest of them offering one after another to 
lend money without any interest for the same. But this 
matter cost Mariani more then ten thousand crownes ; and 
besides that, he was depriued of his degree of Consulship. 
The priests being thus freed out of prison, and obseruing 
how things went, returned one after another backe to 

A relation touching the state of 

Christian Religion in the dominions of 

Prete lanni, taken out of an oration o{ Matthew 

Dresserus, professour of the Greeke and 

Latine toongs, and of Histories, in the 

Vniuersitie of Lipsia. 

Who hauing first made a generall exordium to his 
auditorie, proceedeth at length to the peculiar hand- 
ling of t/ie foresaid argument, in 
manner following. 

Ondum (saith hee) vnius seculi <jBtas 
exacta est, &c. The space of one 
hundred yeeres is not as yet fullie 
expired, since the fame of the Ethio- 
pians religion came first vnto our 
eares. Which, because it is in many 
points agreeable vntoChristian veritie, 
and carrieth an honest shew of pietie therewith, is to be 
esteemed as a matter most worthie of our knowledge. Of 
this therefore, so far forth as the short time of an oration 
will permit, I purpose to intreate ; to the end it may 
appeare, both where, and what manner of Christian church 
that of Ethiopia is, and what were the first beginnings 
♦ As the church This Ethiopian, not vnfitly called *The southeme church, 
hither parts of is situate in Africa far south, namely vnder the Torrid 
bcmfcaUcd the Zone, bctweenc the Tropique of Cancer and the Equi- 
ThafZ/Gr'^fce noctial ; some part thereof also stretching beyond the 
"laL^ie'^ *^' Equinoctial, towards the Tropique of Capricorne. Two 
church. summers they haue euery yeere, yea in a manner, one 


continual summer : so that at the very same time in some 
fields they sowe, and in others they reape. Somewhere also 
they haue euery moneth ripe, some kinde of earthlie fruits 
or other, especiallie pulse. The people are skorched with 
the heate of the sun, and they are black, and go naked : 
saue onely that some couer their priuites with cloth of 
cotton or of silke. The countrie is very great, and con- 
taineth well nie twentie kingdomes ; * so that it is almost * iVkatsoeufr 


as large as Europe, or as all Christendome in these parts, thinkdk; yet 

A « t • • • 1 1 • 1 1 1 1 • 1 diners other 

At the beginnmg mdeed it had not aboue two kmgdomes ; authors of good 
but in processe of time it was mightily enlarged by th^ dominions 0/ 
conquest of countries adiacent. For it is enuironed on all benothtnglo '^ 
sides by vnbeleeuing gentiles and Mahumetans, who are'^'*^^" 
most deadlie enimies to the Christian religion ; with whome 
the emperour of Ethiopia is at continuall wars, endeuouring 
by all possible meanes to reclaime them from their 
heathenish Idolatry to the faith of lesus Christ. It is 
reported that certaine bordering *Mores beare such im- '^.f^//^^""^^^ 
placable hatred against these Christians, that none of them ^^^^• 
may marry, before he bringeth testimony, that he hath 
slaine tuelue of them. 

The Emperour of Ethiopia is not called (as some imagine) 
Presbiter or priest ; but Pretious lokn. For in the 
Ethiopian toung he is termed Belul Gian, and in the 
Chaldean, Encoe Gian, both which additions signifie 
pretious or high ; so that in a maner he commeth neer vnto 
the titles of our princes, who are called Illustres, Excelsi, 
Serenissimi, &c. to signifie, that they are exalted and 
aduanced aboue other people. And this is a common name 
to all the christian kings of Ethiopia ; as Pharao was to 
the Egyptian kings, and Augustus^ to the Roman 
emperours. Neither is this Pretious lohn a priest by 
profession, but a ciuil magistrate ; nor is he armed so 
much with religion and lawes, as with military forces. 

Howbeit he calleth himselfe The piller of faith ; because 


he is the maintainer of the Christian faith, not onely 
enioining his owne subiects to the obseruation thereof; 
but (what in him lyeth) enforcing his enemies also to 
embrace it. 

In times past Ethiopia was gouerned by Queenes onely. 
Whereupon we reade in the history of the old testament, 
that the Queene of the south came to King Saloman from 
Saba, to heare his admirable wisdome, about the yeere of 
the world 2954. The name of this Queen (as the Ethio- 
pians report) was Maqueda, who from the head-city of 
Ethiopia called Saba (which like an Isle, is enuironed on 
all sides by the riuer Nilus) trauelled by Egypt and the 
Red sea to lerusalem. And she brought vnto Salomon an 
hundred & twenty talents of gold, which amount to 720000. 
golden ducates of Hungarie, that is, seuen tunnes of gold, 
and 20000 Hungarian ducates besides. This mightie sum 
of gold, with other things of great value, she presented 
vnto Salomon, who likewise requited her with most princely 
giftes. She contended with him also in propounding of 
sage questions, & obscure riddles. Amongst other matters 
(as it is reported by Cedrentis) she brought before him 
certaine damosels, and yoong men in maides attire, asking 
the king, how he could discerne one sexe from another. 
He answered, that he would finde them out by the washing 
of their faces. And foorthwith he commanded all their 
faces to be washed, and they which washed themselues 
strongly, were found to be males ; but the residue by their 
tender washing bewraied themselues to be damosels. 

The Ethiopian kings suppose, that they are descended 
from the linage of Dauid^ and from the family of Salomon, 
And therefore they vse to terme themselues the sonnes of 
Dauid, and of Salomon, and of the holy patriarkes also, as 
being sprung from their progenie. For Queene Maqueda 
(say they) had a sonne by Salomon, whome they named 
Metlech. But afterward he was called Dauid. This 


Meilech (as they report) being growen to tvventie yeeres of 
age, was sent backe by his mother vnto his father and 
instructor Salomon^ that he might learne of him, wisedome 
and vnderstanding. Which so soone as the said Meilech 
or Dauid had attained : by the permission of Salomon^ 
taking with him many priests and nobles, out of all the 
twelue tribes, he returned to his kingdome of Ethiopia, and 
tooke vpon him the gouernment thereof. As likewise he 
carried home with him the law of God, and the rite of 

These were the beginnings of the lewish religion in 
Ethiopia. And it is reported, that euen till this present 
none are admitted into any ministry or canonship in the 
court, but such as are descended of their race that came 
first out of lury. By these therfore the doctrine of God in 
Ethiopia was first planted, which afterward tooke such 
deepe root, as it hath since remained to all succeeding 
ages. For the Ethiopians did both retaine the bookes of 
the Prophets, and trauailed also to Jerusalem, that they 
might there worship the true God reuealed in the kingdome 
of Israel. Which manifestly appeereth out of the Historic Acts oj the 
of the Ethiopian Eunuch, whose name was Itidichy which verse'J^. 
was a principall gouemour under Queene Candaces, 
properly called ludith. For he about the tenth yeere after 
the death and resurrection of our blessed Sauiour, trauailed 
for the space of two hundred and fortie miles, to lerusalem. 
Where hauing performed due worship vnto God, returning 
homeward, as he sate in his chariot, he read the prophet 
Esatas, And by the commandement of the holy Spirit, 
Philip one of Christ his disciples was sent vnto him. And 
when they were both come to the citie Bethzur, three 
miles distant from lerusalem ; the Eunuch at the foote of 
a mountaine espied a certaine water, wherein he was 
baptized by Philip. And being returned into Ethiopia, 
this Eunuch baptized the Queene, and a great part of her 



family and people. From which time the Ethiopians 
began to be Christians, who since that haue continually 
professed the Christian faith. 

They beleeue also that Philip sent into Ethiopia a 
disciple of his called Lycanon^ who (as they Suppose) 
ordained the verie forme of religion which they now holde. 

Now these beginnings aswel of the lewish as the 
christian religion among the Ethiopians being thus de- 
clared : we are next to intreat of the doctrine & religion 
it selfe, togither with the rites & ceremonies vsed at this 
present in the Ethiopicke church, so far foorth as we can 
gather out of the ambassages which haue bin performed 
from these parts thither, & backe againe. Besides which 
there is no historic nor discourse of any worth to be found, 
which entreateth of the religion, maners, and customes of 
the Ethiopians. So as it is a matter very strange, that for 
so many hundred yeeres togither, Ethiopia was so barred 
from our knowledge, that we had not so much as any 
report thereof. Vntill about the yeere of our Lord 1440. 
certaine ambassadours sent from thence to Pope Eugenius, 
returned backe with his letters, and Papall benediction to 
their king. Which letters are most charily kept among 
the records of this Ethiopian king, and are preserued for 
perpetuall monuments. 

From which time also, as though Ethiopia had beene 
againe quite debarred from the knowledge and conuersa- 
tion of our men, there were not any Europeans that went 
into Ethiopia, till the yeere of our Lord i486, what time 
lohn the second king of Portugall sent Pedro de Couilham, 
and Alon^o de Paiua, to search out Ethiopia. This Pedro 
was a man very learned, eloquent, skilfull in sundrie 
languages, painfull in his endeuors, fortunate in his 
attempts, and most desirous to finde out new countries and 
people both by sea and land. He therefore in the yeere 
aboue mentioned, togither with his companion Alon^o de 


Paiua, (who died in the voiage) trauailed first to Alexandria 
and Cairo in Egypt : from whence in the companie of 
certaine Mores of Fez and Tremizen, he proceeded on to 
El Tor, an hauen towne vpon the Arabian shore of the 
Red sea, and thence to Aden, situate without the entrance 
of the Arabian gulfe. Where hauing embarqued himselfe 
in a ship of Mores, he trauailed to Calicut, Goa, and other 
places of the East Indies ; and being fully informed of the 
state of the Spiceries, he crossed ouer the maine Ocean to 
9ofala, sailed thence to Ormuz, and then returned backe to 
Cairo. From whence (hauing dispatched letters vnto his 
king) in the company of Rabbi Joseph a lew, he made a 
second voiage to Ormuz ; and in his retume he tooke his 
lourney towards Ethiopia, the Emperour whereof at that 
time, was called Alexander, Vnto whom when he had 
deliuered a letter and a mappe of the world sent from king 
lohfty he was most kindly entertained, and rewarded with 
many rich gifts. And albeit he most earnestly desired to 
retume into his owne countrey, yet could he neuer obtaine 
leaue ; but had wealth, honour, and a wife of a noble family 
bestowed vpon him, to asswage his desire of returning 
home. Wherefore in the yeere 1526. which was fortie 
yeeres after his departure out of Portugal 1, hee was left, by 
Rodrigo deLima the Portugall ambassadour, still remaining 
in the court of Prete lannu 

In all this meane while sundry Portugals came out of 
India to the court of the Prete, not so much to visite and 
salute him, as to declare the good will and kinde affection 
of their king towards him. Whereupon Queene Helena, 
which was then protectresse of the Ethiopian or Abassin 
empire, to requite the king of Portugal with like friendship ; 
sent vnto him in the company of the foresaid Portugals an 
ambassador or messenger of hers, called Matthew, who was 
a merchant borne in Armenia, being a man skilfull in 
sundry languages and in many other matters. This 

3 U 2 


Matthew the Mattficw shc not onclv furnished with letters requisite for 

first ambassa- 
dor sent front such an a m bass age ; but enioined him also to declare by 

Aethiopia to 

Portu^aii. word of mouth vnto the king of Portugal the principall 
heads of their doctrine or beleefe, together with their rites 
and customes, and the present state of the whole church of 
Ethiopia, Moreouer shee presented him with a little crosse 
made (as they suppose) of a piece of that very crosse, 
whereon our sauiour Christ was crucified ; with many other 
tokens and pledges of mutuall christian amity. Thus 
Matthew being dismissed, tooke his iourney to the east 
Indies ; from whence he was conducted by sea into 
Portugal; where arriuing in the yeere iSfS, he did his 
message, according to Queene Helenas directions, vnto the 
king Don Emanuel. 

The king taking wonderfull delight at this message, and 
at these guiftes which were sent him from a Christian prince 

• This amdas' go far remote, not long after prepared a new *ambassao:e, 

sage was at the ' ^ r r &^ 

first vnd^r- with letters, and presents of exceeding: value: in which 

taken by Odo- » r t> > 

arrf<7Grt/wa«<;.- ambassage the pietie and vertue of Francis Aluares a 

who dying at 

the isle of Ca- Portugal priest extraordinarily appeered. For he remaining 

maran in the .,, ., « •rr-^**. 

Red sea, it was sxyi't ^\io\^ ycercs m the court and countrie of Ethiopia, 

Rodrigode ^ tookc there most diligent notice of all matters worthie the 

^^^' obseruation. And he had often and familiar conference 

not onely with the emperour himselfe, but also with the 

patriarke, concerning the whole state of their religion, and 

of matters ecclesiasticall ; as also he was a most curious 

obseruer of all their rites and ceremonies. Who in the 

yeere of Christ 1526. being dismissed by Prete lanni^ was 

accompanied into Portugall by another Ethiopian or 

Zagatabothe Abassin ambassadour called Zagazabo^ and brought letters 

second ambas- i^ r^i 

sador sent from also to Popc Clement the seuenth, with a golden crosse of 
Portugall. a pound weight. It seemeth likewise that the said ambas- 
sadour of Prete lanni was a very honest, vpright, and 
godly man, who by reason of their continuall warres was 
detained in Portugall till the yeere of our Lord 1539. 


The letters of Prete lanni to the Pope, were by Francis 
Aluarez deliuered at Bononia, in the yeere of Christ 1533. 
Where in the presence of Charles ^^ Emperour,and before 
a mightie assembly of people, they were read and approoued 
with great ioy and acclamation. Both which letters, as 
well to the Pope as to the king Don Emanuel^ were full of 
Christian pietie and loue : wherein first that mightie 
Emperour (though therein he was deceiued) with singular 
reuerence and dutie, submitted himselfe vnto the Pope of 
Rome, as to the head of all the church ; offering by the 
said Francis most humble obedience, after the manner of 
other Christian princes. As likewise he profered vnto them 
botli, the offices of beneuolence, charity, and true friendship, 
intending to ioine a firme league of amitie with them, and 
signifying that his dominions were free and open to all 
Christians, that would by sea or land frequent the same. 
Also he plainly seemed to detest the mutuall discords of 
Christians, exhorting them to bandy their forces against 
the Mahumetans, and promising his roiall assistance, and 
most earnest endeuour, for the vanquishing of Christs 
cnimies, and their conuersion to the truth. Lastly he 
required, that men of learning, and of skill in the holy 
Scriptures, as likewise diligent Printers, and all sorts of 
artificers might be sent him, to be emploied in the seruice 
of his church and common wealth. Signifying that he 
would not violently detaine any man in his dominions, but 
would dismisse him into his owne countrey, with honour, 
and liberall rewards. And that he might testifie his louing 
and kind affection to the king of Portugall, by a most 
woorthie monument, he sent him the crowne off his owne 
head, as the present of a dutifull sonne to his most deere 

Wherefore by this most admirable diligence and Industrie 
of the Portugals, Ethiopia in these last times hath beene 
discouercd and made knowne vnto vs. Neither is there 


any thing in the Ethiopians religion so hidden and vn- 
reuealed, which hath not either beene found out by Francis 
Aluarez, or most largely declared by Zagazabo the 
Ethiopian ambassadour. Out of the relations therefore of 
these two woorthy authors, as out of a fountaine, we will 
deriue the whole substance of our speech. 

The ground of the Ethiopicke religion is the profession 
of one true God, and of his sonne lesus Christ, which of all 
Christians is the peculiar and proper marke, whereby onely 
they are to be named Christians. Concerning this maine 
point the Ethiopians faith stands most firme and entire : 
for they togither with vs do confesse and adore one God 
and three persons of the deitie, God the father, God the 
Sonne begotten of his father from euerlasting, who for vs 
men was incarnate, died, and rose againe; and God the 
holy Ghost proceeding from the father and the sonne. In 
this article they follow the holy creed of the Apostles, and 
the Niccne creed. Saue that they hold that Christ 
descended into hell for his owne soule, and for the soule of 
Adam, which he receiued of the virgine Marie. For this 
opinion they do most stedfastly embrace ; saying that it 
came by most ancient tradition from Christ himselfe to his 

The old testament they so conioine with the new, as they 

allow and receiue both lewish & Christian ceremonies. 

♦ Whereas the Vpon the eight day after their birth, *they circumcise all 

d^ed the males children both male and female. And vnlesse sicknes 

*""^'^* vrgeth them to make the more haste, they defer the 

baptisme of their male children till they be fortie, and of 

their females, til they be eightie daies old. Circumcision 

(they say) they receiued from Qucene Maqueda, which 

went to heare the wisdome of Salomon : and baptisme from 

Saint Philip, and from the Eunuch which Philip baptized. 

Yet do they stedfastly hold, that not by circumcision, but 

by faith in lesus Christ they attaine vnto true felicitie. 


Their baptisme they renue euerie yeere : for vpon the day 
of the three Sages, otherwise called Epiphanie, whereon 
Christ was baptised in lordan, they meet in great assem- 
blies, and enter naked into the water ; where the priest 
layeth his hand vpon them, dippeth them thrise, and pro- • 
nounceth the words of baptisme, saying, I baptise thee in 
the name of the father, the sonne, and the holy ghost ; 
adding thereto the signe of the crosse. This custome 
receiued from their predecessors they doe n\ost carefully 
obserue, not thereby to abase or extenuate their first 
baptisme ; but that euerie yeere they may receiue a new 
absolution from their sinnes. Also vnto their infants vpon 
the verie day of their baptisme, they giue the bodie of our 
Lord, vnder a small morsell of bread. But such as are 
growen to yeeres of discretion before they come vnto the 
Lords holy supper, do make confession and receiue absolu- 
tion of all their sinnes from the priest. Then doe they all 
betimes in the morning both clergie and laytie receiue the 
whole sacrament of the bodie and true blood of lesus 
Christ in their churches. Which being receiued, they njay 
not vnder paine of grieuous punishment, so much as once 
spit, till the going downe of the sunne. 

Popish confirmation and vnction, they neither esteeme 
for sacraments nor vse them. The Pope of Rome, either 
in regard of errour and ignorance, or to win his fauour, they 
acknowledge to be head of the church, and doe pretend a 
kinde of obedience to the sea of Rome. Albeit that the 
Pope, before the Portugals discouerie of the east Indies 
could neuer communicate any assistance vnto them, *nor *,-^'^/'%^ 
yet since that time, by reason of the huge distance almost ^^^^'^ '^ 4- 

^ -^ o were sent cer* 

of fifteene thousand miles. For so many miles the taine priests 

with a new 

ambassadour, which was sent out of Portugall to Ethiopia, created PatH^ 

.11111 M 1 r r • 1 • / . arke, and two 

said that he had trauailed. yt ts nolhtng so lon^ a tourney Dishofs: who 
through Egypt ^ Troglodytica, and Barnagasso, but that the ing when they 
way through those countries is stopped by tlie tyrannie of the aiou/to brin^r 


in the Romish. Turkcs.'] Howbcit Quecne Helena^ and after her king 

religion, and ^ . , , , , t i • j 

the supremacie Dautd^ seemc onely to haue sought and desired some 
"were crossed by coniunction with the RoiTiish church, and the Christians of 
in aiTthHr^ Europc : to the end that with their powers and forces 
proceedings, yj^j^gj^ ^^y might assaile and vanquish the Mahumetans, 
being most deadly enimies to the Christian name. 

Moreouer these Ethiopick Christians do vse to fast vpon 
certaine daies of the weeke till sun set : as namely vpon 
Wednesdaies, to renue the sadde memorie of the lewes 
councell, wherein they decreed to crucifie our Redeemer : 
and vpon Fridaies, that they may with thankfull mindes 
acknowledge his most bitter passion and death. Likewise 
the day of Good Fridaie, whereon our blessed Sauiour was 
nailed to the crosse, they celebrate with great deuotion, 
especially towards the euening. Vnto these they adde a 
Lent of fortie days, wherein they Hue onely by bread and 
water. The feasts both of Christ, of the virgine Marie, and 
of certaine Saints, they keepe holie : vpon which daies 
meeting in their churches three hours after sunne-rising, 
they read the bookes of the Prophets, and emploie them- 
selues in holy exercises. They sanctifie the Sabaoth in 
imitation of the lewes : and keepe holy the Lords day 
according to the apostles institution. On both these daies 
they worship God by performing things holie, and eschuing 
matters prophane. Into their churches they may not come 
but barefoote onely ; neither is it there lawfuU for any man 
to walke vp and downe, nor to talke of worldly affaires, nor 
to spit, nor cough. 

The chiefe vse of the law (they say) is to shew vs our 
sinnes: neither do they thinke any man liuing able to 
performe the same, but onely lesus Christ who fulfilled it 
on our behalfe. The Saints they loue indeed and reuerence, 
but doe not pray vnto them. Vnto the blessed virgine 
Marie the mother of Christ, they ascribe great honour, but 
neither do they adore her, nor craue assistance at her 


hands. They haue euery day one masse onely, and that a 
short one, in stead of a sacrifice : but gaines thereby they 
make none at all. Neither do they eleuate or holde vp the 
sacrament of the supper, as the masse- priests do : nor 
applie the same to redeeme dead mens soules from the 
paines of purgatorie. Howbeit, that there is a place of 
purgatorie, they do not denie. Wherefore their dead are 
buried with crosses and supplications, and especially with 
the rehearsall of the beginning of Saint lohns Gospell. 
Then the day following they offer aimes for them, and 
vpon certaine daies after they adde funerall-banquets ; 
supposing that vpon Sabaoths and the Lords daies, they 
which died godly, are freed from all torments in Purgatorie, 
and at length, hauing receiued the full measure of chastise- 
ment for their sinnes, that then they go into eternal rest. 
For the effecting whereof, they do not thinke any indul- 
gencies of their patriarke, but onely the meere mercy and 
grace of God to be auailable. 

Mariage is no lesse permitted to their clergie and priests, 
then to their laie-people : yet so, that his first wife being 
dead, a priest cannot marry another without the Patriarkes 
dispensation. Whosoeuer keepeth a concubine is debarred 
from all sacred administrations. And whatsoeuer bishop 
or clergie-man is found to haue a bastard, he is vtterly 
depriued of holy orders, and of all his benefices and 
spirituall dignities. Mariages are often solemnized with- 
out the church, a bed being placed before the house of the 
bride and the bridegroome. Then come three priests, 
who going thrise about the bridegromes bed, sing with a 
loud voice Halleluiah, and other things. This done, they 
cut one locke of haire from the bridegroomes head, and 
another from the head of the bride, which they wash in 
wine made of hony ; and then putting vpon either of their 
heads the others lock, they sprinkle them with a kinde of 
holy-water, and so depart. Which being performed the 


mariage-feast beginneth, and holdeth on till the night be 
far spent. At length the bride and bridegroom are brought 
vnto their ovvne house, out of which neither of them may 
go forth for the space of an whole moneth after. 

In some places they are maried in the church by the 
patriarke himselfe. Where the mariage-bed standing in 
manner aforesaid, the patriarke with sweet incense and 
crosses walketh thrice about it, and then turning himselfe 
towards them, he layeth his hand vpon the bridegroomes 
head, saying : Do that which god hath commanded in his 
gospel, and thinke now that you are not two but one flesk 
Hauing spoken these words, he administreth the com- 
munion vnto them, and blesseth them. Polygamie, or 
many wiues at once, are permitted by the emperour and 
ciuill magistrate vnto the Ethiopians : but in their churches 
there is no place at all for such as haue more wiues then 
one. Neither may any such persons presume to enter into 
their churches, but are held as excommunicate, and are not 
receiued into the congregation, before hauing put away all 
the residue of their wiues, they betake themselues to one 

Diuorcements they vse very commonlie, and often vpon 
light occasions except onely the priests, who may by no 
meanes depart from their wiues. Whereby it appeareth, 
that their priests approue not that inconstancie in a matter 
of so great moment. The best remedy which they haue to 
preuent this mischiefe, is at the daye of manage to alotte 
some great penalty vpon that person which shall first 
forsake the other. Amongst them likewise, according to 
the law of Moses, brothers vse to marry their brothers 
wiues, to raise vp seede vnto them. Howbeit this abuse of 
mariage is not practised by all, but onely by the mightier 
sort. For the country-people and those of poorer condition, 
being euery one contented with his owne wife, do so 
painefuUy employ themselues about their labour, and ti.e 

Th£ kELtGIOtJS OF At^RtCA. 164^ 

getting of their Huing, that they are free from those violent 
passions of lust. 

Infants that die before baptisme they name halfe 
christians, because being sanctified onely by the faith of 
Christian parents, they are not as yet by baptisme 
thoroughly engraffed into the church. From meates, 
which the law of Moses accounted vncleane, they also 
do abstaine. The heresies of Arrius, Macedonius, and 
Nestorius, they reiect and condemne. 

The whole church of Ethiopia is gouerned by a patriark 
called in the Ethiopick language Abuna^ which signifieth, 
A Father. This patriark of theirs is first solemnely created 
at Jerusalem by the voices of those monkes which keepe 
the sepulchre of our Lord. Afterward hee is confirmed, 
and sent into Ethiopia by the patriarke of Alexandria, 
The emperour Prete lanni, so often as there is need of a 
new patriark, sendeth an ambassage with many gifts to 
Jerusalem, and requireth a patriark from thence. Which 
patriarke, together with a monke of the order of Saint 
Antony the Hermite, being come into Ethiopia, is accord- 
ing to an ancient custome, receiued with the generall 
consent, congratulation, applause, and reioycing of all 
degrees and estates of people. To this high function is 
singled out some one man of singular piety, grauity, 
learning, and of more ancient yeeres then the rest His 
spcciall duties are to giue holy orders, to administer church- 
discipline, and to excommunicate contumaces or obstinate 
affenders, which are for their stubbornnes famished to 
death. But the authoritie of giuing Bishopricks and 
spirituall benefices, the Emperour reserueth to himselfe. 
In Ethiopia there are infinit numbers of priests, and of 
monkes. Francis Aluarez saw at one time ordained by 
the Patriarke two thousand three hundred fiftie sixe priests. 
And the like manner of ordaining or instalment they haue 
euerie yeere twice. It seemeth that those which are chosen 


into that order, are men destitute of learning and liberall 
artes. Vnto their priesthood none is admitted before he be 
full thirtie yeeres of age. It falleth out likewise, that 
during the vacation of the Patriarkship, the church hath 
great want of priests. Which vacation is oftentimes pro- 
longed by reason of the continuall wars betweene the 
Christians and the bordering Mahumetans, and Gentiles : 
whereby all passage from Ethiopia to the monks of 
lerusalem is quite cut off. Hence proceedeth great 
desolation in that church. But with monks all places in 
this Abassin empire do mightily swarme. These do not 
onely confine themselues in monasteries, wherof here are 
great numbers, but also take vpon them offices in the 
court, and intangle themselues in militarie affaires, and in 
buying and selling of merchandize. Neither are there 
anie kinde of people in those easterne parts more con- 
uersant in trade of merchandize then priests and monkes. 
So that the old said sawe is most truelie verified : 

IV/iat ere the world doih put in vre^ 
T/te Monke will intenneddle^ sure. 

It is likewise to be noted, that the priests, monkes, and 
other ministers of the Ethiopian church, are not maintained 
by tithes and almes as they are in Europe. They haue 
onclie certaine fieldes and gardens, which must be manured 
by the monkes and clergie themselues. To beg ought of 
the common people they are in no wise permitted, vnlesse 
perhaps some man will of his owne accorde bestowe some- 
what in their churches for the exequies of the dead, or for 
some other sacred vses. 

These Ethiopians haue a certaine booke, which they 
suppose to haue beene written by all the Apostles when 
they were assembled at lerusalem. This booke in their 
language they call Manda and Abetilis : and do beleeue 
that all thinges therein contained are to be holden for 


gospel. In it, amongst other matters, are contained certaine 
penal statutes ; as for example. If a priest be conuicted of 
Adultery, Man-slaughter, Robberie, or periurie, he is to 
receiue like punishment with other malefactors. Likewise, 
that aswell ecclesiasticall, as secular persons, are to abstaine 
from comming to church for the space of fower and twentie 
howers after carnall copulation. Some lawes also there 
are, concerning the purification of women after their 
moneths, and their child-birth : which, bicause we can 
make but little vse of them, I do heere passe oucr in silence. 
One thing there is in this booke very well prouided, namely, 
that twice euery yeere there be a Synod assembled in the 
church of Christ, for the handling and discussing of all 
matters ecclesiasticall. 

These are the principall points of the religion, faith, and 
ceremonies of the Ethiopicke church vnder Prete lanniy 
which hitherto haue come to our knowledge. A good part 
whereof is agreeable vnto the scriptures of the old and 
new testament. And such in very deed they are, as 
represent vnto vs the acknowledgement of one true God, 
and the faith and worship of our onely Lord and Sauiour 
lesus Christ. But as neuer any church vpon earth was 
quite voide of blemish : so neither is this of Ethiopia free 
from all staines of errour. Which notwithstanding may 
seeme the lesse strange, bicause in Ethiopia there are no 
schooles nor Seminaries of liberall artes, saue only, that 
the priests themselues (according to their simple skill) 
traine vp their sonnes vnto such learning, as may in time 
make them capable of priesthood. Neither was there euer 
any man yet, that reformed their errors. Francis Aluarez 
reporteth, that the Patriarke of this Ethiopick church, in a 
certaine priuate conference, did grieuously complaine of all 
such errours as were there maintained, and was most 
earnestly desirous of a reformation. Which desire of his, 
as it is most holy & comendable ; so is it by al christias to 


be approoued. God almightie grant, that the Ethiopians 
may one daie attaine to the accomph'shment of this his 
compassionate well-wishing, and may haue a happie 
reformation of their church. For this to desire and praie 
for, is farre more conuenient and Christian-like, then to 
disgrace them with reprochfull words, and to bereaue them 
of the name of Christians. Which harde and vnchristian 
measure, ^agazabo the Ethiopian ambassadour, reporteth 
with griefe, that he found among the Popish priests of 
Portugall ; by whom he was quite restrained from the vse 
and communion of the holie supper, as if he had beene a 
meere Gentile, or Anathema. 

It is indeed an errour, or rather a great infirmitie, that 
they do as yet retaine and vse some of the Jewish cere- 
monies. But we arewholie to impute it to their ignorance 
of Christian liberty. And wheras they permit mariage to 
their priests, it is neither repugnant to the sacred word of 
God, nor to the institution of the Apostles. Wherefore it 
ought not to be disallowed of any Christians. Vnlesse 
they will preferre the decrees of the Pope before the 
commandement of God, established by Christ and his 
apostles. Wherby it may plainly appeere how impiously 
and sauagely the Priests of Portugall dealt, in that especially 
for this cause they so sharpely inueied against the Ethio- 
pick ambassadour, and so vnciuilly entreated him. 

Their yeerely renewing of baptisme, was at the first 
brought in by errour, and since by ancient vse and tradition, 
hath growen authenticall. For in very deed so great is tlie 
force of antiquitie and custome, that where they once take 
roote, they can hardly be remooued. And it is a woonder 
that the Ethiopians do so often repeat baptisme, when as 
they cannot be circumcised any more then once. But in 
regard of all these defects, what can we better deuise to do, 
then in our daily praiers to wish them mindes better in- 
formed, and the puritie and integritie of faith, which is 


agreeable vnto gods vvorde? The Ethiopians conceiucd 
exceeding loy at the first arriuall of the Portugals in their 
countrie : hoping that their mutuall acquaintance and 
familiaritie, would breed a similitude and coniunction, as 
well of their religions, as of their affections and mindes. 
But I am verily afraid, least the reprochfull and sterne 
carriage of the Popish priests and monkes towards the 
Ethiopick ambassadours before mentioned, hath more then 
euer in times past estranged the mindes of that nation from 
the Christians of Europe. 

Howbeit the singular care and industrie of those two 
renowmed Princes, lohn the second, and Emanuel^ kings ot 
Portugall, is most highly to be extolled and celebrated, who 
by infinit charges emploied vpon their nauigations to The 
east Indies, and to these parts, haue opened a way for the 
European Christians, to the southerne church of Ethiopia ; 
and for the Ethiopians to this westerne church of Europe. 
Which had not these two woorthie Princes brought to 
effect, we should not so much as haue knowne the name of 
a Christian church in Ethiopia. For thither by the way 
of Arabia and Egypt, in regard of the Arabians and 
Mahumetans most deadly enmitie to the Christian faith, it 
is so dangerous and difficult to trauell, as it seemeth to be 
quite barred and shut vp. Vnlesse therefore ouer the 
Atlantike, Ethiopick, and Indian seas the Portugals had 
thither found a passage by nauigation ; it had almost beene 
impossible for any ambassadours or other persons, to haue 
come out of Ethiopia into these westerne parts. Thus 
farre Matthew Dresserus, 

An ambassage sent from Pope Paule 

the fourth to Claudius the Emperour of Abassia 

or the higher Ethiopia, for planting of the 

religion and ceremonies of the church of 

Rome in his dominions; which ambassage 

tooke none effect at all, 

N the yeere 1555 lohn the third king 
of Portugal, determined to leaue no 
meanes vnattempted for the absolute 
reconciliation of Prete lanni vnto 
the church of Rome. For though 
Dauids ambassador had performed 
obedience to Pope Clement the 
seuenth on his emperours behalfe ; yet doubted the king of 
Portugal (as true it was) that for want of speedie prosecu- 
tion, those forward beginnings would proue but altogether 
fruitlesse ; in that for all this, they still embraced the 
heresies of Dioscorus and Eutiches, and depended on the 
authoritie of the Patriark of Alexandria, receiuing their 
Abuna from him, who is the sole arbitrator of all their 
matters ecclesiasticall, the administrer of their sacraments, 
the giuer of orders ouer all Ethiopia, master of their cere- 
monies, and Instructer of their faith. Whereupon he 
supposed, that he could not do anything more profitable, 
or necessarie, then to send thither a Patriark appointed at 
Rome, who might exercise spirituall authority ouer them, 
as also with him some priests, of singular integrity and 
learning, who with their sermons, disputations, & discourses 
both publike and priuate, might reduce those people from 
their errors and heresies to the trueth, and might confirme 


and strengthen them in the same. And vnto this, it 
seemed a wide gate was already open ; because not many 
yeeres before, Claudius the emperour of Ethiopia receiucd 
great succours from the Portugals, against Graadamet king 
of Zeila, who had brought him to an hard point ; and in a 
letter written from him to Stephen Gama, he called 
Christopher Ganta his brother, who died in this war, by the 
reuerend name of a Martyr. The king of Portugal there- 
fore hauing imparted this his resolution, first with Pope 
lulius the third, and then with Paul the fourth, it was by 
them concluded to send into Ethiopia thirteene priests, 
men of principall estimation and account aboue others of 
their qualitie. lohn Nunnes Barretto was made Patriark, 
and there were ioyned vnto him two assisting Bishops, 
Melchior CarnerOy and Andrea Ouiedo, vnder titles of the 
Bishops of Nicea, and Hierapolis. King John set forth this 
Embassage, not onely with whatsoeuer the voiage it selfe 
necessarily required, but further with all royall preparation, 
and rich presents for Prete lanni. Neuerthelcsse, the 
better to lay open an entrance for the Patriarke, there was 
by the kings appointment sent before from the city of Goa 
lago Dias, and with him Gonsaluo Rodrigo, into Ethiopia, 
to discouer the minde of the Neguz, and the disposition of 
his people. These two being admitted to the presence of 
that Prince, shewed him the letters of king loliu, wherein 
he congratulated with him, on the behalfe of all Christians ; 
for that following the example of his grandfather, and 
father, he had embraced the Christian faith, and vnion. 
Whereat Claudius was amazed, as at a thing neuer before 
thought of And it being demaunded, why he had written 
to the king of Portugal to that effect, he excused himselfe ^. „ 

^ ^ ' The Emperour 

by the writer, and interpreter of his letter : adding \\iQ.x^. of Ethiopia wu 

by no meanes 

unto, that though hee esteeemed that king as his very good admit the su- 

. , , . /• premacie and 

brother, yet was he neuer minded to swerue one lot from religion of the 
the faith of his predecessors. Roderigo for all this, was no church. 



whit daunted, but wrought all meanes to bring Claudius to 
his opinion. But the greatest difficultie against this his 
busie enterprise, was the ignorance of the emperour and 
the princes of Ethiopia in all the generall Councels, and 
ancient Histories. Afterwards perceiuing that the Neguz 
did not willingly admit him to audience, he wrote and 
diuulged a booke in the Chaldean toong ; wherein con- 
futing the opinions of the Abassins, he laboured mightily 
to aduance the authoritie of the Romaine church. Which 
booke raised so great a tumult, that the emperour, to 
auoide woorse inconucniences which were likely to ensue, 
was faine quickly to suppresse it. lago Diaz perceiuing 
that he did but loose time, & the terme of his returne 
approching, tooke his leaue of the Neguz. And hauing 
made knowne in Goa, how matters stood, it was not 
thought requisite that the Patriarke should expose his 
owne person, togither with the reputation of the Romaine 
church, vnto so great hazard. But rather, not wholy to 
abandon the enterprise, they determined to send thither 
Andrew Ouiedo, (newe elect bishop of Hierapolis) with two 
or three assistants, who with greater authoritie might 
debate of that which Roderigo alreadie had so vnfruitfully 
treated of. Ouiedo most willingly vndertaking this attempt, 
put himselfe on the voiage, with father Emanuel Fernandez^ 
and some fewe others. When he was come into Abassia 
he stood in more need of patience then disputation. For 
king Claudius within a fewe moneths after, being vanquished 
Adamas a new and slainc, Adamas his brother succeeded, who was a great 

Emperour of . , x-i • f i 

Ethiopia. encmie to the sea of Rome. This man drew Outedo and 
his assistants, to the warres with him, and intreated them 
most barbarously, as also those Abassins whom they had 
conuerted. He likewise was afterwards ouerthrowne in 
battaile by the Turkes, who stripped Ouiedo and his com- 
panions of all things that they had. Whereupon they grew 
into such pouertie and miserie, as (all helpe failing them) 


they were enforced to get their liuing with the plough and 
spade, till they all died one after another. This Ethiopian 
Christianitie is brought at this day to an hard point, by the 
inuasions of the Turkes and Mores, as is before declared. 
Notwithstanding their religious men affirme, that they haue 
prophesies of the comming of a Christian nation to their 
Ports from farre countries, with whom they shall go to the 
destruction of the Mores : and these they hold to bee 
Portugals. They haue farther, certaine presagements of 
Saint Sinoda, who was an Egyptian Her mite, of the ruine 
of Meca, the recouerie of the holy sepulcher, and the 
taking of Egypt and Cairo, by the Abassins, vnited with 
the Latines. 

Of the Christians of the Isle of Socotera. 

VIcinitie of place and conformitie of customes inuite me 
to crosse the sea, and to visite the Christians of 
Socotera. This island is sixtie miles long, and fiue and 
twentie in bredth. It is situate ouer against the Red sea. 
The people thereof receiued the faith from Saint Thomas 
the Apostle : for they affirme, that heere he suffered ship- 
wracke, and that of the broken and battered ship he built 
a church, which is as yet extant. They imitate for the 
most part the rites, customes, and fashions of the Abassins, 
but with great ignorance and errour : for being separated 
from all commerce with the Christians of these parts, they 
remaine depriued of that spirituall helpe, which the westerne 
church by communication might impart vnto them. They 
retaine circumcision, and some other Moisaicall ceremonies. 
ALso they pray for the dead, and obserue ordinarie fasts : 
hauing prefixed howers for praier, and bearing great 
reuerence to their religion, in honour whereof, they build 
chappels, wherein assembling togither, with an high and 
loude voice, they make supplications and prairs in the 
Hebrew toong. But their farre distance (as I said) from 



these parts of Christendome, the sterilitie of the island, and 
the pouertie of the people, are occasions that the little light 
of truth which they have, is in a manner quite eclipsed by 
multitudes of errors. Vnto other things may be added the 
freyTfArMt ^V^^^^^^ ^^ the king of Fartac a Mahumetan, who subdued 
Cf^reonjJ!^^^ about the yeere of our Lord 1482. and partly by 

duedtheisUof dominion, partly by affinitie and kinred, and partly also by 
conuersation, brought in amongst them the deadly poison of 
Mahumet, From this seruitude they were delivered by 
Tristan dAcunna, one of the king of Portugals captaines ; 
sixe and twentie yeeres after they fell into the same. And 
for their better securitie, he repaired the fortresse, leauing 
therein a Portugall garrison. But bicause the charges farre 
surmounted any benefite that came out of the island, not 
long after the said fortresse was ruinated, and the island 
abandoned by the Portugals. lohn the third king of 
Portugall had a great desire to assist and free them from 
the tyrannic of the Turkes : whereunto after the taking of 
Aden they were subiect But for feare of prouoking the 
great Turke, or giuing him occasion to disturbe and molest 
those seas with his fleetes, as also for the dispatching of 
other affaires he had in hand, he neuer went about that 

Of the Christians of Nubia. 

FRancis Aluarez in his Aethiopicke relation, writeth, 
that he being at the court of Prete Tanni, there 
arriued certaine ambassadors fro Nubia, to make sute vnto 
that prince, for some priests, and ministers of the Gospell 
and sacraments, by whom they might be instructed in the 
Christian faith. But Prete lanni answered them, that he 
had not enough for his owne countrey : whereupon they 
returned home very discotent, so that hauing no helpe from 
the Christians, & on the other side being daily soUicitcd by 
the Mahumetans, vpon whom they border on many sides, 


it is thought, that at this present, they remaine in a manner 
without any religion at all. Notwithstanding at this day, 
there are more then an hundred and fiftie churches standing, 
with diuers other notes and signes of Christianitie. Their 
language partaketh much with the Egyptian, and no lesse 
with the Chaldean and Arabick. 

Of the Christians in the kingdome of Congo, 

Hitherto we haue described that little, which remaineth 
of the ancient Christianity of Africk. It now 
resteth, that we giue some notice of that, which hath beene 
brought in of late. Congo is a kingdome about the bignes 
of France, situate (as is before said) beyond the equinoctiall 
betweene Cabo da Catherina, and Bahia das vacas. It was 
conuerted to Christian religion, by the meanes ol Don lohn 
the second king of Portugal, in manner following. Don 
Diego Cano a captaine of that king, by his commission 
coasting along Africa, after a great nauigation, arriued at 
length in the great riuer of Zaire ; and attempting to sail 
vp into it, he discouered along the banks thereof many 
townes, where he found much more affability in the inhabi- 
tants, then in those of other countries which before he had 
discouered. And that he might be able to giue the more 
faithfuU aduertisement thereof to his king, his hart moued 
him to go to the court of that kingdome. Whither being 
come, and courteously brought to the kings presence, he 
shewed them the vanity of their Idolatry, & the high 
rcucrence of christian faith. And he found in that Prince 
so good a disposition, as returning into Portugal, besides 
an ambassador he was permitted to carry with him certaine 
youths of noble parentage, to the end they might learne 
the Christian doctrine, and be well instructed therein ; and 
being baptized also, might afterwards be sent back with 
Portugall priests to preache the gospel, and to plant the 
Christian faith in that kingdome. These youthes remained 


in Portugall two yeeres, and were there liberally enter- 
tained, and with all diligence instructed in matters of 
religion, and were at length with great solemnity baptized. 
When they came to riper yeeres, king lohn sent them back 
againe into their owne countrey, with an honorable ambas- 
sage, in whose company went for teachers and instructers 
of that nation three Dominick- Fryers, reputed for men of 
exquisit learning and holy life. Being arriued in Congo, 
they first couerted Mani-Sogno the kings vncle, with one of 
his sonnes. After that ensued the baptisme of the king 
and Queene ; for which cause in short time, there was a 
goodly Church erected, vnder the name and title of Santa 
Cruz. And in the meane while there were infinit Idols 
burnt. The king was called lohn, the Queene Leonora^ 
and his eldest sonne Alonso. This Alonso was a singular 
good man, who not being satisfied in his owne conuersion, 
laboured also with a kind of Apostolicall zeale for the 
conuersion of his subiects. But let no man thinke, that 
the planting of religion can euer passe without some 
labour and trouble. These Dominick-Fryers, besides 
the intcmperature of the aire and vnusuall heat, which 
I ^^.'^^'^f^'^J'^' consumed them, were also euilly entreated by the *Moci- 

hnbitants of * J J 

Congo called. Congi. For although they shewed themselues docible, and 
tractable enough, while they were instructed onely about 
ceremonies, and diuine mysteries, (because they thought, 
that the higher those matters were aboue humaine capacity 
the more they sorted and were agreable to the maiestie of 
God) neuerthelesse when they began to entreate seriously 
of Temperance, continence, restitution of other mens goods, 
forgiuing of iniuries, and other headcs of Christian pietie, 
they found not onely great hinderance and difficultie, but 
euen plaine resistance and opposition. The king himselfe, 
who had from the beginning shewed notable zeale, was now 
somewhat cooled ; who because he was loth to abandon 
his soothsaicrs and fortune-tellers, but aboue all, the multi- 


tude of his concubines (this being a generall difficultie 

among the Barbarians) would by no meanes glue care vnto 

the Preachers. Also the women (who were now reiected 

one after another) not enduring so suddenly to be banished 

from their husbandes, brought the court and roiall citie of 

Saint Saluador into a great vproare. * Paulo Aquiiino*^^^^^^^^^y 

second sonne to the king, put tow to this fire, who would ^f ^^^' ^j^^'- 

^' ^ ' Eman. But by 

by no meanes be baptized ; for which cause there grew ^^'^- Pig<i' 

fetta. lib. 2. 

great enmity betwixt him and Alonso his elder brother, Cap 2. Mani- 

who with all his power furthered the proceedings, and 

maintained the grouth of the Christian religion. During 

these troubles, the old king died, and the two brothers 

fought a battell, which had this successe ; that Alonso the 

*true heire, with sixe and thirtie soldiers, calling vpon the * Osoriusde 

name of lesus, discomfited the huge armie of his heathenish Eman. m. 3. 

brother, who was himselfe also taken aliue, and died 

prisoner in this his rebellion. God fauoured Alonso in this 

warre, with manifest miracles. For first they affirme, that 

being ready to enter into battaile, he saw a light so cleere 

and resplendent, that he and his companie which beheld it, 

remained for a good while with their eies declined, and 

their mindes so full and replenished with ioy and a kind of 

tender affection, that cannot easily be expressed. And 

then lifting vp their eies vnto heaucn, they sawe fine 

shining swords, which the king tooke afterwards for his 

armes, and his successors vse the same at this day. 

Hauing obteined this victorie, he assembled all his 
nobles, and streightly enioined them to bring all the idols 
of his countrey to ^n appointed place, and so vpon an high 
hill, he caused them all to be burned. This Alonso raigned 
prosperously for fiftie yeeres togither, in which space he 
exceedingly furthered by authoritie and example, as also 
by preaching and doctrine, the new-planted Christianitie. 
Neither did Don Emanuell the king of Portugall giue ouer 
this enterprise : for he sent from thence to Congo, twclue 


of those Fryers which the Portugals call Azzurri, of whom 
Fryer lohn Mariano was head : with architects and smiths 
for the building and seruice of Churches, and with rich 
furniture for the same. After king Alonso, succeeded Don 
Pedro his sonne : in whose time there was a Bishop 
appointed ouer the isle of Saint Thomas, who had also 
committed vnto him the administration of Congo. Where, 
at the citie of Saint Saluador, was instituted a colledge of 
eight and twentie Canons in the Church of Santa Cruz. 
The second bishop was of the bloud roiall of Congo, who 
trauailed to Rome, and died in his returne homeward. 
Don Francisco succeeded Don Pedro, who continued but a 
small space : & Don Diego his neere kinsman was after 
his decease aduanced to the crowne. In whose time lohn 
the third king of Portugall, vnderstanding that neither the 
king himselfe cared greatly for religion, and that the 
merchants and priests of Europe furthered not, but rather 
with their bad life scandalized the people now conuerted, 
he sent thither fower Jesuits, to renew and reestablish 
matters of religion. These men arriuing first at the isle 
of Saint Thomas, and then at Congo, were courteously 
receiued by the king: and presently going about the 
busines they came for, one of them tooke vpon him to 
teach sixe hundred yoong children the principles of 
christian religion : and the others dispersed themselues ouer 
the whole countrie to preach. But all of them, one after 
another, falling into tedious and long diseases, they were 
enforced to returne into Europe. At this time there was 
appointed ouer Congo a third bishop of the Portugall 
nation, who through the contumacie of the Canons and 
clergic, found trouble enough. In the meane wlnle Don 
Diego dying, there arose great tumults touching the suc- 
cession, by meanes whereof, all the Portugals in a manner, 
that were in Saint Saluador (except priests) were slaine. 
In the end, Henrie brother to Don Diego obteined the 


crowne, and after him (for he quicklie died in the warres of 
the Anzichi) Don Aluaro his son in law. This man 
reconciled vnto himselfe the Portugall nation, caused all 
the religious and lay sort dispersed heere and there, 
throughout the kingdome, to be gathered togither, and 
wrote for his discharge to the king, and to the Bishop of 
Saint Thomas. The bishop hauing perused the letters, 
passed himselfe into Congo : and giuing some order for the 
discipline of the clergie, he returned to Saint Thomas, 
where hee ended his daies. It so fell out, that what for 
the absence, and what for the want of Bishoppes, the pro- 
egression of relisfion was much hindred. For one Don* Caiudby 

^ ** Philippo Piga- 

FranciscOy a man for bloud and wealth of no small authoritie,/?//*? Buiia- 

. i. , 1 . ... , maiare. 

began freely to say, that it was a vame thmg to cleaue to 
one wife onely, and afterwardes in the end, he fell altogither 
from the faith, and was an occasion that the king grew 
woonderfuUy cold. They affirme, that this Francisco dying, 
and being buried in the church of Santa Cruz, the diuels 
vncouered a part of that churches roofe, and with terrible 
noise drew his dead carcase out of the tombe, and carried 
it quite away : a matter that made the king exceedingly 
amazed : but yet another accident that ensued withall, 
strooke him neerer to the hart : For the Giacchi leauing Conceminj^ 
their owne habitations, entred like Locusts into the king- otherwise 
dome of Congo, and comming to battailc against Don^readtfJdfs- 
Aluaro the king, put him to flight: who not being secure ^7iJ^^^^„^- 
in the head citie, abandoned his kingdome, and togither ^'j/^'^J^^^^'" 
with the Portugall priests, and his owne princes, retired ^^^^ ^^'^ 
himselfe vnto an island of the riuer Zaire, called The isle of 
horses. Thus seeing himselfe brought to such extremitie 
(for besides the losse of his kingdome, his people died of 
famine and miserie, and for maintenance of life sold them- 
selues one to another, and to the Portugals also at a base 
price) for reparation of his state and religion, he had 
recourse to Don Sebastian king of Portugall, and obteined 


of him sixe hundred soldiers, by whose valour he draue his 
enimies out of the kingdome, and within an yeere and an 
halfe, reestablished himselfe in his throne. In his time 
Antonio di Glioua a Spaniard, was made bishop of Saint 
Thomas, who after much molestation procured him by the 
captaine of that island, went at length into Congo, with 
two friers and fower priests, and ordered matters reason- 
ablie well. In the meane while Don Aluaro died, and his 
Sonne of the same name succeeded him, who failed not to 
sollicite, both Don Sebastian and Don Henrie kings of 
Portugall, and the king of Spaine also, that they would 
send him some competent number of preachers and eccle- 
siastical 1 persons for the augmentation of the Christian 
faith in his kingdome : and amidst these determinations he 
died, and a sonne of his called also Don Aluaro succeeded 

During these tumults, certaine other Portugall Priests 
went into Congo, labouring to prune that vine which had 
beene long time giuen ouer, and forsaken. These men 
haue built them an house in the island of Loanda, where 
do rcmaine sixe or seauen of their companie, that are 
readie to goe sometimes hither and sometimes thither, as 
neede requireth. In the yeere of our Lord 1587. king 
Aluaro, (who bicause hee was not borne of lawfull matri- 
monie, was but little esteemed by his people) would needes 
haue one of these priests about him, by whose meanes and 
authoritie he came to reputation and credite. And God 
himselfe fauoured his proceedings : for meeting a sister of 
his by the fathers side, and one of her brothers, with a great 
armie in the fielde, he gaue him battaile, and bore himselfe 
therein with such valour, as he did not onely ouerthrow the 
forces of his enime but further slew the ring-leader and 
generall thereof, and in the place where he was slaine, he 
would needs build a church to the honour of Christianitie. 
And the more by his owne example to mooue others, 


himselfe was the very first man that put hand to this 
worke : and likewise with edicts and fauourable proclama- 
tions, he furthered and doth still aduance the preaching of 
the Gospell, and the propagation of religion. 

Who so is desirous to be more fully instructed concern- 
ing the Christianitie of this kingdome, let him read the 
third and eight bookes of Osorius de Reb.gest. Eman. & the 
second booke of Philippo Pigafetta his story of Congo, 
most properly and decently translated by the iudicious 
master ABRAHAM Hartwell. 

Of tlie Christian religion in the kingdome of A ngola. 

THose Portugal priests that remainc in the Hand 
Loanda, as aboue we declared, bend themselues 
more to the conuersion of Angola, then of Congo. The 
reason is (as I suppose) because the enterprise is new, and 
more neerely concerneth the Portugals, who there make 
war vnder the conduct of Paulo Diaz^ to get possession of 
the mountaines of Cabambe which abound with rich mines 
of very fine siluer. It seemeth that god hath fauoured the 
amplification of his holy name in those parts with some 
myraculous victories. For first in the yeere 1582, a fewe 
Portugals in an excursion that they made, put to flight an 
innumerable companie of the Angolans. And by this 
victory, they brought in a manner the halfe of that king- 
dome into their handes : and many Princes and nobles of 
the land vpon this, were moued to request and make suit 
to be baptized. Among whom was Songa prince of Banza, 
the kinges Father in law, whose brother and children were 
baptized already. Tondella also, the second person of 
Angola was conuerted : many Idols were throwne to the 
ground, and insteede thereof they erected crosses, and 
built some churches. And within ihis little while all the 
Prouince of Corimba is in a manner conuerted. Also in 
the yeere 1584, an hundred and fiftie Portugals, together 


with such succors as were conducted by Paule Prince of 
Angola, who was not long before conuerted ; discomfited 
more then a million of Ethiopians. In an other place we 
declared the readie meanes and opportunities that the 
Princes of Ethiopia and of India haue, to assemble and 
bring togither such infinite armies. They say, that certaine 
Ethiopians being demaunded by a Portugal, how it came 
to passe that so great a multitude turned their backes to 
so few men : they answered, that the Portugals strength 
did it not, which with a blast they would haue confounded, 
but a woman of incomparable beawty, apparelled in shining 
light and brightnes, and an old man that kept her company 
with a flaming sword in his hand, who went aloft in the 
ayre before the Portugals, and ouerthrew the squadrons of 
the Angolans, putting them to flight and destruction. In 
the yeere 1588, were conuerted Don Paulo Prince of 
Mocumba, and with him a thousand persons more. 

The Christian religion of Monomotapa, 

IN the dominions of the Monomotapa, the light of the 
faith being with incredible ease kindled, was also as 
suddenly extinguished by the deuises of the Mahumetans. 
For some Portugals going to the court of that monarche, 
and giuing himselfe, with some of his Princes and vassals, 
a taste of the gospel, were an occasion afterwards that 
Gonsaluo dc Sylua, a man no lesse famous for the integrity 
of his life, then for his bloud and parentage, went ouer 
thither from Goa in the yeere 1570. This man arriuing 
with a prosperous voiage, in the kingdome of Inambane, 
conuerted and baptized the king, his wife, children, and 
sister, with his Barons and nobilitie, and the greatest part 
of his people. Through whose perswasion Gonsaluo left 
his companions, prosecuting his voiage towards the 
Monomotapa, onely with sixe Portugals. Thus hauing 
passed Moza/nbique, and the mouth of the riuer Mafuta, 


and of Colimane, they came to Mengoaxano king of Quiloa, 
where they were courteously receiued & entertained. And 
though they had licence in this place to preach the gospell, 
yet would not Gonsaluo here stay, iudging that vpon the 
couersion of the Monomotapa, that of the neighbor kings 
would follow without delaie. Embarking themselues 
therefore ypon the riuer Cuama, they sailed along the coast 
of Africa eight daies, till they came to Sena^ a very popu- 
lous village : where Gonsaluo baptized about fiue hundred 
slaues, belonging to the Portugal merchants, and prepared 
for the receiuing of the gospel the king of Inamor, one of 
the Monomotapaes vassals. In the ende Antonio Caiado a 
Portugall gentleman came from the court, to guide 
Gonsaluo towards the same place. Whither being in short 
time come, he was presently visited on the emperours 
behalfe, and bountifullie presented with a great summe of 
gold and many oxen. But he returning back these 
presents, gaue the Monomotapa to vnderstand, that he 
should know of Caiado, what he desired. The emperour 
was astonished at this his magnanimity, & receiued him 
afterwards with the greatest honor, that could possibly be 
deuised. And causing him to sit vpon the same carpet, 
whereon also his owne mother sate, he presently demaunded 
how many women, how much ground, and how many oxen 
(thinges mightily esteemed of in those countries) he would 
haue. Gonsaluo answered, that he would haue no other 
thing but himselfe. Whereupon the emperour turning to 
Caiado (who was their interpreter) said ; that surely it 
could not be otherwise, but that he, who made so little 
account of thinges so highly valued by others, was no 
ordinary man ; and so with much courtesie he sent him 
back to his lodging. 

Not long time after, the emperour let Gonsaluo to vnder- 
stand, that he and his mother were rcsolucd to become 
Christians, and that therefore he should come to baptize 


them. But he to instruct them better in the faith, deferred 
it off for some daies. Finally fiue and twentie daies after 
his arriuall, with vnspeakable solemnity and preparation, he 
gaue the water of baptisme to the king, and to his mother. 
He was called Sebastian^ and shee Maria. And presently 
after, about three hundred of the principal! in this emperours 
court were baptized. Gonsaluo for his wonderfull absti- 
nence, charity, wiscdome, and for many other his singular 
vertues was so reuerenced and esteemed by those people, 
as if he had come downe from heauen among them. Now 
as matters proceeded thus prosperously, and with so 
desirable successe, behold, an horrible tempest arose which 
drowned the ship. There were in the court fower Ma- 
humetans most deere vnto the king. These men finding 
out some occasion, suggested vnto him, that Gonsaluo was 
a Magician, who by witchcraftes and inchantments could 
turne kingdomes topsie turuie : and that he was come to 
prie into his estate, and to stir vp his people to rebellion, 
and so by this meanes to bring his kingdome vnder 
subiection to the Portugals. With these and such like 
suggestions they brought the king (who was but a young 
man) to determine the death of Gonsaluo. The effect 
whereof was, that after long praier, reposing himselfe a 
little ; he was by eight of the kings seruants slaine, and his 
body throwne into the riuer Mensigine. Neere vnto the 
same place, were with like violence put to death fiftie new- 
conuerted Christians. This rage and furie being ouer, the 
king was aduertised by the Principal! of his kingdome, and 
then by the Portugals, of the excesse and outrage he had 
therein committed. He excused himselfe the best he 
could, causing those Mahumetans to be slaine, who had 
seduced him ; and he sought out some others also who lay 
hid, to put them to death. Whereupon it seemed that by 
the death of father Gonsaluo, the conuersion of this great 
king, and of his empire, should haue bin furthered, and no 


whit hindered, if the Portugals would rather haue preuailed 
by the word of God, then by force of armes. The which I 
say, bicaiise insteed of sending new, preachers into those 
countries, to preserue that which was alreadie gotten, and 
to make new conuersions, they resolued to reuenge them- 
selues by warre. There departed therefore out of Portugal! 
a good fleete, with a great number of noble Portugals 
therein, conducted by Francisco Barretto, At the fame of 
this warre, mooued against him, the Monomotapa full of 
feare, sent to demaund peace of Barretto. But he aspiring 
to the infinite mines of gold in that kingdome, contemned 
all conditions offered him. The effect of this enterprise was, 
that this armie which was so terrible to a mightie Monarke, 
was in fewe daies consumed by the intemperature of the 
aire, which is there insupportable to the people of Europe. 

Of the fortresses and colonies main- 

tained by the Spaniards and Portugals vpon 

the maine of Africa : by meanes whereof the 

Christian religion hath there some small 

footing. Which albeit in other respects 

they haue beene mentioned before, yet 

hcere also in this one regard, it 

seemeth not from our purpose 

briefly to remember them. 

O the propagation of Christianity, those 
fortresses & colonies woonder fully 
^^^\ fS^'Sp helpe, which the Castilians, but much 
^ n?i I^J^HS^ more the Portugals, haue planted on 
the coast of Africa. For they serue 
very fitly either to conuert infidels 
vpon diuers occasions, or by getting 
an habite of their languages and customes, to make a more 
easie way to their conuersion. For those who are not 
sufficient to preach, serue for interpreters to the preachers. 
And thus God hath oftentimes beene well serued, and with 
excellent fruit and effect, by the indeuour of some soldiers. 
On the coast of Africa vpon the Mediterran sea, the 
Spaniards haue Oran, Mersalchibir, Melilla, &c., and the 
Portugals, Tanger, and (^euta, and without the streights of 
Gibraltar, Arzilla, and Mazagan ; and in Ethiopia, Saint 
George de la mina. They haue also a setled habitation in 
the citie of Saint Saluador, the Metropolitan of the king- 
dome of Congo, and in Cumbiba, a countrie of Angola 
Beyond the cape de Buena esperan^a, they hold the 
fortresses, and colonies of Sena, Cefala, and Mozambiche. 


Heere besides their secular clergie, is a conuent of 
Dominicans, who indeuour themselues to instruct the 
Portugals, and the Pagans also which there inhabite, and 
do trafficke thither. 

Oft/ie Islands of the Atlanticke OceaUy where the Spaniards 
and Portugals haue planted religion, 

THe Christian name is also augmented, and doth still 
increase in the Atlantick Ocean, by meanes of the 
colonies conducted thither, partly by the Spaniards and 
partly by the Portugals. The Spaniards vndertooke the 
enterprize of the Canaries, in the yeere of our Lord 1405, 
vsing therein the assistance of lohn Betancort, a French 
gentleman, who subdued Lan^arota & Fuerteuentura. 
They were taken againe certaine yeeres after, and were 
first subdued by force of armes, & afterwards by the 
establishment of religion : so that at this present, all the 
inhabitants are Christians. Also the Portugals haue 
assaied to inhabite certaine other islands of that Ocean, & 
especially Madera, which was discouered in the yeere 1420. 
This at the first was all ouer a thicke and mightie wood : 
but now it is one of the best manured islands that is knowne. 
There is in the same, the citie of Funcial, being the seate 
of a bishop. Puerto santo, which is fortie miles distant 
from Madera, was found out in the yeere 1428. and this 
also began presently to be inhabited. The isles of Arguin, 
being sixe or seauen, and all but little ones, came to the 
knowledge of the Portugals in the yeere 1443. Heere the 
king hath a fortresse for the traffike of those countries. 
The islands of Cabo Verde were discouered in the yeere 
1440. by Antonio di Nolli a Genoway, or (as others affirme) 
in the yeere 1455. by Aloizius Cadamosto. These be nine 
in number : the principall of them is Sant lago, being 
seuentie miles in length : where the Portugals haue a 
towne situate vpon a most pleasant riuer, called Ribera 

3 Y 


grande, which consisteth at the least of fiue hundred 
families. The isle of Saint Thomas being somewhat 
greater then Madera, was the last island discouered by the 
Portugals, before they doubled the cape De buena Esper- 
anga. They haue heere a colonie called Pouasaon, with a 
bishop, who is also the bishop of Congo, and it conteineth 
seuen hundred families. Vnder the gouernment of Saint 
Thomas are the neighbour islands of Fernando#F6, and 
that del Principe, which as it were boroughs belonging to 
the same. The island Loanda, though it be vnder the 
king of Congo, yet is a great part thereof inhabited by the 
*anv^The ^^^''tugals. For here is the famous port of *Mazagan, 
coast of Bar- whither the ships of Portugall and Brasile do resort Heere 
the fleetes are harboured, and the soldiers refreshed, and 
heere they haue their hospitall. As also heere the 
Portugall priests (who indeuour the conuersion of the 
naturall inhabitants) haue a place of residence. 

Of the Negros. 

MOst of the Islands inhabited by the Portugals, 
especially those of Saint Thomas and Madera 
besides the Portugals themselues, containe a great multi- 
tude of Negro-slaues, brought thither out of Congo and 
Angola, who till the earth, water the sugar-canes, and 
serue both in the cities, and in the countrie. These are for 
the most part gentiles, but they arc daily conuerted rather 
through continual conuersation, then any other helpe that 
they haue ; and it is a matter likelie, that in processe of 
some few yeeres, they will all become Christians. There 
is no greater hinderance to their conuersion, then the 
auarice of their masters, who to hold them in the more 
subiection, are not willing that they should become 


Of those poore distressed European Christians in Africa^ 
who are holden as slaues vnto the Turkes and Mores, 

BVt the best and most sincere Christianity in all Africa, 
is that of those poore christians, who are fettered by 
the feet with chaincs, being slaues to the Arabians & 
Turkes. For besides them that haue remained there euer 
since the daies of Barbarossa and other Turkish captaines 
(which were brought into the mediterran seas by the 
French) 'as also since the great losse at Gerbi, and the 
battell of Alcazar wherein Don Sebastian the king of 
Portugal was ouerthrowne : thei-e passeth not a yeere, but 
the rouers and pirates of those parts, without graunting 
any league or respite to the North ren shore of the Mediter- 
ran sea, take great numbers of Christians from off the 
coasts of Spaine, Sardinia, Corsica, Sicilia, yea euen from 
the very mouth of Tyber. It is generallie thought, that 
the number of slaues, which are in Alger amount to 
eighteene thousand. In Tunis, Bona, and Biserta there 
are great multitudes : but many more in Fez, and Maroco ; 
as likewise in Mequenez and Tarodant, and in diuers other 
cities of those kingdomes. The estate surely of these 
distressed people is most woorthie of compassion, not so 
much for the miserie wherein they lead their h'ues, as for 
the danger whereto their soules are subiect. They passe 
the day in continuall trauaile, and the greatest part of the 
night without repose or quiet, vnder insupportable burdens, 
and cruell stripes. Beasts among vs labour not more, nor 
are more slauishly intreated. Yea, albeit vnder those 
brutish Barbarians, they endure all that toile, which beasts 
do heere with vs : yet are they neither so well fed, nor so 
carefully looked vnto, as our beasts commonly are. They 
weare out the whole day in the sunne, raine, and winde, in 
continuall labour, sometimes carrying burdens, sometimes 
digging or ploughing the fields, and otherwise in turning of 

3y 2 


hand-milles, feeding of beasts, or in performance of other 
labours : being bound to bring in so much euery day to 
their masters, and they themselues to Hue of the rest, which 
many times is nothing at all, or (if it were possible) lesse 
then nothing. They haue alwaies the chaine at their 
neckes and feete, being naked winter and sommer, and 
therefore are sometimes scorched with heate, and other- 
whiles frozen with cold. They must not faile in any iotte 
of their duties, and yet though they do not, it can not be 
expressed with what cruelties they are tormented. They 
vse for the chastizing & torture of their bodies, chaines of 
iron, dried sinewes of oxen, but-hoops steeped in water, 
boiling oile, melted tallow, & scalding hot lard. The 
houses of those Barbarians resound againe, with the blowes 
that are giuen these miserable men, on the feete and bellie : 
and the prisons are filled with hideous lamentations and 
yellings. Their companions haire at this noise standes 
an end, and their very blood freezeth within them, by 
considering how neere themselues are to the like outrages. 
They passe the nights in prisons, or in some caues of the 
earth, being hampered and yoaked together like brute 
beasts. Heere the vapor and dampe choaketh them, and 
the vncleannes and filth of their lodging consumeth them 
(as rust doth iron) euen aliue. But though the labours of 
their bodies be so grieuous, yet those of their mindes are 
much more intolerable, for (besides that they want such as 
might feed them with the word of God, & with the sacra- 
mentes, and might teach them how to Hue and die well, so 
as they remaine like plants without moisture) it can not be 
expressed, with what forcible temptations their faith is 
continuallie assailed. For not onelie that desire to come 
foorth of these vnspeakeable miseries, doth tempt them ; 
but the commodities and delights also wherein they see 
others to liue, that haue damnablie renounced their 
Christianity. The persecutors of the primitiue church, to 


induce the Martyrs to denie Christ and to sacrifice to their 
idols, tried them first with torments, and then with ease 
and deh'ghts, which they propounded vnto them, if they 
would become as themselues. For to those, who in the 
middest of winter were throwne into frozen lakes, there 
were cotrariwise appointed soft and delicate beds, with a 
fier kindled hard by, and a thousand other restoratiues and 
comforts ; to the end they might be doublie tempted, both 
by the rigor of the cold which benummed them, and by the 
sweetnes of thinges comfortable and nourishing, which 
allured them. The Christian slaues are at this day no 
lesse tormented ; for on the one side, they are afflicted with 
beggerie, nakednes, hunger, famine, blowes, reproches, and 
tortures, without any hope in a manner euer to come out 
thereof: and on the other side they see them that haue 
reneged our holy faith for Mahumets superstition, to Hue 
in all worldly prosperitie and delight, to abound with 
wealth, to flourish in honour, to gouerne cities, to conduct 
armies, and to enioy most ample libertie. But amidst all 
these so great miseries, they haue a double comfort. The 
one is of priests, who togither with themselues were taken 
captiue. These men sometimes administring the sacra- 
ments, & other whiles deliuering the word of God in the 
best manner that they can, are some helpe and assistance 
to others, being for this greatly reuerenced and respected 
amongst them. The other is of the religious in general], 
who contend and labour for their freedome. Wherein 
Spaine deserueth most high commendation. For there 
be two most honorable orders, whose exercise it is, 
to mooue and sollicite for the freedome of captiues. The 
one is called La orden de la merced, and it flourisheth 
most in Aragon ; and the other (which is farre greater) is 
named Del Resgate or of raunsome or redemption, the 
which although it largely extendeth ouer all France, yet at 
this day aboue all other places, it is most rife in Castilia, 


From whence some of them haue gone into Sicilie, to the 
kingdome of Naples, and to Rome : and haue there begun 
to lay foundations of their conuents. These two religious 
orders gather euery yeere mightie summes of money, 
wherewith they make speedie redemption of the forsaid 
captiues. They send their Agents to Fez, and to Alger, 
who managing this affaire, with no lesse diligence, then 
loialtie, redeeme first all the religious, and priests, and 
after them those of the yoonger sort, first the king of 
Spaines subiects, and then others. They alwaies leaue one 
religious man in Alger, and another in Fez, who informe 
themselues of the state & qualitie of the slaues, with their 
necessitie, to make the better way for their libertie the 
yeere following. The king of Spaine (whom it most 
concerneth) furthereth this so charitable a worke, with a 
bountiful! and liberall hand. For ordinarily he giueth as 
much more, as the foresaid orders haue gathered and 
collected by way of almes. For this is so good an enter- 
prise, that by the ancient canons no other is so much 
fauoured and allowed of. Yea S. Ambrose and other holy 
men haue pawned, for the deliuerie of Christian captiues, 
the chalices and siluer vessels of their churches. And 
Saint Paulinus for the same end and purpose, solde his 
owne selfe. For all other actions of charitie are some 
spirituall, and others corporall, but this in a ver>' eminent 
degree is both spirituall and corporall togither. For 
among corporall miseries the seruitude of infidels is most 
grieuous, & among spirituall calamities the danger of 
apostasie is of all others the greatest : but those slaues so 
redeemed, are set free both from the one and from the 
other. Whereupon there are very few borne in Spain, who 
dying, leaue not some almes behinde them, for the 
ransoming of slaues. The fathers of redemption haue gone 
also many times to Constantinople : where in the yeere 
1583. by the order of Pope Gregorie the thirteenth, they 


redeemed fiue hundred persons. The brotherhood also of 
the Confalone in Rome, labour verie diligently in this 
point, who in Sixtus Qnintus time, redeemed a great 
number of captiues. Of whom many also, vrged partly by 
the hardnes of seruitude, & partly by the sweetenes of 
libertie, free themselues, either by that which they gaine 
oner & aboue their masters due, or by their good de- 
meanour, or else by flight. And they flie awaie, sometimes 
by repairing speedily to such fortresses as the king of 
Spaine hath in Africke and in Barbarie : and otherwhiles 
they seize on some shipping, or on the selfe same galleis 
wherein they are chained. Many also retire themselues to 
the Princes of Brisch, &c. who willingly receiue and arme 
them, vsing their assistance in the warre which they con- 
tinually make with the Turkes of Alger. 





Dr. Brown left no MS. maps to illustrate his edition of Leo 
Africanus, and as a work of this description would hardly have 
proved acceptable without maps, the Council of the Hakluyt Society 
decided that a suitable set should be specially prepared. 

The compiler intended, at first, to accept all identifications put 
forward in Dr. Brown's voluminous notes, and to adhere strictly to 
the spelling of place and tribal names, as it appears in Por/s trans- 
lation. He found, however, that Dr. Brown had omitted, in several 
instances, to indicate the geographical position of the places men- 
tioned by his author, or had accepted the more than doubtful identi- 
fications of preceding commentators. Under these circumstances he 
preferred to proceed on independent lines. 

First as to the spelling. No attempt has been made to transcribe 
the spelling of the Italian version, and the names familiar to students of 
historical geography have been retained. The names on the maps 
are spelt, as a rule, according to the Italian version, but other modes 
of spelling employed by translators, or varieties to be found in the 
same edition of the " History^*, have been added within brackets ; as 
also, in numerous instances, a correct version of the name, agreeably 
to the rules recommended by the Royal Geographical Society. This 
last is printed in italics. Thus, in the entry : — 

Ain Elcalla (Hain Elchallu, Ain el Kala\ "Ain Elcalla" will be 
found in our map, " Hain Elchallu" in Temporal's version, whilst *'^Ain 
el Kald^ is a correct version of the name. 

Names from Marmol's Africa have been freely introduced. 

In most instances in which the compiler of the maps differs from 
Dr. Brown's identifications of place-names the authorities upon which 
he depends are concisely indicated (as instances, see Goran, Beni 
Gumi, Bito, Casair, Guangara, etc.}. 

Out of about 620 place and tribal names mentioned by Leo, as 
many as 420 could be confidently placed upon the map, as there exist 
at the present day and in the localities indicated by our author, places 
or sites still bearing the ancient name, or, in a few instances, well- 



authenticated ruins. In all these cases the modem name is given 
n italics^ but without brackets, thus : — 

Catena (Chesena) Katsena. 

Numerous other places could be located approximately from the 
descriptions given by Leo or by other authors. In many instances, 
however, this information is too vague to be of service, or irrecon- 
cilable with what we know of the geography of Northern Africa. 
This applies more especially to the towns in Hea, which were in ruins 
even in the days of Leo, and to the various ranges of the Atlas. We 
have, nevertheless, recorded names of this kind upon the maps, 
usually with a note of interrogation affixed to them, as such a record 
may prove of service to future inquirers. 

The routes followed by Leo Africanus are shown in red^ as far as 
can be made out from the very fragmentary references given in his 
work. Whether Leo really performed those extensive journeys in the 
Sudan for which he claims credit (pp. 124, 128) may fairly be doubted. 
The information he furnishes is very scanty, and in several instances 
quite contrary to fact (see below, under " Niger"). 

The principal names mentioned in Pory's Introduction and in the 
Appendices have been included in the Index, and their geographical 
position has been indicated, but they have only in exceptional cases 
been inserted upon the maps. 

The column headed " Maps" is to be read as follows : — 

The Roman numerals, i-vii, indicate the number of the map on 
which the name is to be found ; the Arabic numerals give the 
latitude and longitude of the place in degrees ; thus : — iv, 32, 3 W., 
is to be read : Map iv, latitude 32° north, longitude 3* west of 

The black figures indicate pages where place-names are dealt with 
more fully than elsewhere. 

E. G. R. 

Abassia, see Abyssinia 

Abat, sn Habat 

Abdulg^ad, see Beniabdulguad 

Abduluad, see Beniabdulgtiad . 

Abg^al, mtn., 688, 698 

Abid (* slave'), see Quadelabid 

Abru, see Hebru 

Abuinan, Bu Anan, 787, 810 . 

Abukir, 909, see Bocchir 

Abulhusein {C/Ied Abu el Husein), 

Arabs, 142, 149, 212 
Abu said, see Beni Ahuseid 
Abyssinia (Alxissia), 30, 54, 1048 

\ Iriljc of Deuimansur 


IV, 3S.OW. 

IV, 32, 3 W. 

IV, 29, 5 W. 
I, 12. 38 K. 



of an Arab town in 

Acca (Accha, Hacha), Akka, 127, 147, 215, 778, 805 

Accha, sef Acca .... 

Acdes (Acdesen), 643, is not Agadez, but a misprint for 

Adecsen .... 

Achmed, see Beni and Casr Acmed 
Acmed, see Beni Acmed and Casr Acmed 
Adachiiin, 929 ; misprint for Adacsun {see Adecsen) 
Addagia, see Haddagia 

Addura, see Dahra .... 
Adca, Hadia, 30» 3i» 53 
Adecchis, see Hadecchis 
Adecsen (Edecsen, Adacsun), plain of, Eastern, 558, 559 

>» »» M t> Western, 49*, 613 

643, 929 . . 

Adel, 3r, 51, 975, 982 
Aden, 30, 31 
Adendum, perhaps identical with ruins 

Ben Daitd, 399, 564 
Adesan, mtn. , Jehel Saghra t 323 
Adimei, 281, misprint for Annimei 
Adurha, see Dahra 
Aeg:ras:a, see Regraga 
Aethiopia. see Ethiopia 
Afg^eg;, 142, misprint for Asge 

Africa, etymology, 13, 122, 191 ; Pory's description, 12 
Agadez, Agadez, 128, 133, 173, 788, 799, 828, 846 
Agag or Giacchi,/i^a, title of the Rulers of Kasanje (Capello 

and Ivens, from Benguella, I, 320), 60, 71 
Agla, 501, 621 . 

Agmet, Ahmat in Urika, 272, 359 
Aian, Dar Ajan, Somaliland, 51 
Ain Elcalla (Hain Elchallu, Ain el Kola), 400, 564 
Ain Sammit (Hain Sammit, Ain Samsed), 30 m. from 

Beggia, 713, 752 
Air (Hair), Air, 127, 198, 798 . 
Akka, see Acca 
Alcair, 134, see Cairaoan 
Alcair, 27, 128, see Cairo 
Alcamo (Halcamo), Alcamo, Sicily, 732, 760 
Alcosser, see Cossir . 
Alemdin, iee Almedin 
Alexandria, AUxindria, 861, 907 
Alger (Gezeir, Algezer, Algezair), Algiers or El Jezair, 126 

143, 149, 682-4, 689, 697, 932 
Algezair, see Alger . 
Algezer, see Alger . 
Alg^echet, see Eloachet 

IV, 29, 7 W. 

- 7, 38 E. 
IV, 32, 4 W. 

IV, 32, 6 W. 
I, 12, 42 E. 
I, 9, 45 E. 

IV, 32, 6 W. 
IV, 31, 5 W. 

I, 17, 8 E. 

vn, 34, 5 W. 
V, 31, 7 W. 
— 10, 47 E. 
IV, 33, 7 W. 

I, 18, 9 E. 

I, Zl. 12 E. 

II, 31, 29 E. 
IV, 36, 3 E. 



Almatria, El Matariye, near Heliopolis, 879, 915 . 
Almedin (Alemdin, ElAIedine\ in W. of Elmadin of Hascora, 

299, 383 
Amara, Amhara^ 30, 40, 979 . 
Ambea, Dembeay 30 . 
Ambran, 145, misprint for Amran 
Amhara, see Anuira . 
Amir, see Beniamir . 

Am Li'snam (Ham Lisnem), Eyun el Esnauy 553 
Amr (Hamr), Temple of, Cairo, Gama Amr, 877, 913 
Amr (Hamran) Uled Amer, a tribe of Deuihessen Arabs, 142, 

147,212 .... 

Amrozo, see Hamrozo 
Amzichi, see Anzichi 
Anchisa (Hanchisa), mtn., 256, 348 
Anfa, Dar el Beida or Casablanca^ 396, 562 
Angad (Hangad, Anghad), Angad, 149, 215, 396, 562, 931 
Angara, see Angera . 
Angela, 127, misprint for Augela 
Angera (Angara) Anjcra^ 514, 634 
Angola, 58, 70, 89, 998, 1059 
Angosha, 58, 89 . 
Angote, Angot, 30, 39 
Annimei (Hanni Mei), town, Demnat^ or ruins to S. of it, 273, 

Annimei, mtn., near preceding, 281, 365. 
Antata, see Hantata 
Anteta, see Hantata 
Antius (Anthius), ancient Antaeopolis, mod. Kau el Kebir^ 

866 . 
Anzichi, Nteke, 76, 30, 1002 
Aoara, see Haoara 
Aodar, Wad Haddar^ 930 
Aphthun, see Aptun . 
Aptun (Aphthun), is Pithom, erroneously identified by Leo 

with **Pharao*s City" in the Fayyum 
Aquelunda, Lake, does not exist, 71 
Arais, see Larais 
Araoan, Arawan^ 154, 798 
Arar, Harar, 31, 983 
Aresgol (Haresgol), Rashguly CC6, 694 
Argar, 499, misprint for Azgar 
Argia, see Hargij 

Arguin, 99 

Ariana, El Ariana^ 726, 755 
Armenia, 890, 904 . 
Aros, see Beni Aros . 

II, 30, 31 E. 

V, 32, 6 W. 
I, II, 37 E. 
I. 12, 37 

VI, 33» 4 W. 

III, 29, 31 E. 

IV, 29, 9 W. 

IV, 30, 8 W. 
IV, 33. 7 W. 
VII, 34, 2 W. 

VII, 35. 5 ^^• 

— 10 S, 15 E. 

— i6S,4oE. 
I, 12, 39 E. 

V, 31, 6 W. 

I, 26, 31 E. 

VII, 34, 3 W. 

1, 29. 30 E. 

I, 18, 2 W. 
1,9,42 E. 
IV, 35, I W. 

I, 20, 16 W. 
IV, 36, 10 E. 
— 40, 42 E. 




Arzilla, AzLa, 504, 525-7 .... vii, 33, 6 W. 
Asara, see Hasara 
Asare, see Gemi £1 Asare 

Ascension island, 92 . — 8 S, 14 W 
Ascora, see Hascora . 

Aseis (Eseis), plain of Sots, 493, 494, 613 . vii, 34, 5 W. 

Asfacus (Asfachus), S/aJ^s, 699, 729, 758 . . iv, 34, 10 E. 

Aagt, see Azge ..... — 
Asifelmel (Asifinual, Sifelmel, Esifhual, Esfinalo), AsifelMal^ 

226, 256, 258, 259, 261, 278, 325, 921 . . V, 31, 8 W. 
Asifinnal, see Asifelmel 
Asna, Esmh, 903, 925 .1, 25, 32 E. 
Assaid, Egypt, see Said 
Assan, se$ Hassan 
Assiria (Assyria), 891 

Assuan, Aswan ^ 903, 926 . . i, 29, 32 E. 

Assum, Aksum, 983 . . i, 14, 38 E. 
Assjrria, see Assiria . 
Atlas mountains, 15, 123, 168, 169-72, 178, 219, 220, 244-7, 

256, 275.83, 305-10* 320-24, etc. . . . I, 32, 5 W. 

Angela, Aujila, 127, 791, 801, 815, 817 . i, 29, 20 E. 

Aug;u8tian, see Haugustun .... — 

Auraz, mtn., see Aurez .... — 

Aurez (Auraz), mtxi.y /ede/ Aures, 741, 770 iv, 35, 7 E. 

Axum, see Assum . . — 

Azafi (Azaphi), Sq/i, 145, 157, 214, 231, 234-88, 367-72, 927 IV, 32, 9 W. 

Azafi, prom, of. Cape Caniin, 264 • iv, 32, 9 W. 

AzaSTues, see Soara ..... — 

Azamor, see Azemor — 
Azaoad (Azaohad), Azawad^ 127, 173, 198, 221, 798 .1, 19, 3 W. 

Azaohad, ste Azaoad .... — 

Azaphi, see Azafi ..... ~ 
Azemor (Azamor), Azamur, 159, 285, 286, 288, 293, 377-9, 

929 . . . . . .IV, S3, 8 W. 

Azgfan, mtn., 551, 652 . iv & vi, 33, 4 W. 

Azgangan, mtn., 537, 645 . . vii, 35, 2 W. 

Azgar (Azgara). 126, 140, 143, 146, 494, 613, 929 . vii, 34, 6 W. 

Axgtur Fens, Merja Ras el Dura and other Lagoons, 499 . vii, 34, 6 W. 

Azg^ari Camaren, Asra el hamar, 555, 653 . vii, 33, 4 W. 
Azg;e (Esgeh, Azgeg, Asge, Uled Azge), a tribe of Rie 

Arabs, 142, 145, 212 . . • iv,34,3W. 
Aziot, Asyuly 900, 924 . . . .1, 37, 31 E. 

Baalbek, see Balabach . . . . — 

Baaliganze, Bali and Ganzey in Abyssinia, 30 . i, 8, 39 E. 

Bab, seeBeb , . — 

Babe Nansre, Cairo, Bad en Nasar^ 870, 871 , . ill, 30, 31 E, 



Babel Mandeb, 85 . 

Bacchuia, see Buccuja 

Baduini, Bedawm^ Le,^ Bedouins, 22 

Bagamldri, Begemeder^ 30 

Baghdad (Bagdet, Bagadad), Baghdad^ 136, 137, 164, 463, 

73», 889 
Bahlul, see Beni Balul 
Balabach (Balabec), Baalbek, 871, 913 
Bali, see Baaliganze . 
Balul, see Beni Balul 
Banibasil, tribe, 415, 588 
Baniguatazi, tribe of Luntuna, in Morocco (omitted in Pory': 

Banig^eriasfhel {Waru^t), division of the Sanagia 

Morocco, 132, 207 
Bani Teude, 500, 620 
Barba, * Tower,' Egypt, 904 . 
Barbanda, Dendera, 902, 925 
Barbar, Berbers , 129, 199 . 
Barbaria (Barberia) Barbary, 125 
Barbora, Berbera, 982 
Barca, Barka, 715, 775, 804 . 
Barcena, Lake (Bahr) Tsanay 30, 31, 975 
Bardeoa, see Berdoa 

Barnabal, Berimbal el Kebir^ 867, 91 1 . 
Bamacaes (Bamagosso), i.e., Bahr Nagash or ** Lord of the 

Sea," 30, 37, no 
Baronis, Branes, 548, 651 . 
Banitto, Beirut, 519 

Basora (Basra), Basra, on G. of Persia, 463 
Basra, Basra, in Fez, 503, 623 
Bat (Bath) river, Wad Bet, 494, 929 . 
Bata (Batha, El Balaha) town near R. Mina, probably near 

modem Sidi Bel Hasel, 632, 674, 932 
Batalisa, tribe, 539 . 
Batha, see^^\. . 

Batha, see Bata 

Bcbcl Futu, Cairo, Bab el Futuh, 871 . 
Beb EUoch, gate and suburb, Guro, Bab el Luk, 874, 914 
Beb Zuaila, Cairo, Bab ez Zuwele, gate and suburb, Cairo, 

870, 873, 913 . 
Bechiia, see EI Becria 
Bedis, Badis, 517, 636 
BeSTSiA, Beja, 712, 752 
Besfomeder, see Bagamidri 
Beiael Casraim {Bain el Kasrain), street in Cairo, 871, 913 
Belbes, see Berelles * • ^ • 

I, 12, 43 E. 

I, 12, 38 E. 

— 33, 44 E. 
I. 34. 36 E. 

VII, 34» 5 ^V. 

VII, 34, 5 W. 
1, 25, 32 E. 


— 10, 45 E. 
1, 32, 22 E. 

I, 12, 37 E. 

II, 31. 31 E- 

I, 14, 38 E. 
VII, 34» 3 W. 
i» 33» 35 E- 

— 30» 47 E. 
VII, 34, 5 W. 
vn, 34, 6W. 

IV, 35, o E. 
VII, 38, 2 W. 

Ill, 30, 31 E. 

III, 30, 31 E. 

HI, 30, 31 E. 

VII, 35, 4 W. 

IV, 36, 9 E. 




Zeguer of Marmol), 


Beld Elhuneb, see Bled Eluneb 

Beni Abdulguad (Hahdulguad, Abduluad, Habduload, 

Abduluetes of Marmol, Beni Abd el Wahad)^ a division 

of the Magrasa, at Telensin, 271, 658, 690 
Beni Abusaid, 688 . 
Beni Acmed (Achmed), 530, 642 
Beniamir (Benihemir, Beniemir, Beni Amer\ a division of the 

Hilel Arabs, between Telensin and Oran, 142, 212, 214 
Beni Aros (Haros), febel Beni Aros, 513, 633 
Beni Balui (Bahlul), Balul, 353 
Beni Besseri, mtn. , /ebeJ Beshar, 787 
Beni Busibet (Buseibet), 525, 641 
Beni Chelid (Beni Quilib of Marmol), 522, 639 
Beni Chessen, Beni Hasan, 515, 634 
Beniemir, see Beniamir 
Beni Essen, near Cunaigel Gherben, 557, 
Beni Fensecare (Fenescare, the Beni 

512 . 
Beni Garir, mtn., 521, 639 
Beni Gebara, in Riff, 524, 640 
Beni Gebir (Benigeber), S. of Fez, 312, 
Benisfomi, see Beni Gumi 
Benig^orai, 798, misprint for Benigomi 
Beni Gualid, in Erriff, 526, 641 
Beni Guamud, 542, 643 
Beni Guarid, Beni H^aiid, 744, 771 
Beni Guazeuale, mtn., 528, 641 
Beni Guedarfeth, /^p^/ Beni Ghorfii, 51 
Beni Guerened, near Telensin, 688 
Beni Gueriasfhel, mtn., 529 . 
Beni Gueriten, E. of Fez, 492, 615 
Beni GuertagST^n (Guertenage), 542, 548, 651 
Beni Gumi (Beni Gomi, Beni Gorai), Beni Gumi, on Upper 

Ghir ; Rohlfs crossed their country in 1862 ; 127, 149, 

787, 798, 810, 935 
Beni Heli, Arab tribe in Tunis, 717 
Benihemir, see Beniamir 
Beni lazga, mtn., 549, 551 . 
Beni ledir (Jedir) 528, 681 . 
Beni lefren (Beni Tefren), the people around Ksar Yefren, 

743 . 
Beni leg^inesen (Jeginefen), 531, 642 
Beni lerso (Jerso), 525. 640 . 
Beni lezneten (lesseten), Beni Iznaten, 549, 651, 686, 698, 

931 • 
Beni Joseph (Beni Giusep), Beni Yusuf, 523, 640. 
Beni Mansor, Beni Afansur, 522, 523, 639 



IV, 36, I E. 
VII, 34 4 W. 

IV, 35> I W. 
VII, 35. 5 W. 
vii, 34, 4 W. 
IV, 31, 2 W. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 
VII, 35. 5 W. 

VI, 33, 4 W. 

VII, 35, 5 W. 
VII, 35. 5 W. 
VII, 35. 5 W. 
VI, 33, 4 W. 

VII, 34, 4 W. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 
IV, 31, 14 E. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 
VII, 34. 5 W. 
IV, 34, I W. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 
VII, 33. 4 W. 
VII, 34 3 W. 

IV, 30, 2 W. 
IV, 36, 10 E. 

VI, 33. 4 W. 

VII, 35. 4 W. 

IV, 32, 12 E. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 
VII, 35. 5 W. 

VII, 34, 2 W. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 
VII, 35, 5 W. 



Beni Marin (Banimarini), Bent Merini^ Zeneta dynasty in 

Morocco, 534, 541, etc. 
BeDAsnt^YitXi Jebgl Megker, 287, 295, 381 
Beni Merasen, 558, 654 
Beni Mesg^alda, 531, 642 
Beni Rasid {Beni Raskid), 673, 695 
Beni Razin (Beni Hascin of Marniol), 523, 640 
Beni Sabi, Beni Sbihy 779, 805 
Beni Said (Sahid), Beni Said, 536, 645 . 
Benisuaif, Beni sue/, 898, 923 
Beni Tefren, a misprint for Beni lefren . 
Beni Teuzin, 537, 645 
Beni Zaruol, Beni Zeruel, 523, 640 
Beni Zeijen {B*ni Ziyan), Magraoa dynasty of Telensin, 

659, 690 
Benin, 78 

Bensart, see Biserta . 
Berbers, see Barbar . 
Berbun, see Berbus . 
Berbus (Berbun, Burbun), Berabishy the ancient Perorsi, a 

tribe of Deuihessen Arabs, 142, 146, 147, 212 
Berdeoa, see Berdoa . 
Berdoa (Bardeoa, Berdeoa, Birdeva), Bardai in Tibesti, but 

applied to the N. Tebu generally, 127, 151, 197, 198, 799, 

800-801, 816 . 
Berelles, Belbes, 861 .. . 

Besseri, see Beni Besseri 

Biledulgerid, Belad el Jerid, 22, 124, 126, 197, 794, 813 
Birdeva, see Berdoa .... 
Biro, 128, misprint for Bito 
Biacaynes (Vescovi), Biscayans, 676 
Biaerta (Bensart), Biurte, 714, 752 
Biskra, see Pescara .... 
Bito, a gold country, certainly not the country of the Bede^ 

but a district on the Upper Niger, in or near Bure, 

Pacheco (Esmeralcby p. 51) knows a market-town Beetuu, 

128, 198 
Bled Eluneb (Beld Elhuneb, Bledel Anab\ the site of mod. 

Bona, 708 
Bocchir, Abukir, 865, 909 
Bochin, 865, misprint for Bocchir 
Boiador, Cape, 987 . 
Bona, Bona, 708, 750, 933 . 
Bona, Mountains of, 742 
Borgi, see Elborgiu . 
Bomo, Bomu, 128, 134, 832, 851, 981 
Bosiri (Busiri), Abusir, 861, 907 


IV, 32, 9 W. 

VI, 33» 4 W. 

VII, 34, 4 W. 
IV, 35, o E. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 
IV, 29, 5 W. 
VII, 35» 3 W. 
I, 29, 31 E. 

VII, 34, 3 W. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 

I, 6, 5 E. 

I, 17. 7 W. 

I, 20, 15 E. 

II, 30, 31 E. 

IV, 39, 9 E. 

IV, 37, 9 E. 

I, 12, 9 W. 

IV, 36, 7 E. 

II, 31, 30 E. 

I, 26, 14 W. 
IV, 36, 7 E. 

I, 13, 12 E. 

II, 31, 29 E. 



Bottom, sec Butoia ... . ^ _ . 

Breach (Bresc, Bersac, or Brescar of Marmol), Brashkj 678, 

696. . . ... .IV, 36, I E. 

Bucaiim, see £1 Buchaira . , . ... — 

Buccnja (Bacchuia), Boguym^ 522, 639 .. . . vii, 35, 4 W. 

Busfgia, see Bugia . . — 

Bug^ (BiM^gia), Buja or Bougie ; kingdom, 699 ; city, 126, 

143, 144, 700, 745. 932 •• • ... IV, 36, 5 K. 

Bu£^ mountains of, 740 .... — 

Bugia (Bugiha, Buge, Buggia), Beja^ 837, 853, 855, 904, 

933 • • . . . . I, ^o, 35 E. 

Bngiha, see Bugia . ... . — 

Bnlac, Bulak, 879, 915 . . in, 30, 31 E. 

Bnlahnan, su Bulauan ... — 

Bulauan (Bulahuan), Tabulawan^ 291, 376 . . • iv, 32, 7 W. 

Bunasar (Bunaser, Bunafre), river between Zelag and Togat, 

493. 494. 613 . . VII, 34. 5 W. 

Buragrag, see Buregrag — 

Bnrbun, see Berbus . — 

Buregrag (Buragrag), Wad Bu Ragrag, 394, 403, 406, 407, 

. 567,95^ • . VII, 33, 6 W. 

Busibet, see Beni Busibet . . . . _ 

Busiri, see Bosiri . . — 

Butoia (Buthoia, Bottoia), Botoya, 533, 538, 644 . • vii, 35, 3 W. 

8*0,^211,304,385. .... V, 3i,6W. 

CalMunbe, Ca»iAi»i^, 71, 998 . — 9S., 14E. 

Cabra, Kabara, 826, 844 . .1, 16, 3 W. 

f^flfb*" (Schachin, Esquequin of Marmol), a division of the 

Arabs, including the Etheg, Sumait and Said [^. z/.], 142, 

150,2x1,215 . . . . . . — 

Caesarea, Mauritania Caesariensis or Telensin, q, v, — 

Cafates, Gafat in Abyssinia^ 20, 30 . . — 10, 37 E. 

Cafena, 128 ; misprint for Casena — 

Cafega, su Caphsa . . . _ 

Caffa, Kafa in the Crimea, 888 • — 45f 35 E. 

Cafraria,65 ..... — 29S.,3oE. 

Cairaoan (Alcair), Kairwan, 134, 139, 716, 719, 730, 754, 

758 . . . . . . IV, 35, 10 E. 

Cairo (£1 Chahira, Alcair, Alchair), Most el-Kahira^ 120, 

137. 870, 917 ; the Castle {El Kola), 881, 917 . . iii, 30, 31 E. 

Calaat Haoara (Chalath Haoara), A'aAw, 673, 695 . iv, 35, o E. 

Cambaia, Cambay in India, 982 — 22, 72 E. 

Camis Metgara (Cannis Metgara), 415, 587 vii, 33, 5 W. 

Cammar, Kamart^ 72$, 755 . . iv, 36, 10 E. 

Canca (Chanca), e/ Khankah, 897, 922 . . . 11, 30, 31 E. 

Canel Halili, Cairo, Khan el Kkalili, 872, 914 . . in, 30, 31 E. 




Cana, Kenehy 902, 904, 925 . 

Canaries, 99 

Cano, Kano, 128, 134, 799, Sap, 846 

Capes (Capis, Chalbis), Gabes, 127, 715, 733, 760, 934 

Cape Verde and islands, 20, 81 » 97 

Caphesa, see Caphsa. 

Caphsa (Caphesa, Capsa, Cafesa), Gafsa^ 127, 197, 795, 813. 

Capis, see Capes 

Capsa, see Caphsa . 

Carafa (Chara&), suburb of Cairo, Karafa^ 877, 915 

Carthage, 135, 7iS 753 

Casablanca, see An& 

Casair (Chasair), near lead and antimony mines which Rohlfs 

passed in 1862, 787, 810 
Casar, see Casar Elcabir 
Casar Elcabir (Casar), Ksar elJCebir, 496, 504, 511,513, 618, 

931 • 
Casar Ezzaghir (Casar minor), Ksar es Sagkir^ 508, 514, 629 
Casar minor or the Less, see Casar Ezzaghir 
Casasa (Chasasa), 534, 644, 931 
Casba, Zaghuan^ the anct. Villa magna, 713, 752 
Casena (Chesena), Kaisena, 128, 134, 830, 849 
Casr Acmed {Ksar Ahmed) ; the ancient Cistemae according 

to Marmol, 744, 771 
C4isr Hessin (Essin), 744, 772 
Caulan (Chaulan), Ain Haluan, 487, 607 
Cans (El Cauz, Cheuz), district, 126, 393, 538, 539, 646, 930, 

931 • 

Centopozzi {MiatHr\ in Caus, 555 ; see also Centumputei 
Centiunputei (Cento Pozzi, Miatbir)^ in Duccala, 290, 375 
Ceuta, see Septa 

Chalath Haoara, see Calaat Haoara 
Chalbis, 127 ; misprint for Capis 
Charafa, see Carafa . 
Chasair, see Casair. . 
Chasasa, see Casasa 
Chaulan, see Caulan 
Chauz, see Caus 

Chebib, min,, Jebel Habibt 513, 633 
Cheneg, Khemg, 781, 808, 935 
Cherith, see Elcherith 
Chesena, see Casena 
Chessen, ste Beni Chessen 
Cheuz, x«f Caus 
Chian, see El Chian . 
Chinana {Uled Kenana), a tribe of Utmen Arabs, among the 

Elcalut, 142, 146, 212 .... 

I. 25, 32 E. 
1,28, IS W. 
I, Ji, 8E. 
IV, 33, 10 E. 
I, 15, 17 W. 

IV, 34, 8 E. 

III, 30, 31 E. 

IV, 36, 10 E. 

IV, 32, 2 W. 

vii, 34, 5 W. 
vii, 35. 5 W. 

VII, 35, 2 W. 
IV, 36. 10 E. 
I, 12, 7 E. 

IV, 32, 14 E. 
IV, 32, 14 E. 
VI, 34, 4 W. 

IV, 33, 3 W. 
VI, 33, 4 W. 

V. 31, 9 W. 

VII, 35, 5 W. 
IV, 32, 4 W. 

VI, 34, 6 W. 




Chollo» x/^ Collo 

Choros, see Coros 

Chosir, see Cossir 

Chusein, see Deuil Chusein 

Chusein (Cusain, Huseiti)^ a division of the Hilel Arabs, 142, 

212 .... 
Circastta, in the Caucasus, 870 
Cithiteb, misprint for Eititib . 
Coanza, river, Kuanza, 7i • 
CoUo (Chollo), El KoUo, 703, 747, 933 . 
Coil^o» River, 73 ; kingdom, 998, 1053 . 
Constantine (Cc^tantina), ICsar Tina^ 126, 145, 162, 704, 

741, 748, 933 . 
Conte (Conta), Cape Cantin, 288, 372 
Corasan, Khorasan, 887 
Cordians, see Curdu . 
Cordova, Spain, 729 

Corondel, disused port at head of Red Sea, 27 
Coros (Choros), castle on the Megereda, 714, 752 
Cossir (Chosir, Alcosser), Koser^ 27,903 
Costantina, see Constantine 
Cmuna, Zambezi^ 19 
Cufa in Arabia Felix (w), but more probably /Cufa^ near the 

Euphrates, 877 . 
Culeihat, see Culejat 

Culejat Elmuridin (Culeihat Elmuridin), 241, 334 
Cunaig^el Gherben, Kheneg el Gharby 557, 654 
Curdu (Cordians), Kurds^ 479, 606, 889 
Cusain, see Chusein . 
Cnsdn, see Husein . 
Cyrene, Barka^ 23 . 

Dahra (Dara, Adurha, Addura), desert, Dahra, 540, 541 

Damanhore, Damanhury 861 . 

Damasco, Danuucusy 731 . 

Damiata, Damyat^ 856, 861, 911 

Damut, 30, 61 . 

Dancala, see Dangala 

Dancali, Dankali^ plur. Danakil, 27 

Dangala (Dancala), Old Dongola, 29, 856, 853, 937 

Dara desert, see Dahra 

Dara (Eddara), Wad Dra, 127, 146, 147, 148. 149, I97i 305, 

308, 385» 778. 934 
Dart>a, 934 ; misprint for Darha {see Dara) 
Darha, 146 ; misprint for Dara 
Dauma, Doma (doubtful), 128 
Pedes, Dades, 145, 214, 308, 323, 392 . 

— 44, 40 E. 

— 9S., 13 E. 
IV, 37, 6 E. 

— 6S.,i3E. 

IV, 36, 6 E. 
IV, 32, 9 W. 

— 34, 55 E- 

h 37, 5 W. 
I, 27, 33 E. 

IV, 36, 10 E. 
I, 26, 34 E. 

— i8S.,36W. 

— 32, 44 E. 

V, 31, 9 W. 

VI, 33» 4 W. 

— 58, 42 E. 

I, 32, 22 E. 

IV, 33, 2 W. 

II, 31, 10 E. 


II, 31, 31 E. 

— 10, 37, E. 

I, 13, 41 E. 

I, 18, 31 E. 

IV, 29, 5 W. 

I, 8, 8 E. 

V, 31, 6 W. 




Dehemnm, see Emrun 

Delgumua, New, see Elgiumua 

Delleg:, Uledelffaj\ 142, 143, 211 

Dembea, see Ambea 

Demenfera, misprint for Demensera 

Demensera (Tenzera of Marmol), 246, 339 

Derae, Wad Dema, 318, 389 . 

Derotte, Derut, 869, 913 

Deufen, misprint for Deusen . 

Deuihessen (Deviessen), Dui Hassan^ a division of the 

Hassan Arabs, including Duleim, Berbus, Vode, Racmen 

and Amr, 142, 146, 212 . 
Deuil Chusein (Devil Cusein, Uled Husein of Marmol), 557 
Deuimansor (Duimansor), a division of the Hassan Arabs, 

142, 146, 149, 212 
Deuinbaidulla, Dui Obeid Allah^ a division of the Hassan 

Arabs, 142, 146, 212 
Deusen, Dusen^ 127, 197, 794, 813 
Deuvad, Da%*a fVida, a tribe of Rie Arabs, 142, 212 
Deyiessen, see Deuihessen 
Dnbdn, Deddu, 541, 648, 787, 931 
Duccala, Dukkala^ 125, 128, 140, 141, 142, 145, 157, 158, 

283, 367 
Dulein, Uled Deleim^ a tribe of Deuihessen Arabs, 142, 146, 

212 .. . 

Echebdeuon, mtn., Kebdana^ 536, 645 . 

Eddara, see Dara 

Edecsen, see Adecsen 

Edesfi, see Hedeg ... 

Efza, Fshtela^ according to Marmol, 318, 389, 390 

Egypt (Mesre of the Arabs, Chibt, Elchibt, Chibith of the 

Turks), Masr^ Gipt, 855, 857, 906, 1022 
Eitdeyet in Hea, 239, 241, 333, 1005 
Eitiad (Eithiad), Ait Aiad, 319, 391 
Eititib (Cithiteb), Ait Ataby 319, 391 
Elabat, see Habat . 
Elasin, see Elhasin . 

El Becria (Bechria), El Bahriye^ Lower Egypt, 857, 906 
Elborgiu (Borgi, Elborgh), El Borj Saada, \rj, 197, 792, 

812 . 
El Buchaiia (Bucaira), Lake, Beheret Abukir {not Bahr 

Maryut\ 161, 862 . . . 

Elcala (Elcalha), El Kala, a castle near Telensin, 669 
Elcalut, (Elculut, Elculoth, Holotes of Marmol, formerly 

known as Elmuntafig), Uled Mutafik^ a tribe of Edegi 

Arabs in Azgar, 142, 143, 146, 211, 495 


IV, 33, 3 W. 

IV, 36, 3 E. 

V. 30, 9 W. 
IV, 32, 5 W. 
11,31, 30 E. 

VI, 33» 4 W. 

IV, 30, 4 W. 

IV, 34. o 
IV. 34, 5 E. 

VII, 34, 2 W. 
IV, 32, 8 W. 
1, 25, 14 W. 
VII, 34, 2 W. 

IV, 32, 6 W. 

I and II 

V, 31, 9 W. 
IV, 32, 6 W. 
IV, 32, 6 W. 

ii» 34, 31 E. 
IV, 34. 5 E. 

VII, 34, 6 W, 




Elcama, see Elchemma 

Elduunid, see Elchemma 

Elchamid, 127 ; see £1 Hamma 

£1 Chauz, see Caus . 

Elchemma, see El Hamma 

Elcherith, C//e<f el Krid^ a tribe of Rie Arabs, 142, 145, 212 

El Chian, ancient Chenoboscion ?, 902, 925 

Elcnloth, see Elcalut. 

Elcnlnty see Elcalut . 

Eldeeb, see Gezirat Eldeeb 

El Fiium (Fium, £1 Fium), Medinet el Fayyum^ 859, 861, 899. 

923 . 
ElgihmnhuA, see Elgiumua 
El Giuma (Giumha), in Azgar, 495, 614 . 
Elgiumua of Hascora, 303, 384 
Elgiumua (Elgihumhua), Eljamay in Marocco, 257, 349 
Elgiumua, New (Delgumua nova), Jama Jedidy Marosa ? 

259,349 .... 

El Hamma (El Cama, £1 Chamid, Helchemma, Elchemma) 

• El Hamma near Gabes, 127, 733, 761, 776, 805 
Elhasin, (Elasin), El Hasen, a tribe of Utmen «\mbs, 142, 

146, 212 
El Husein, tribe, 494 
Elin, see Helin 
EUoch, see Beb EUoch 
Elmadifi of Hascora, El MeditUy 298, 383 
El Mahdia, Mehediya, 728, 757 
Elmedina in Duccala, 16 leagues from Azemor, Algunoi 

Documentosy p. 293, 289, 374 
Elmoascar (Elmo Hascar), Maskara, 673, 695 
El llLxLCB±on^ Jebel el Mokattamy 870, 881 
Elmuoitafig, Uled Afutafik, ancient name of the Elcalut, 

Eloacat, see Eloachet . . . « 

Eloachet (Eloacat, Alguechet, Guechet), Al Wahat, 124, 

193, 802, 817, 818 ... . 

Emir, see Beniamir . 
Emren, see Emrun . 
Emnm (Emrem, Hemrun, Dehemrun), Uled Amran^ a tribe 

of Deuimansor Arabs, 142, 145, 147, 148, 212. 
Enedr, Uled Nader ^ a tribe of Rie Arabs, 142, 148, 212 
Ercoco, Arkikoj 27, 30 . . . 

Eniff (Rif, Rife), er Rif, 126, 131, 175, 206, 516, 635 
Errif (RiflF), er Rif, Lower Egypt, 856, 906 
Esaggen, Asigen, 499, 619 . 
Eseis, see Aseis .... 
Esfiualo, see Asifelmel - . - . 

V, 31, 9 W. 
I, 26, 32 E. 

I, 29, 30 E. 

VII, 34» 5 W. 
V, 32, 6 W. 

V, 31, 8 W. 

IV, 33» 9 E. 

IV, 29, 9 W. 
VII, 24, 6 W. 

V, 32, 5 W. 
IV, 35, 10 E. 

IV, 32, 7 W. 
IV, 35, o E. 
"I, 30, 31 E- 

I, 27, 28 E. 

IV, 30, 4 W. 

V, 31, 8 W. 

VII, 34, 4 W. 
II, 30. 30 E. 
VII, 34, 5 W. 




Esgeh, see Azge 

Esifnual, see Asifelmel 

Esquequin, see Cachin 

Essen, see Beni Essen 

Essich (Essie), misprint for Eseis 

Essuoathila, see Sugaiila 

Etegi (Etheg), Uled Hadaji, tribe of Cachin Arabs in 

Duccala, 142, 281 
Ethesf, see Etegi 
Ethiopia (Etiopia), 23, 125 
Ethiopia the His/her, Prete lanni's Land, Abyssinia, 125, 

195 . 
Eusugas^hen, see Ileusugaghen 
Evarizin, Khwarizm, 889 
Ezzab» see Zab 

Fabbriano, Fabriano in Italy, 324 

Fanzara, 409, 580 . 

Farcala (Fercale), /-erkla, 145, 205, 322, 786 

Fatigar, 30 

Fenescare, see Beni Fensecare 

Fensecare, see Beni Fensecare. 

Fercale, see Farcala . 

Fernando Po, 96 

Fessa, see Fez 

Fez (Fessa), Fas, 126, 131, 134, 143, 144, 145, I73» 292 

393 ; the city, 416-486, 589-606, 987 
Fezzen (Fizzen) Fezzan, 127, 797, 814 . 
Fighig, Fighig, 127, 148, 149, 197. 788, 810 
Fium, see El Fiium . 
Fizzen, see Fezzen . 
Fnoa, Fuehy 868, 912 
Fustato, Fosiai, see Misruletic 
Futu, see Beb el Futu 

Gabes, see Capes 

Gademes, Ghadames, 127, 797, 814 

Gago, GogOy Ga-rhCi the old capital of the Songhays, 128, 

I34» 209f 820, 821, 823, 826, 845 
Gambia river, 18, 31 
Gansiga, see Guanziga 
Ganze, see Baaliganze 
Ganziga, see Guanziga 
Gaoco, see Gaogoa . 
Gaogao (Gaoga, Gaogo), Yauo or Oao, the old capital of the 

Bulala (Barth, Reise, ii, 316, 331 ; III, 381), 28, 133, 124, 

128,134, 193, 820, 834, 852, 899 . 

IV, 32, 8 W. 
i» ^~ 
I, I3» 37 E. 
— 41, 60 E. 

— 43, 12 E. 
VII, 34> 3 W. 
IV, 31, 4 W. 

— 9, 40 E. 


VII, 34, 4 W. 
I, 26, 15 E. 
IV, 32, I W. 

II, 31, 30 E. 

I, 30. 9 E. 

I, 16, o E. 
1,13, IS w. 

I, 12, 18 E. 



Gar, near Tripolis, 733, 803 . 

Gara^ (Gharag, Guarag, Garog, Uled Garrajt)^ a tribe of 

Deuiubaidulla Arabs, 142, 149, 159, 212 
Garbia, El Gharbiy$^ the West (of Morocco), 990 . 
Garel Gaze, quarry near Tripoli, Gargaresh^ 772, 803 
Garel Mele, Char el Mdah or Porta Faritta, 933. 
Garet, province, ElGharet, 126, 145, 148, 532, 643, 931 
Garet, desert of, 538. 
Garfa, UUd Gatfa, a tribe of Rie Arabs, scattered, 142 

145, 148, 212 . 
Gaiian (Garion), mtn.; Gkarian, 127, 743, 771 
Garir, see Beni Garir. 
Garo^, see Garagi 
Garsa, 145, misprint for Gar& . 
Garseluin, see Gherseluin 
Ganrif (Garsis), 541, 647 
Garsis, see Garsif 
Gartc^essen, (Gurtguessen, Gurtuessen), Sanla Cruz of the 

early Portuguese, Ageuiiry 253, 345, 777, 934, 9^7 
Gastrir, 781 (Pory omiu the name) 
Gauata (Javata), Gkiaia district (compare Matgara) 
Ganri, su Ghauri . 
Gcba {O^hha), Jebba, 520, 638 
Gebara, see Beni Gebara 
Gebel el hadi, /ebel ffadid, 247, 340 
Gebifi see Beni Gebir 
Gedmeua (Ghedmina), mtn., W. of Imizmizi ; perhaps Jebel 

Tisgin; 258, 279, 349, 364 
Otgti,/tjeli 7ox»746, 933 • 
Gehoan, see Geoan 

Geme Tailon, /ami Ibn Tulun, Cairo, 873 
Gemi El Asare (Hashare),ya///2 // Azkar2X Cairo, 870, 913 
Gemia Elcmen (Gemiha £lchmen),yamf «/ Hamntam? 415, 

587 . 
Gemiha Elchmen, ^ee Gemia Elcmen . 
Gemit EXiit€tamj /ami Hakim^ Cairo, 871, 913 . 
Genni (Ghinea, Ghenea),/^^^!, 124, 128, 822, 840 
Geoan (Gehoan), Uled/okan, a servile tribe of DeniubaiduUa 

Arabs, among the Garagi and Hed^, 142, 150, 212 
Georg^, see St. George 

Gerbo (Gerbe) island, /<?rAa, 127, 197, 734, 762 
Gerseluine, see Gherseluin 

Gesira, see Gezira .... 
Geuisa, Iviza^ BaUares, 676 . 
Gtzai,/ize, 895. 922 ... 

Gezair, see Alger .... 
Gezira (Gesira), 502, 622 



32, 13 K. 


32, I w. 


32, 13 K. 


37, 10 E. 




34, 2 N. 



32, 13 K 

V, 30, 9 '^' 

IV, 32, 4 W. 
VII, 34, 3 W. 

VII, 35, 4 ^V. 

V, 31, 9 W. 

V, 31, 8 W. 
IV, 36, 5 E. 

Ill, 30, 31 E. 

III, 30, 31 E. 

IV, ZZ, 5 W. 

Ill, 30, 31 E. 
I, 14, 4 W. 

IV, 33, II E. 

- 39, I E. 
Ill, 30, 31 K. 

VII, 35, 6 W. 



Gezirat Eldeeb, Geziret .eddekeb, the * golden island* above 

Fuoa; ^. z;., 868 . . 
Gharag, see Garagi ... . . . 

Ghauri (Gauri),/aw/^/ Ghuri, Cairo, 871, 913 . 

Ghedmina, see Gedmeua 

Ghenea, see Genni 

Gherseulin (Gerseluin, Garseluin), Gers, 148, 215, 560, 657, 

780,931,935 ....... 

Ghinea, see Genni 

Ghir, river, IVad Ghir^ 935, 788 ... 

Ghir, dosert of, said to extend to Guber, 798 (* Ghir * means 

* river', and the desert may be near the Niger, or *Nghir ') 
Ghomera, see Gumera . . . . 

Giacchi, see Agag ..... 
Gibraltar (Zibeltera), 167, 499, 509 . 
Giumha, see El Giuma .... 

Giimaibe, see Umen Giunaibe .... 
Gosfdem, desert, apparently the same r^on as Ighidi, q. v.y 

798, 815 ■ . 
Gogideine(Gugideme, Guigidimc of Marmol), mtn., 3x0^ 386, 

928 . 
Goiame, Gojam^ 30 . ... 

Good Hope, Cape of, 19 . 
Goran (Goranites, Gorhan), Goran, 28, 109, 128, 173, 199, 

221,836,852 . . . . . 

Goran is the name by which the Daza or Southern Tubu 

( Teda) are known to the Arabs. The Goran extend to 
. the northern shore of Lake Tsade, the further shores of 

which are, or were, inhabited by the So {see Seu) (Nach 

tigal, Saharjt and Sudan, i, 421) 
Gorhan, see Goran 
Goz, 232, 329 

Great River (Wad el Kebir), Wad Sahel, 932 
Green Mountain (Monte Verde), Jebel el Akhdar, 295, 681 
Guachde (Guacde), Wakda, 788, 810 . 
Guadalabid, see Quadelabid 
Guaden, Wadan, 116, 127, 147, 215, 777 
Guadilbarbar, Wad Barbara, known in its lower course as 

Wad el Kebir, ^Zl 
Guas:ida, Ujda, 663, 693 . . 

Gualato, Walata, 124, 128, 134, 147, 215, 255, 798, 815 

820, 821 
Gualhasa, 687, 698 . 
Gualid, sre Beni Gualid 
Gualili, WalUi, 489, 607-10 . 
Guamud, see Beni Guamud 
Guanferis, 932, misprint for Guanseris . 

11,31, 30 E. 
iir, 30. 31 E. 

IV, 32, 4 W. 

IV, 29, 2 W. 

I, 36, 5 W. 

I. 27, 2 W. 

V, 31, 6 W. 
I, 10, 1% E. 

— 34S., 18 E. 

I, 15. 13 E. 

IV, 31, 9 W. 
IV, 36, 4 E. 
IV, 36, 4 E. 
IV, 31, 2 W. 

I, 21, II W. 

IV, 36, 7 E. 
IV, 34, I W. 

I, 18, 5 W. 
IV, 35» I W. 

VII, 34, 5 W. 




Guangara (Guangra), Wangara ; the Wangara are the 
. Eastern Majidingo, great traders, who go East as ^ as 

Bomu. A district IVangara lies on the road from the 

Gold Coast to the Niger (Wolf, Mitt, aus Deutsche 

Schutsgeb,^ IV, 10), 128, 134, 831, 850 
Gttanseris» mtn., IVanseris, 689, 698, 932 
Giumzig^a (Ganziga, Guenziga; Guanezeris or Zuenzigas of 

Marmol), 127, 151, 198 . 
Guarag, se^ Garagi . 
Gtiardaii, mtn., 538, 646 
Guarga, river, Wargha, 499, 501, 619, 930 
Guargala (Guarghela), Wargla, 127, 143, 197, 791, 799, 81 
Gtiargfaela, see Guargala 
Guarid, see Beni.Guarid 
Gliariti, see Beni Guariten 
GlUitaziy see Baniguatazi 
Guazeuale, see Beni Guazeuale 
Guber, Gobety 1^8, 154, 209, 798, 8a8, 846 
Gueblen, mtn., 549, 651 
Goechet, 819 ; sec Eloachet , 
Ouedarfeth, see Beni Guedarfeth 
Guenziga, see Guanziga 
Guer, Cabo de, Ras Ghir, 987, 989, 991 . 
Guerened, see Beni Guerened . 
Gueiiaghel, see Beni Guedaghel 
Guertaggen, see Beni Guertaggen 
Guerteneage, see Beni Guertaggen 
ttHeslet, mtn,, febel Uselet, 732, 760 
Gttgideme, see Gc^deme 

Guir river at Mansora, 398. * Ghir* merely means * river* 
Gtimera (Ghomera), the Berber tribes of the Riff, 130, 131 

134, 205-6 
Gtunera, mountains of the, 930 
Gumi, see Beni Gumi 
Guraigura (Guregra, Guruigara), mount, plain, and river, on 

W. border of Caus, 494, 539, 559, 613 
G|ireg^ra» see Guraigura 
Gortguessen, see Gartguessen 
Guruigura, see Guraigura 
Guzzula (Guzula), JezuUiy 125, 131, 256, 260, aSl, 366, 776 

I, 9» I E. 

IV, 35» I E. 

I. 23, 

VH, 35, 3 W, 

VII, 34, 5 W. 

I, 32. 5 E. 

I, I3» 6 E. 
IV, 33, 3 W. 

IV, 35. 9 E. 

IV, 33. 7 W. 

VI, 34, 4 W. 

IV, 33. 5 W. 

V, 30, 7 W. 

Habat (Elabat, Abat, Elhabet), 126, 449, 619, 930, 931 . vii, 35, 5 W. 
Habdoload, see Beni Abdulguad . . __ 

Habid, see Quadelabid — 

Habm (Abru), Uled Habra, a tribe of Beniamir Arabs, 142, 

144, 212 .... . IV, 35, o W. 

Hacari, 130; misprint for Hasari, j^^ Hasara .... — 



Haddasfie (Addagia), 540, 647 

Hadeccbis (Adecchis), 333, 331 

Hain Elchalla, see Ain Elcalla 

Hain Sammit, 713, su Ain Sammit 

Hair» see hSx 

Halcamo, see Alcama 

Ham Lisnam, see Am Lisnam 

Hamsnamet, Hammamet^ 726, 756 

Hamr, Temple of, Cairo, sa Amr 

Hamran, su Amr 

Hamrozo (Amrozo, Hamron of Marmol), 774, 803 

Hanchisa, see Anchisa 

Hangad, see Angad . 

Hannimei, see Amiimei 

Hantata (Hentata, Anteta, Hantera), a tribe of Musmuda 

Berbers in Hantata mountains, 207, 208, 280, 364, 927 
Haoara (Aoara), Hawara^ a Berber people, between the 

Atlantic and Fezzan ; those in Temesna being known, 

according to Marmol, as Shawia; 130, 131, 132, 154, 205, 

396, 710, 780 . I, 24, 13 E. ; IV, 33, 7 W. ; 36, 3 E. 
Harar, see Arar ..... 
Haresg^ol, see Aresgol .... 

Harg^j (Argda, Hergha), a tribe of Musmuda, expelled from 

Morocco by the Luntuna, 132, 207 . 
Haros, see Beni Aros 
Hasara (Asara, Ha&ra, a misprint), 295 
Hascora (Ascora) Haskura, 125, 297, 383, 928 
Hassan (Assan), Uled HasseHy a division of the Machil Arabs, 

including the Deuihessen, Deuimansor and Deuiubaidulla, 

142, 212 
Haugustiin (Augustian), 527, 641 
Hea (Ea) Haha, 125, 131, 145, 214, 225-48 
Hechim, see Gemit Elhechim . 
Hedeg (£^egi), Uled Hadaji, a tribe of Deuiubaidulla. Aral)s, 

142, 149 . 

Helchemma, see Elchemma 
Held, Sidi Bent HellU of Rohlfs, 782 
Hell, see Beni Heli . 
Helin (Elin), plain, 145 
Hemir, see Emir 
Hemrun, see Emrun 
Henadussasar, AmttdesSaiwariy popularly known as Pompey': 

pillar, 864, 909 . 
Hentata, see Hantata 
Hentera, see Hantata 
Heradea, Hergla, 726, 756 
Hergha, see Hargij . 

VII, 34, 3 W. 
V, 31, 8 W. 

IV, 36, 10 E. 

IV, 32, 13 E. 

V, 31.7W. 

, and 29, 15 E. 

IV, 32, 8 W. 
IV, 32, 7 W. 

VII, 34, 4 W. 
V, 31, 9 W. 

VII, 34, 2 W. 

IV, 31, 4 W. 

V, 31. 9 W. 

11,31, 29 E. 
IV, 36, 10 E. 



Htstn, Collie of Sultan, Ganui Sultan Hassan, Cairo, 873, 

914 . . . . . . Ill, 30, 31 E. 

Hilel (Hal), Bent Helaly an Arab people, including the Beni 

Amir, Rie, Sufien and Chusain, 142, 144, 150, 212, 213 . I, 34> 3 £^* 
Holotes, see Elcalut .... 
Hotnar (Omar), Hamar, 504, 624 . vii, 35, 6 W. 

Horam, see Oran .... 
Howar, 504 ; misprint for Homar 
Hubbed (Ubbed) Castle, xx, 486, 607 (x« also Ubbed) . vii, 34, 4 \V. 

Hucben, see Ucba .... 
Humeledegi, see Umeldegi 
Hunein (Unain), Honein, 665, 687, 693 . iv, 35, i W. 

Huroa (Uroa), Uled Hurwa, a tribe of Beniamir Arabs, 142, 

144,212 ..... IV, 35, oE. 

Husein (Usein), UUd Husein, a tribe of Deuimansor Arabs, 

142, 148, 212 . . . IV, 32, 4 W. 

Husein, see El Husein 
Hutmen, see Utmen 

ladog (Jadog), Wad Sebus, 953 

lasliten (Beni Isliten), 796, 814 

lazbachia, Cairo, Esbekiye, 873, 914 • 

lazg^a, see Beni lazga 

Icmim, Ekkminiy 859, 900, 924 

Icuiza (Jeviza), Ivtzza, one of the Baleares, 686 

Idevacal, Western Atlas, 244, 339 

ledir, see Beni ledir .... 

legel, 933 ; misprint for Gegel 

legineseiiy see Beni leginesen . 

lelles (Jelles), the Velles de Gumera of the Spaniards, 519, 

637 . 
lerso, su Beni lerso .... 
lesseten, see Beni lezneten 
lezneteiii see Beni lezneten 
Ifran (Ifren), Ofran, 127, 777, 805 
Ighidi, desert, Igidi, 147, 799 . 
Ighilinsrhighil (Igilingigil), 242, 334 
Ilal, j^^ Hilel .... 

Ilalem, mtn., Ilalem, 256, 349 
Ilda, mtn., 281, 367 . 

Ileusugaghen (Eusugaghen of Marmol), 234-6, 332 
Imbuth, 904 ; misprint for Jambu 
Im^^iagen, south of Elgiumua, cannot be feirly identified 

with Jmagheren, which is east of Imizmizi, 257, 349 
Imizmizi, Amsmiz, 260, 350 . 
Inauen (Inaven), IVad Innauen, 406 
Izli, on river /2/1, 662, 693 . . . 

IV, 36, 7 E. 

IV, 33, 10 E. 
Ill, 30, 31 E. 

I, 26, 31 E. 
- 39, I E. 

V, 30, 9 W. 

VII, 35» 4 W. 

IV, 29, 9 W. 
I, 27, 2 W. 

V, 31, 8 W. 

V, 30, 9 W. 
V, 30. 7 W. 
V, 31, 8 W. 

V, 30, 8 W. 
V, 31, 7 W. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 
IV, 34* 9 W. 



Jadog^, see ladog 

Jambu, Yambu el Bahr^ 903, 904 

Jerusalem, 889 

Jedir, see Beni ledir . 

Jelles, see lelles 

Joseph, see Beni Joseph 

Joseph's Sepulchre, 858 {sec Pharao, city of) 

KairwAn, see Cairaoan 
Kasha, see Casba 

Larache, see Larais . 
Lands (Arais), El Araish, 495, 614, 931 
Lebic, river, the united Tesaut rivers, 928 
Lemta, Auelimmiden, 127, 151, 799, 816 
Lepede, Lebday yyj, 765 
Leuta, 127 ; misprint for Lemta 
Leyata, 800 
Libya, 13, 22, 124, 127 
Loanda, 75» 93» 99^ 
Loango, 76 . . . 

Lttcai, mtn., 528, 641 . 

Luccus, river. Wad el Kus^ 495, 931 
Luntuna, a division of the Sanagia, in Duccala, 
206, 262, 395, 418, 479, 560 

etc, 132, 

Macarmeda, 486, 606 

Machil, Makily an Arah])eople, 142, 145, 150 

Machres, Mahares, 734, 762 . 

Madag^ascar, 20, 90 

Madeira, 107 . 

Mader Auvan (Mader Avuam), <o3, 572 

Madia, see Mahdia . 

Magadazo, Makhdesho, 53 . 

Maghilla, Mghilla^ 421, 612 . 

Mag^ran, mtn., i.e.^ mtn. inhabited by Magraoa to east of 

S^gheme and at head-waters of Ommirabi, 322, 391 
Magraoa (Magraua), Maghrawa, a division of the Zeneta 

Berbers, 132, 206, 659 iv, 35, o 

Magfraua, see Magraoa 
Magrida, see Megerada 
Mag^a, see Magraoa 
Mahdia (Madia), 554 {see also EI Mahdia) 
Mahmora, see Mamora 

Mamora (Mahmora), Maamura or Mehdia^ 409, 581, 930 
Mamun (Memun), 783, 785 . 
Maoebbi, see Menebbe 


I, 24, 37 E. 
IV, 31, 35 K- 

VII, 35» 6 \V. 
IV, 32, 6 W. 
I, 25, 8 E. 
IV, 32, 14 E. 

I, 30, 20 E. 

I,—, — 
-9S., ISE. 
— 4S., 12 E. 

VII, 34, 4 W. 

VII, 35>6W. 

I, 26, 10 W. 
vii, 34, 4 W. 

IV, 34, 10 E. 

— 2oS.,45E. 
1, 33. 17 W. 
IV, 33. 6 W. 

— 2, 45, E. 
VII, 34. 5 W. 

IV, 32, 5 ^V. 

; VI, 32, 4 W. 

VI, 33. 4 W. 

VII, 34, 6W. 
IV, 30, 4 W. 


port of Alexandria, 
Kebir, 66o, 677, 695, 

port of Alexandria, 

142, 145 . 


Manf, see Memphis . 

Manfichmin, 859 ; misprint for Manf, I 

Manf Lot, Manfalut^ 899, 923 

Mansor, see Beni Mansor 

Manaora, El Mansuriay 398, 563 

Marrakesh, see Marocco city . 

Margara, see Matgara of Caus. 

Marin, see Beni Marin 

Marmaricay 22 

Marocco, region, 125, 131, 132, 134, 140, 157, 206, 256, 987 

Marocco, city, Marrakesh^ 262-272, 351 

Marsa, Marsa near Tunis, 726, 755 

Marsa el Borg^ Marsa el Borj, the £. 

862 . 
Marsa Elcabir (Mersalcabir), Marsa el 

997 . 
Marsa Essil, Marsa es Silsele, the wesi 

862 . 
Masila, see Mesila . 
Mastar, a division of the Machil Arabs, 
Matama, 70 
Matar, Mater, 714 . 
Matgara, mtn., in Telensin, 687, 698 
Matgara, mtn., in Caus, S.W. oiTtiSLy Jehel Ghiata (hut see 

Gauata), 546, 651 
Matgara (Metgara), Mdaghra, 148, 215 
Mauritania, 21 
Mazagan, Mazagan, 379 
Mazalig, 7^7) 810 . 
Mazandran, province on Caspian, 889 
Mazua, Massaua, 27, 109 
Maziina, 681, 697 
Mecca, 896, 903 

Mechella, MehallU el Kebir, 869, 912 
Mechellat Cais, Mehallet Kessy 870, 913 
Mecnasa, a tribe of Zeneta, the founders of Mecnase, 132, 206 
Mecnase (Mecnes, Mequinez), Meknasa, 144, 412, 584-7 
Mecnes, see Mecnase 
Medina (Medina Talnabi, Elmadina), Medinet en Nebiy in 

Arabia, 417, 889, 903 . 
Medina, see Elmadin and Almedin 
Medra, Mandara, 128, 199 . 
Mediia, El Medea, 685, 698 . 
Mefab, 127 ; misprint for Mesab 
Megerada (Magrida), river, Mejerda, 22, 714, 933 
Megesa, mtn. and tribe, 547, 651 
Meggeo, 535, 645 . 

782, 808, 935 


I, 27, 30 K. 
IV, 33, 7 W. 

I, 30, 25 E. 
V, 31. 7 W. 
V, 31, 7 W. 
IV, 36, 10 E. 

II, 31, 29 E. 

IV, 35. o ^' 
II, 31, 29 E. 

IV, 30, 6 W. 

— ioS.,i8E. 
IV, 37, 9 E. 
IV, 34, I W. 

VII, 37, 3 W. 
IV, 31, 4 W. 

IV, 33, 8 W. 
IV, 31, 2 W. 

— 36, 52 E. 
I, 15, 39 E. 
IV, 36, o E. 

I, 21, 40 E. 

II, 30,31 E. 
II, 30, 30 E. 

VII, 34, 5 W. 

— 24, 34 E. 

I, II, 14 E. 
IV, 36, 2 E. 

IV, 36, 9 E. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 
VII, 35, 3 W. 



Meher, see Beni Megher 

Mejes (Meies), mtn., the E«istern extremity of the Atlas, rnay 

safely be identified with Ras el Melha and the Akabat el 

Kebir^ 123 
Mela, Milahy 708, 749 
Mele^hete, is Amomum Meleguetta RosCy or A. granum para 

disi, which grows on the ** Grain Coast" of Guinea, 87 
Melela (Mellela, Melelain) Melilla, 533, 643, 644 . 
Meliana, Miliaiuiy 144, 211, 680, 696 
Melinde, 31, 55 . 

MelleUy see Melela .... 
Melli (Melle), kingdom, 125, 128, 133, 134, 201, 823, 841 
Melula (Mululo) river, a tributary of the Muluia, Melille^ 532, 

540, 931 
Memphis (ManO, Manf, 859, 897, 91 1 
Memun, see Mamun 
Menebbe (Manebbi), Uled Menebba^ a tribe of Deuimansor 

Arabs, 145, 212 
Meniuniy 785 ; misprint for Memum {see Manum) 
Meramer» 297, 381 
Meraien, see Beni Merasen 
Merdez» a tribe of Zenata, near Bona, 708 
Merg^o, Zawiya of Sidi MergOy 500, 621 
Merniza, mtn., 527, 641 
Meroe, 29, 32 
Meraalcabir, see Marsa 
Meraalquibir, same as Marsa Elcabir 
Mesab (Meszab), Mzab, 127, 790, 811 
MesellaU, 127, 775, 804 
Mesetazza, mtn., 558, 655 . 
Mesgalda, see Beni Mesgalda 
Mesila (Masila), Msila, 144, 214, 70a, 746, 792 
Mesrata (Mestrata), Masrata, 127, 775, 804 . 
Mesre, see Egypt 
Mesre atichi, su Misruletic . 
Messa, Masay 123, 146, 244, 248-50, 341 
Mestrata, see Mesrata 
Meszab» see Mesab . 
Metg^ara, see Matgara 
Meth, Maid or Mehet^ Somalilandy 983 
Mettegia, Afetija, 682, 932 
Mezag^ran, see Mezzagran 
Mezdag:a, 552, 652 . 
Mezemme, Mtemmay 520, 638 
Mezgana (Beni Mosgana of Marmol), 682 
Mezzagran (Mezagran), Mazagrany 677, 695, 932 
Michias, el Mikyasy the Nilometer at Cairo, 879, 91 1 


I, 31 » 25 E. 
IV, 36, 6 E. 

I, 6, 10 W. 
VII, 35, 2 W. 
IV, 36, 2 E. 
— 35» 40 E. 

I. 14, 5 W. 

VII, 34, 3 W. 

II, 29, 31 E. 

IV, 32, 8 W. 

IV, 36, 7 E. 
VII, 34, 4 W. 
VII, 34, 4 \V. 
I, 16, 33 E. 

IV, 33, 4 E. 
IV, 32, 14 E. 
IV, 32, 3 W. 

IV, 35, 4 E- 
IV, 32, 15 E. 

V, 30, 9 W. 



47 E. 






, 4W 












31 E. 

INDEX. I095 


Mifrulhetich, 877 ; misprint for Misruletic . . — 

Mina river, IVad Miruiy 932 . . . . iVt 3S> o E. 
Misruletic (Mesre atichi, Fustato), Masr el Attka, or Fostat, 

858, 877» 906 . . . Ill, 29, 31 E. 

Mogador, 33^. . v, 31, 9 W. 
Mohenemngi, Mwene Muji, ** Lord of the villages*', old title 

oi i\\t r}j\&[ oi Maravi land, do . . — 155, 34 £. 

Mokattam, mt., see £1 Mucatun — 

Mombasa, 56, 89 . • — 3» 39 E- 

Monaster, Monastir, 727, 756 ... iv, 35, 10 E. 

Monfia, yl/a/ia, 89 . . . — 7S.,39E. 
Monomota|>a, the Empire of the Mwene Mtapa, to the South 

of the Zambezi, 62, 985, 1060 . . . — 18 S., 32 E. 

Moon, mountains of the, 16, 106, 936 . . — 
Moores, tawny, the ** White Africans" of the original edition, 

130 . , . . . . — 

Morocco, see Marocco .... — 

Mozambique, 58, 89 .... — i4S.,4oE. 
Muallaca (Muhallaca), a village three miles S. of Old Cairo, 

and therefore if^ /^^/Bwif, 897, 922 . . . 1 1, 29, 31 E. 

Mucatun, see El Mucatun . . . . — 

Muhaisira, see Munaisira .... — 

Muhallaca, see Muallaca . . . . — 

Muluia river, Muluya, 931, 393 •• • vi, 34, 3 W, 

Mululu river, see Melulo .... — 

Muluna, 931 ; misprint for Muluia . — 
Munaisira (Muhaisira), 30 m. East (South ?) of Cairo, and 

therefore not El Masarah, 898, 922 • l> 29, 31 E. 

Munia, Minieky 898, 923 . . i, 28, 30 E. 

Munsia, El Menshiyehy^i, 926 . i, 26, 31 E. 
Muslim (Mussim), Bern Msellen, a tribe of Beniamir Arabs, 

142, 144, 212 . . . . . IV, 35, 4 E. 

Musmuda, a Berber people in Maiocco, 130, 131 . iv, 31, 9 W. 

Mussim, see Muslim . — 

Mustnganim, Aiostaganem, 144, 677, 696, 932 • iv, 35, o E. 

Nabel, see Napoli .... 

Nafissa, Sepulchre of St., Cairo ; Sitte Nefise, 877, 915 

Nanfre, 871, misprint for Nansre i^Nasr), see Babe Nansre 

Nansre, see Babe Nansre 

Ni^K>li (Neapolis, Nabel), Nabele ; 725, 755 

Naranj^ia, 502, 622 

Namia, Nami, near Rome, 680 

Neapolis, see Napoli . 

Necaus, Ngaus, 702, 746 

Ned Roma, Nedroma, 644, 693 , 

HI, 30, 31 E. 

IV, 36, 10 E. 
vii, 34, 5 W. 
— 41, 12 E. 

IV, 35, 5 E. 
IV, 35, I W. 



Nefifa, mtn. (Nififa). Leo places these mountains to the west 
of the Sesaua river and the Semede mountains, and 
they cannot therefore be the mountains' at the head of the 
Niffis (Nifisi river, 256. 275, 362 

Nefisa, 256, misprint for Nefifa 

Ncfreia, 127, misprint for A'.^^/wa 

Nefta, Nefta, 127, 197, 793, 813 

Ne£aoa, Neftaua, 127, 796, 814 

Negroes, Land of, Sudan ; 124, 127, 8z^ 

Nesreot, 127, misprint for Neftaoa 

Nesta, 127, misprint for Nefta 

Niffis, river, Wad Nifisy 927 (compare Nefife) 

Nififa, 275, sec Nefifa 

Niger, 17, 134, 128, 179, 196, 820, 822. Pory's translation 
Toi the passage, p. 124, is very inaccurate. Leo says, in 
fi(U:t : " The Niger rises from a very large lake in the 
desert of the Seu in the east, and flows westward into the 
Ocean ; and our Cosmographers assert that it is a branch 
of the Nile, which flows underground, and on issuing forms 
the Lake referred to. Others assert that this river rises in 
some mountains in the West, flows East and forms a 
lake. Such however, is not the case, for we navigated it 
with the current from Timbuktu to Ghinea and Melli, 
which are to the West of Timbuktu." Leo thus evidently 
held the view that the Niger was the Upper Senegal, and 
did not anticipate Reichard's hypothesis, as suggested by 
Dr. Brown (p. 196). His account, moreover, renders his 
claim to haying visited Ghinea and Melli very doubtful 

Nile, 17, 31. 93S 863 ; delta, 855 ; floods, 860 . 

Nilometer, see Michias 

Ninou, is Nineveh on the Tigris 

Nocor, river, Nkur, jao, 538, 635 

Nubia (Nube), Nubia ; 28, 128, 134, 836, 852, 904, 1052 

Nuchaila (Nucaila), Nkheila, 398, 563 . 

Nufiisa, mtn., Jebel Nefus ; 743, 771 . 

Numidia, 22, 124, za6, 131, 139 

Nun, region, Wad Nun ; 123, 124, 147, 194, 800, 816 

Oea, 767, now Tripolis, q,v. . 

Ofran, see Ifran 

Omar, see Homar .... 

Ommirabi, Umm er RaHa^ 283, 290, 393,' 928 '^ 

Oran (Horam), Oran, 144, 660, 675, 695 

Pearls, river of, flows past Per, 930 

Pemba, 89 ... . 

Pennon (Pelion), 997, opposite Velles de Gumera, q,v. 


V, 30, 9 ^V. 

IV, 33. 7 E- 
IV, 33» 9 E. 
I, 15. o 

V, 31, 7 W. 

I. 16, 3 W. 
I, 18,31 E. 

VII, 35. 3 W. 
I, 20, 33 E. 
IV, 32, 7 W. 
IV, 31, 72 E. 
I, — — 
IV, 29, 10 N. 

IV, 32, 7 W. 
IV, 35, o W. 

VII, 34, 4 W. 

INDEX. 1097 

Ptrztgrtgt 134, sg€ Zegreg . . . . — 

Pescara, Bisira, 127, 197, 792, 872 . . iv, 34, 5 E. 

Pharao, City of, is identical with Rameses or Pithom, but 
Leo places it in the Fayyum^ and near it, Joseph's 

Sepulchre (com p. Aptun), 858, 906 . . . i, 29, 30 E. 

Pharao*s Palace, Ksar Faraotty near ancient Volubilis ; 490, 

610 . . . . . VII, 34, 5 W, 

Philippeville, see Sucaicada . . . . — 

Picos fragosos, perhaps the Rocks of Pungo Ndonga in An- 

gola, 16, 106 . . . . . — 
Pidar, town on Somali coast, between Zeila and Berbera, 983 — 
Pietra RossAiDar-eZ-I/amra), ruins of Tocolosida,49i,6i2 viii, 34, 5W. 
Pipeiis, Hospital of Sultan, Cairo, 873, 914 in. 30, 31 E, 
Prete Gianni (Prester John), the Emperor of Higher Ethi- 
opia, or AhysHnia^ 30, 41, 125, 195, 974-85, 1021, 1030. 1, ii, 37 E. 
Pyramids, Egypt, 858, 896 . .11, 29, 31 E. 

Quadela b id (Guadelabid, Habid, Fiume dei Servi, Semam), 

Wad el Abidy or Slave River, 130, 283, 297, 928 • iv, 32, 5 \V. 

Quadres, vaXxi,,/ebel Wad RaSy 515, 634 . vii, 35, 5 W. 

Qiiillimanci, river, Tatta, 51 . . — 2S.,4oE. 

Quiloa, Kilwa, 56, 89 . — 9 S., 39 E. 

Qniwiniai Kisama, 72 . — 9S., 13E. 

Rabat (Rebat), Rabat, 401, 564-8, 929 - • Vil, 34, 9 W. 

Racmen, Rehamna, a tribe of Deuihessen Arabs, 142, 147, 

212 . . . . . . IV, 29, 7 \V. 

Rahona (Raona), mivi,,Jebel Rahona, 512, 633 . . vii, 35, 5 W. 

Raona, see Rahona .....— 

Rasid, see Rosetta ..... — 

Razin, see Beni Razin .... — 

Rebat, see Rabat .....— 

Recheda, Rakkada, near Cairaoan, 732, 760 iv, 35, lo E. 

Red Sea, 24, 85 . . . i, 20, 40 E. 

RejH'agaCAegraga), tribe in Hea, 247, 340 . v, 31, 9 W. 

Reteb (Retebbe), Reteb, 148, 783, 808, 935 . iv, 31, 4 W. 

Retel, misprint for Reteb .... — 

Rie (Riech), Riahy a division of the Hilel Arabs, 142, 145, 212, iv, 35. 8 E. 
Riff, Egypt, see Erriff . . . . — 

Rosetta (Rasid), Er Rashidy 856, 865, 910 . li, 31, 30 E. 

Ruche, UUd Rukty a tribe of Mastar Arabs, 142, 145, 212 . iv, 31. 5 \V. 

Saba, Sabaim, capital ot Abyssinia, supposed residence of the 

Queen of Saba, 30, 978 . . . . — 

Sabi, see Beni Sabi . . - - 

Sablel Marga (Sahblel Marga), Sahab el Marga, 554, 653 . vi, 33, 4 W. 
Saffi, see Azafi ..... 


1 098 


Sahblel, ^^d Sablel . 

Sahid, see Said 

Sahidim, see Saiditna 

Said (Sahid), Uled Said, a division of the Cachin Arabs, 142, 

I43»2ii . . . I, 31, 5E. 

Said (Assaid, Sahid), Said, Upper Egypt, 856, 857 
Siaid, see Beni Said .... 
Saidima (Sahidim, Uled Sdima), Shedtna, a tribe of Hilel 

Arabs, 145 .... 

St. Georg^e (Georgia, Giorgio), a monastery near Girgeh, 901 

925 . 
St Hdena, 92 

St Laurence, Madagascar, 999 
St Thomas, 93 

San Salvador, capital of Congo, 73 
Sais, see Eseis 
Sala, see Sela 

Salir, port on Somali Gjast, 983 
Sanag^ (Sanhagia, Zanaga, Zanega, Zenega, Sanhagi), San 

haja, a Berber people in the Western Sahara, 127, 130, 

131, 132, 133, 146, 154, 205, 320, 559, 780, 797, 965 
Sanhag^ia, see Sanagia. 
Sanhaja, see Sanagia 
Santa Cruz, 987, see Gartguessen 
Sarman, Aserman, 2, 773, 803 
Sarra, or Libya, Sahara, 84, 124, 127 
Schachin, see Cachin 
Sebta, see Septa 
Sebu, see Subu 

Secsiua (Sesiua), mtn., Seksaua, 278, 363 
Seffaja, river (Sessaia, a misprint). Wad Harrask, 932 
Sefsaua, see Sesseua 

Sefsif, river at Telensin, Wad Safsaj, 669, 694 
Seg^elmessa {Sijilmasiyah), Meditrnt ul Amira, the capital of 

TafUeU, 126, 127, I45» I97. 728, 759, T^O^T^, 7^4, 806, 

807, 935, 991 • 
Scg:g:hemc, mtn., 320, 391 • 
Sela (Sala), Said, 144, 406, 407, 573-80, 929 
Sela, Sheila, 403, 518-72 
Sele, 932 ; misprint for Selef . 
Selef(Sele), «'W6i4«'fy, 932 
Selelg:o (Selilgo), mtn., 530, 651, 930 . 
Selilgo, see Selelgo 

Selim, Uled Slim, a tribe of Mastar Arabs, 142, 146, 212 
Semede (Semmeda), mtn., 276. 362. 
Semmeda, see Semede 
Semmenud, Samanud, 861 


IV, 36, 10 E. 
I, 27, 30 E. 

V, 31, 9 W. 

I, 26, 31 E. 

— i6S.,4W. 

— 2oS.,45E. 

— oN.,6E. 

— 6S., 15 E. 

— II, 48 E. 
I, 22, 12 W. 

IV, 32, 12 E. 

V, 30. 8 W. 
IV, 36, 3 E. 

IV, 34, I W. 

IV, 30, 4 W. 
IV, 32, 5 W. 
VII, 34, 6 W. 
VII, 34, 6 W. 

IV, 36, I E. 
IV, 33, 4 W. 

IV, 29, 6 W. 

V, 30, 8 W. 

II, 30, 31 E. 



V, 31, 8W. 

vn, 35» 5 W, 

Sen, desert oi ; misprint for Seu, q, v, . 
SvaajgK^ Senegal, i8, 8i . i, i6, 15 \V. 

Septa (Sebta), Ceuta, 504, 509, 629-31 . . vii, 35, 5 W. 

Serael, Shershel, 679, 696 . • iv, 36, 2 E. 

Serte (Sert), Sort, with Meditut Sultan, 801, 817 . . iv, 31, 17 E. 

Senuun, 130; a mistranslation of 'fiume dei Servi% see 

Servi, fiume dei, see Quadelabid 
Sesiiia, see Secsiua and Sessaua 
Sessaia, 932 ; misprint for Seffaja 
Se88etia(Sessera,Seusaua, Sedsaua), river, Skishaua, 257, 276. 

Set, 832 ; apparently a misprint for Seu, and not connected 

either with Lake Tsade or the Eastern Sahara 
Setif, see Ste^e 

Seusaon (Seusaon), mtn., Sheshauen, 524, 640 
Seusaua, river, see Sesseua 

Seusaua, mtn., at source of Seusaua (Sesseua) river, 277, 362 
Seu (Sen, Set and Sin, are misprints), the So or Seu, the old 

ruling people in what is now Bomu, to the south and west 

of Lake Tsade (Nachtigal, ii, 444 ; Barth, Reise, ii, 333), 

17, 124, 173, 192, 221, 832 .. . 

SfaZ| see Asfacus ..... 
Shame, castle of (La Vergogna), 491, 612 
Sierre Leone, 16, 80 

Sifelmel, see Asifelmel .... 

Siffaia, river, 246, 340, is evidently the same as Sesseua, 

Shishaua, and perhaps a misprint . . . v, 31, 8 W. 

Sin, Sinites, 173, seems to be a misprint for Seu, q. v. . — 

Sinai, mount, 897 . . . . i, 28, 34 E. 

. Sinai, port of, 7ur not Sutz, 879, 915 . . i, 28, 34 E. 

Sinites, j^ Sin . . — 

Sisa, Sissa, near Parma, in Italy, 324 — 44, 10 E. 

Soara (Azagues of Marmol), Zuara, a Berber tribe, dispersed 

throughout Barbary, 161, 218 . . • iv, 35, i E. 

Sobair, see Subeir ..... — 

Socotera, Sokotra, 86, 1051 . . — 12, 52 E. 

Sofala, 58 ..... — 2oS.,34E. 

Soforo, xii, is SfrUt to the south of Fez . — 

Sofroi, Sfru, 522, 652 ... . VII, 34, 4 W. 

Stefe, SeHf, 702, 746 ... . iv, 36, 5 E. 

Suachin (Suachen), Suakin, 27, 30, 86, 837, 904 . I, 19, 37 E. 

Suaid, UledSaid,& tribe of Rie Arabs, 142, 145, 212 iv, 35, i E. 

Subeica, Sueka, Tj^, 772 . . iv, 32, 14 E. 

Subeir (Sobair), a tribe of Etegi Arabs, 142, 211 . . iv, 34, i W. 

Subeit, 290, 375 ..... iv, 33, 8 W. 
Subu (Sebu) river. Wad Sebu, 406, 409, 550, 930 . . . vii, 34, 6 W. 

4 A 2 

I, II, 13 E. 

VII, 34, 5 W. 
I, 8, 13 W. 



Sucaicada, Skidda, the modern PkilipprvilU, 704, 748 
Suez, 25, 29 . 

Sufegmare (Sufgmare), river at Constantine, now known as 
Runwul, and in its lower course as Wad-el-K^ir^ 705, 

933 • 
Sufgmare, see Sufegmare 
SufietXt a division of the Hilel Arabs, 142, 212 
Sugaiila (Essuoaihila), 785, 809, 935 . 
Sultan's Sepulchres, Cairo, now known as the Tombs of the 

Mamluksy 858, 915 
Sumait, ^ division of the Cachin Arabs, 142, 143, 211 
Sungai, Songhai, 134, 209, 821 
Sus, Sus, 125, 131, 136, 147, 245, 24856, 987 
Sus, river of, PVad Sus, 934 
Susa, Stisa, 727, 756 .. . 

• Suscgmare, misprint for Sufegmare 
Syene, Asuan, 903, 925, comp. Asna and Assuan . 
Syria, Soria, 889, 891 .. . 

Tabraca, Tabarka^ 933 • 

Tafilelt, see Segelmessa 

Tafrata, desert, Tafrata, 540, 647, 931 . 

Taganot, Tagant, 147 

Taganost, 147, is a misprint for Taganot, the desert of which, 
according to the Italian version, is inhabited by the Amr 
or Haniram, who also levy tribute upon the people of 
Tagavost ..... 

Tagauost (Tagavost), not identified. R^nou suggests a 
village Tarabust, whilst Pacheco {Esmeraldo, p. 36) states 
that Tagavost is within two leagues of Cape Nun, 255, 

IV, 36, 6 E. 
I, 29, 32 E. 

IV, 36, 6 E. 

IV, 30, 4 W. 

III, 30, 31 E. 

IV, 32, 13 E. 
1, 16, 3. 

V, 30, 9 W. 
V, 30, 9 W. 
IV, 35, 10 E. 

I, 24, 32 E. 

IV, 36, 83 

VII, 34, 2 W. 
IV, 29, 9 W. 

Tagheza, see T^;aza 
Tagia (Thagia), 401, 572 
Tagiora (Taiora), Tajura, 774, 803 
Tagodast, 301, 310, 384 
Tagtessa, 238* 333 • 
Tailon, see Genu Tailon 
Taijeut, see Teijent . 
Taiora, su Tagiora . 
Tamaracost, Tamrakesht, 781, 808 
Tamaracroft, 781, misprint for Tamaracost 
Tangera, see Tangia 
Tangia (Tangera, Tingis), Tanjay 506, 513, 627 
Tang^ers, see Tangia 
Tansor, 501, 621 

Taolacca (Teolacha), Tolga, 127,793, 813 
Targa, see Terga 

IV, 29, 9 W. ; or 29, 10 W. 

IV, 33, 6 W. 

— 11,43 K- 

IV, 32, 13 E. 

V, 31.9W. 

IV, 32, 4 \V. 

vn, 35, 5 W. 

vn, 34, 5 W. 
IV, 34, 5 E. 



Tarodant, Tarudani, 252, 344, 989 

Tasrata, 931, misprint for Tafrata 

Tazarot (Tesrast), 261, 351, 989 

Tebecrit, Takebrit, 664, 693 . 

Tebelbdt (Tebelbet), Tabelbalet, 127, 147, 197,786, 813 

Tebessa, Ttbesse, 710, 751, 633 

Tebuhasan (Tebuasan), 783 . 

Tecort (Techort), see Tegort . 

Teculet, 232-3, 328 . 

Teddeles, Dellys, 686, 698 . 

Tedelles, j/rTedle 

Tedgear, 149, misprint for Tegdemt 

Tcdle(Tedles, Tedelles), Tedla, 125, 142, 149, 215, 292, 297 

3". 389 ... . 

Tednest, 230-2, 327, 989 . 

Tedsi, 30 miles E. of Tarudant, 254, 323, 347 

Telas, Tiffesh, 710. 

Tcfclfdt, ^tf^/i^/, 418, 584 

Tefesra, 15 miles E. of Telensin, 672, 695 

Tcfctnc, Tefetne, 243, 337 . 

Teffct, 126, 147, misprint for Tesset 

Tefne (Tefme), river, Tafna^ 932, 662 . 

Tefza, capital of Tedla, 311, 388. It cannot be Kasha 

Tedla^ unless we reject Leo's very iletailetl description 

Teg:a88a, Tighissa, 520, 638 ... 

Tes^aza, salt mine, certainly in the western Sahara, to the 

north of the route leading from Arguin to Wadan, and in 

all probability the near Sabkha Jjil. Ibn Batuta's Tegaza 

(Tekadda) lies to the S.W. of Agadez (J. Rodriguez ap. 

Kunstmann, HafuUlsverb, mit TtmbuctUt 187 ; Pacheco, 

EsmtraldOy 43; Barth, Reise^ iv, 616), 117, 798, 800, 

816, 829 ... . 

Tegfdemt, Takdemt, 684 . . 

Tesforarin, Guraray 789, 790, 810 

Tegort (Tecort, Techort), Tuggurt, 790, 791, 799, 811 

Teguat (Tegua, Tuath), Tuat, 127, 299 . 

Teijeut in Hea (Marmol's Techevit), 336, 332 

Teijeut (Teiyeut), on River Sus, and consequently not Tisuit 

250.343 .... 

Tdeb (Theleb), Uied Taalba, a tribe of Deuiubaidulla Arabs 

142, 149, 212 . 
Telensiii (Tremizen, Caesarea) TUmsen, kingdom, 21, 131, 
132, 134, 143. I44» 145. I49» 158, 1641 I75» 207-8, 659- 
689,691 . 

Telensm (Tremizen), TUmsm, 271, 632, dtij-^, 694 
Temendesust ; misprint for Temendefust 
Temendez, ae Tenueues .... 

V, 30, 8 W. 

V, 31. 8 W. 

IV, 34, 9 W- 
IV, 34, I W. 

»v, 35. 8 K. 
IV, 30, 4 VV. 

v,3i, 8 W. 
IV, 36, 3 E 

IV, 32, 6 W. 

V, 3i,8W 
V, 30, 8 W. 

IV, 36, 7 E 
VII, 34, 6 \V. 

V, 31.9 W. 

IV, 35. I W. 
IV, 32. 5 W 

I, 22, 12 W. 
IV, 35, I E. 
I, 28, o W. 
IV, 33. 6 E. 

IV, 17, o E. 
VI, 31, 9 W. 

V, 30. 9 W. 
IV, 35. 3 E. 

IV, 35, O. 
IV, 34, I W. 



Temendfust (Temendefust), Bori Trtmendefu^, 686, 698, 

932 ■ . . . . . IV, 36, 3 E. 

Temeracost, 291, 376 ... . iv, 33, 7 W. 

Temesna, Temsna, 126, 131, 162, 206, 394 • . iv, 33, 7 W. 

Temian, supposed to be a corruption of Lemlem, or Nyemn- 

yem, terms applied to the heathen tribes of the Sudan, 

128, 199 . . . . . I, 10, 8 E. 

Temnella, see Tenmelle .... — 

Tcmzegzct, on Tefne River, 662, 692 . . . iv, 31, i W. 

Tenegent, Tanijut, 782, 808 , . iv, 30, 4 W. 

Tenesse, ancient Tanis^ 856, 861, 906 . . 11, 30, 31 E. 

Tenez, Teties, 126, 144, 680, 697 .. . iv, 36, i E. 

Tenezza (Tenessa) 258 . . . v, 31, 8 W. 

Tenmelle (Temnella), S. of Imizmizi, 279, 363 . . v, 31, 7 W. 

Tensift, Wai Temift, 224, 247, 256, 262, 256, 927 . v, 31, 8 W. 

Tenueues (Marmol's Temendez), mtn., 305, 385 . . v, 30, 6 W. 

Tenzera, see Demensera . . — 

Tenzita (Tensita), Rohlfs' Tansitha on the Dara, 305, 308, 

385 • • • • • • IV, 30, 5 W. 

Teoirag^a (Teoreggu), Marmol's Taurca, Tauargha^ not 

Tegerry, 127, 729, 796,814 . . iv, 32, 15 E. 

Teolacha, see Taolacca .... — 

Teoreggu, see Teoiragga .... — 

Teozar, see Teuser ..... — 

Terga in Duccala, 291, 376 . • iv, 32, 7 W. 

Terga in Riff, Targai, 516, 636 . • VI I, 35, 5 \V. 

Terga (Targa), Tuareg, 127, 151, 198, 216, 798, 815 . 1, 22, 6 E. 

Terrest, TkVwifj/.? 931 .... iv, 33, 3 W. 

Tesarote, see Tazarot .... — 

Tesebit (Tsabit), Tsahit, 127, 197, 788, 789, 810 . . i, 28, o W. 

Tesegdelt, 237-8, 241, 332 • • v, 31, 9 W. 

Teserin, see Tezerin .... — 

Teseuin (Teseuhin), plural of Tesauty viz., Tesaut el Fukia 

and Tesaut el Tahtia, 310, 387, 928 . . . v, 31, 6 W. 

Teseuon (Marmol's Tescevin), same as Teseuin, but applied to 

two mountains, 310, 387, 938 . . . v, 31, 6 W. 

Teseut, river Tesaut {see also Teseuin and Teseuon), 281, 

387,928 ..... V, 3i,6\V. 

Tesme, misprint for Tefne .... — 

Tesrat, see Tazarot ..... — 

Tessela, 673, 695 . . . . . iv, 35, o W. 

Tesset, Tish>t in Aderer and not Tezzut in Algeria, 126, 127, 

147, 197, 77^ 805 . . . . I, 19, 8 W. 

Tetteguin, Tituan^ 510, 631-3 . . . vii, 35, 5 W. 

Tetuan, see Tetteguin . . . . — 

Teurerto, Caus, Taurirt . . . vii, 34, 2 W. 

Teuser (Teozar, Teusar), Tnzer^ 127, 197, 794, 813 . iv, 33, 8 E. 


1 103 

Teuzin, see Bcni Teuzin . , 

Teza, Tezay 545, 648-50 

Tezarin (Beni Tiziran of Mannol), 525, 640 

Tezerghe, Tsaguts or Tagarsui ? 557, 654 

Tezerin (Teserin), ToMarin, 786 

Tezzota, 534, 645 . 

Tfabit, 127 ; misprint for Tsabit {see Tesebit) 

Thagia, see Tagia .... 

Thebe (Tebe), Thebes, 867/907, 926 

Theleb, see Teleb .... 

Tig^remahon, Tigre makttnen, title of the Chief of Tigre, 

Tig^umedet, in Dara, 988 . 
Ting^, z\, see Tangia 
Tit. TU, 288, 373 . 
Tobulba, Tebulba, 728, 756 . 
Todga (Todgatan), Wad Todqa, 127, 147, 197, 786 
Togat, min,, JeM Taghat, 493, 613 
Tombutto, Tumbutu and Timbuktu, 124, 128, 133, 134, 146, 

I73» 255» 798» 820, 822, 824, 842 
Tremizen, see Telensin 

Tripolis in Barbary, Tarcdmlus, 126, 134, 139, 737, 767 
Tripolis, Old, Kuins, 737, 766 
Troglodytica, western coast-land of Red Sea, 26, 27 
Tsabit, see Tesebit .... 
Tsana, see Barcena 

Tuat, see Teguat .... 
Tumeglast (Tumelgast), 260, 350 
Tuggpirt, 81 1, Jif^ Tegort 

Tunis, Tunis, 126, 134, 141, 145, 162, 271, 699, 7x6, 753 
Tunis, mountains of, 743 
Tunis, 144 ; misprint for Tenes 


vn, 34, 8 W. 
VII, 35» 5 W. 
VI, 33» 4 W. 
IV, 30, 5 W. 
vn, 35, 2 \V. 

I, 25, 32 E. 

I, 14, 39 E. 

V", 35» 5 W. 
IV, 33» 8 W. 
IV, 35, 10 E. 
IV, 3i» 5 W. 
VII, 34, 5 W. 

I, 16, 3 W. 

IV, 32, 13 E. 
IV, 32, 12 E. 

V, 3i,8W. 
IV, 36, 10 E. 

Ubbed (Hubbed), El Abbad, near Telensin, 672, 694 

Ubbed, near Fez, see Hubbed 

Ucba (Hucben), Uled Okba, a tribe of Beniamir Aral)s, 142. 

242 .... 
Umeldegi (Humeledegi), 785, 809 
Umelhesen (Umelhefen), 785, 809 
Umen Giunaibe, Umjeniba, 558, 654 . 
Unain, see Honein . 

Urbs, ruins on Jebel Orbes, 162, 217, 7x2, 752, 933. 
Uroa, see Huroa 
Usein, see Husein 
Utmen (Hutmen, Uled Othanna), a division Oi the Machil 

Arabs, including the*£lhasin and Qiinana, 142, 212 

IV, 34, I W. 

IV, 36, 2 E. 
IV, 30, 4 W. 
IV, 30, 4 W. 
VI, 33. 4 W. 

IV, 36, 8 E 



Vague (Vangue), Wn^, so . . . 

Vela, port at entrance of Red Sea, perhaps Beilul . 

Velles de Gumera of the Spaniards, 517, 637, 997, icxx) 

Vergogna, La, see Shame, Castle of 

Vode (Vodein) Udaya, a tribe of Deuihessen Arabs, 146, 147 

212 ..... 
Volubilis, see Gualili 

Wad Nun, see Nun .... 
Walata, 798, 815 ; see Gualata 
Walili, 607 ; see Gualili 
Wargla, 791 ; see Guargala 


1, 12, 38 E. 
I, 12, 42 E. 
viJ, 35» 4 W. 

I, 20, 18 W. 

Xarquia {Skarkiye)^ Esk-Sharkiye^ the East (of Morocco) as 

distinguished from El Gharhiye, the West, 990 
Xoa, Shooj 30 

Za, river, WadZa, 539, 646, 931 

Zab (Zeb, Ezzab), Zab^ plur. Ziban^ 126, Z27, 197, 792, 812, 

932, 933 
Zagoan, mtn.,y<f^^/Za^A»fl«, 742, 771 
Zaire, 19, 73 
Zambezi, river, see Cuama 
Zanaga, see Sanagia 
Zanega, see Sanagia 
Zanfara, Zanfara, 128, 831, 850 
Zanhaga, desert of, 727 ; see Sanagia 
Zanzibar, 54, 89 . 
Zanzor, Zenzur^ 774, 803 
Zarfa, 405, 572 
Zarhon, see Zerhun . 
Zaron, see Zerhan . 
Zarual, see Beni Zarual 
Zauia, ue,y Zawiya^ 487, 607 
Zaviat Ben Jariiu, 774, 803 
Zeb, see Zab 
Zebit, in Arabia, 983 
Ztgztg, Zegzeg, 831 
Zeijen, see Beni Zeijen 
Zeila, 52, 983 

Zelag, rci\Xi.,/ebel Zelagk, 489, 607 
Zembre, lake, Zambeziy perhaps Nyasa^ I7> 51 
Zenega, see Sanagia . 
Zeneta, a division of the Berbers, 130, 131, 541, 560, 780 
Zerhun (Zarhon, Z»xovi)j Jebel Zerhun y 488, 607 
Zeug^tana, Tunis, 122 

I, 10, 39 E. 

VI, 35» 2 W. 

IV, 34, 6 Is. 
IV, 36, 10 E. 
— 15S., 2E. 

I, 12, o E. 

IV, 32, 13 E. 
IV, 33. 5 W. 

VII, 34, 4 W. 
IV, 32, 13 E. 

I, 14, 43 W. 
I, II, 7E. 

I, II, 43E- 
VII, 34, 4 W. 

vii, 34, 5 W. 
I, 36, 10 E. 



Zibid is evidently a misprint, for Zibid {Zebid) is in Arabia 
(1, 14, 43 W.) ; Leo's Zibid, opposite Jidda* is undoubtedly 
identical with Edrisi's Aidab, the ruins of which have 
recently been discovered by Mr. Bent to the north of Ras 
Elba, 837 .... . 

Zi&tm, Jidda, 837, 853, 904 . 

Zin^ani ('gypsies'), a predatory tribe, which Dr. Barth 
{Reise, ii, 339) is inclined to identify with the Nghizim, 
between Coder and Bomu, 837, 853 
Ziz, near Wad Zizy 780-2, 935 
Ziz, mountains, at head of River Ziz, 558, 655 
Zoaoa, Zuatmy a Berber tribe in modem Kabylia, 740 
Zoara in Tripolis, Zuagha el Gharbiye, 736, 765 . 
Zuaga (Zuagh), Sheragha, a tribe of Zenata in W. Fez, 415 

592 . 
Zuagh, see Zuaga .... 
ZuaUa, see Bab Zuaila 
Zuair (Zuhair), Zaer, Arab tribe, 382 
ZuaiT (Zuhair), in plains of Aseis and Adecsen, perhaps same 

as the Zuaga, 494, 613 
Zuetudgas, see Guanziga 
Zuhair, j^^ Zuair .... 


I, 22, 36 E. 
I, 21, 39 E. 

I, W. 14 E. 
IV, 3^ 4 W. 
IV, 32, 4 W. 
IV, 36, 4 E. 
IV, 32, 12 E. 

VI, 34, 5 W. 

IV, 33, 6 W. 





'Abd Allah, King of Granada, 409 
'Abd Allah (Habdulla), King of 

Tremizen, 661 
'Abd cl-*Aziz (Habdulhaziz), son of 

Abu Fdres, 699 
'Abd el-Hakk, Marinide king, 271, 

505, 510 (in this place erroneously 

called last of the dynasty), 539 
'Abd cl-Melik, the Khalif, 730, 759 
'Abd el-Mikmen el-MowAhidi, King 

of Morocco, 262, 263, 265 ; lays 

si^e to Marrakesh, 266 ; 403, 405 ; 

captures Tunis, 717 ; captures 

Mehdia, 729 
'Abd el-WAhed (Abdulguad), 659, 

Abraham, King of Morocco, sad fate 

of, 265 ; expelled from his kingdom, 

310; 386 
Abu 'Abd Allah Mohammed eth- 

Th&biti, see Eth-Thabiti. 
Abu Bakr Askia (Izchia), King of 

Songhai, 820, 839 ; subdues Meli, 

823 ; his brother, see Pergama, slays 

KingofGober, 828 
**Abu Dubus, last King of Morocco," 

Abu Einan (Abu Henan), King of 

Fez, 769 
Abu F&res (Abu Feres), King of 

Tunis, 660, 699 ; his sons, 746 
**Abu-Haf," lords of Tunis, 141 
Abu-Hafs (Habduluahidi), restores 

Tunis, 717 
Abu-1-AbbAs, King of Tunis, 769 
Abu-1-Hasan, King of Fez ['Ah IV], 

409 ; lays siege to Tlemsen, 668 ; 

lays siege to Tunis, 738 ; 929 
Abuna, name of Abyssinian patriarch, 


Abu Sa'id (Sahid), King of Fez, 409; 

his six sons murdered, 510 
Abu Sa'id OthmAn (Hutmen), 660 
Abu Selim, King of Fez, 739 
Abu TAshfln (Tesfin), King of 

Tlemsen, 667 
Abu Yalcftb Yftsuf, King of Fez, 

slain before Tlemsen, 667, 717 
Abu Yczfd (Beiezid), " Knight of 

the Ass," defeated by Mahdi, 729 
Abu Ytoif Yalcfib, El-Mansfir, 

see El-Mans(ir. 
Abu ZakaryA Yahia, son of Abu 

Hafs, 718 
Abu Zeijen, see ZiySn. 
Abyssinia (Abassia) description of, 
40-44; government, 15 ; products, 
Abyssmians, oaths of, 47 ; church 
ceremonies, 48 ; clergy, 48 ; 
monasteries and feast, 49 ; musical 
instruments, 50 
Acadas, see Ettalche. 
Addad, a bitter herb, 971 
Adimmain, a Libyan animal, 945 
Administration of justice, 444 
Africa, Pory's account : general 
description, 12 ; etymology of 
name, 13 ; astronomical position, 
14 ; mountains, 15 ; rivers, 17 ; its 
nation, 20 ; Leo's account : etymo- 
logy of name, 122 ; borders and 
divisions, 123 ; languages, 133 ; 
situation of, 167 ; snowy mountains 
of, 169; deserts of, 173; climate 
of, 175 ; division of the year, 
African tribes of Libya, 151 
Agag, people dwelling on the Nile, 


1 107 

Ag^la, a lion of, proverbial expression 

to denote cowardice, 501 
Ag:labite dynasty, 732 
Ahmed Ibn TMtai (Tailon), 

rebuilds Alexandria, 907 ; adorns 

Cairo, 874 
Ahmed Sheb&b ed-Dtn, Fezzan 

historian, xvi 
Ahmed Sherif (Amet Zeriffo), pro- 
claimed King of Morocco, 990 
'AkAid en-Nasafi, a theological 

commentary studied by Leo, xx, 

AkhwAn, brotherhoods in Morocco, 

Alchemists, 469 
Alexander the Great, 784 ; founder 

of Alexandria, 861 ; his tomb, 

865, and note 909 
Alfonso the Wise, of Castile, 574, 

'Ali 'Abd ul- Hasan, astronomer, xvi 
'Ati Ibn Yftsuf (Hali ben Joseph), 

King of Morocco, 262 ; description 

of his mosque, 263 
Almandali, famous Moorish captain 

in wars of Granada, 51 1 
Almohades, 207 ; overthrown by the 

Beni Marini, 266 
Almohades, 539 
Almoravides, their origin, 838 
Al Petrage, xv 
Alphabets in use in Africa, 165 ; 

Berber writing, 208 
Alpujarras mountains, vii 
Alva, Duke of, his unsuccessful attack 

on Jerba, 735 
Aluares, Don Francisco, 42, 1037 
Amazones, 63 
Ambara, a huge fish, 949 
Amber, theories as to its source, 250 
Amir-Akhur, Master of the Horse, 

Amir-Alf, and Amtr Mia, military 

officers of Sultan of Egypt, 892 
Amtrel-Hajj, Lord of the Pilgrimage, 

^Vm{r-SilAh, Armour-bearer, 892 

'* Amodoracda", afiEunous college in 

Fez, 988 
Amphibia, fable concerning the bird 
, so called, 189 
'Amr Ibn el-'Asi (" Hamrus, sonne 

of Hasi"), conquers Egypt, 858 
Animal-worship in the Congo 

country, 1003 
Anise-seed, 563 
Antimony, 967 
Angjchi, African tribe of cannibals, 

1002, 1005 
Apes, 948 

Aqueduct built by El-Mans{ir, 402 
Aquel Amarig:, language of the 

Africans, 133 
Arabians settle in Africa, 135 
Arabic Grammar by Leo, reference 

to, 461 
Arabic MSS. in Morocco, 598 
Arabs of Africa, manners and customs, 

Arga {Argonia Stderoxyion)^ a tree, 

226, 246 
Arrius, his doctrines help the spread 

of Mohammedanism, 1019 
Artizans of Fez, 439 
Ascellino, Friar, sent to convert 

** The Great Can", 1014 
Ased, sent to complete conquest of 

Sicily, 732 
Asper, a coin, 231 
Assegai, 44 
Ass, wild, 944 
Astrology, 177, 460, 600 
Attire of the Fezzans, 446 
Avenzoher, Jewish philosopher, xv 
Ayerrhoite, xv 
Ayesha, mother of Boabdil, x 

Bagdad sacked by the Tartars, 463 

Balsam, 879 

Bananas (called Maus or Musa = 

Maun)y 968 
''Banks his curtail" (a performing 

horse), 874 ; and note, 914 
Barbarossa, 150; conquers Tremi- 

zen,66o; 679,681 ; besieges Bougie, 



683 ; slays governor of Bougie, 

684 ; is slain at Tremizen, 684 ; 701 , 


Bardo, a beautiful spot in Tunis, yz^ 

Bardoa, a royal Libyan tribe, 800, 

Barretto, Frmndaco, 6^ 
Barth, Dr. Heinrich, Ixxiii 
Basket and rope bridge, 551 
Baths in Fez, 426 

Bats, 957 

Beiesid, see Abu Yezid. 
Ben GhAzi, author of Erroudh elha- 
toun^ etc., a description of Makniisa, 

Beni-Iasliten, 796 
Beni-Marini, wars with the Shereefe, 

xii ; succeed to the kingdom of the 

Almohades, 266, 534 ; their attacks 

on Tlemsen, 690 ; in possession of 

Fez, 718 
Beni-ZiyAn, 132, 659, 690, 718 
Benomotapa, in Ethiopia, peculiar 

escutcheon of the king, 985 
Berber, meaning of word, 129 ; 

language, 133, 218 
Berbers, origin of, 202-205 
Bemouse, 311, 389 
Besis and Bezin, Tunisian dishes, 

Beyn el-Kasreyn (Beinel Casrain), 

a street in Cairo, 871 
Biafresi, African tribe, 1002 
BiUd el-Jaiid (Biledulgerio), 794 
Bileduls^erio, see Bil&d el-Jarfd. 
Birds as fortune-tellers, 875 
Boabdil, x-xi ; not mentioned by 

Leo, xii ; his descendants in Mo- 
rocco, xiii 
Boni, a Cabalist teacher, 467 
Booksellers in Fez, 596; in Mera* 

kesh, 264; in 'Morocco, 265 
Boij el-Ahmar, or Boij bu-Laila, 

Boij el-Hasan, high watch-tower 

in Rabat, 567 
Boij er-Ru'us(The Tower of Skulls) 

in Jerba, 763 

Bougia, or Bougie, 682 ; description 
of, 699 ; taken by Pedro Novarro, 
701 ; its mountains, 740, 745 

" Bourse" of the Fez merchants, 437 

Brick-kilns, 423 

Bridge of El-Mansflr over the Ten- 
sift, 928 

Brimstone, 967 

Bulls used in hunting lions, 489 

Burial-grounds outside Fez, 473 

Cabalists, 461 

Cabo de los corrientes, 19; called 
also the Cape of San Sebastian, 20 

Cachin, a tribe, 211 

Cafri = Kafirs, looi 

Cairo, its foundation, 858; descrip- 
tion, 870 ; city gates, 871 

Calcutta (Calicut) founded by Mo- 
hammedan colonists, loi I 

Calmuks, 1014 

Camelion, 954 

Camels, how ridden by Negroes, 
151 ; used for food, 155 ; killed in 
the desert by thirsty merchants, 
>73 ; 939 ; three distinct kinds, 
940 ; their violence and endurance, 
941 ; taught to dance, 942 

Cape of Good Hope, 19 

Caravan, led by blind guide, 802 

Caravansarais, see ** Innes" 

Carthage, 715 ; mentioned by El- 
Bekri and Edrisi, 753 

Casena, King of, slain by Askia, 

Cassia, a fruit, 969 

Cauterization, 229 

Cave near Marrakesh, explored for 
treasure, 272 

Caves in the Atlas, 220 

Ceuta (Septa), 507 ; Leo*s historical 
description, 509 ; various spellings 
and historical notes, 629-630 

Ceylon (Zeilan), loi i 

Chaghatai (Zagatai), 1014 

Charles V restores the King of 
Tremizen to his throne, 661 ; 6Sig 


1 109 

sends fleet against Jerba, 736; 
restores Tripoli to its former 
governor, 740; see note 770 
Ch&teau Renault, Cheralier de, 


•• Chazendare," erroneously identi- 
fied with G^henktr in note on 
p. 920 (E. D. R.) = Kh&zindar, 

**Cheinim/' a Mohammedan apos- 
tate, governor of Temesne, 394 

Cherries (called at Rome Marette)^ 
405; 502 

Cheny, peculiar species of, 400 

Chess-playing:, 600 

Christian captives employed in Fez, 
442 ; slaves employed for building, 
565 ; soldiers in Morocco, 338, 
577 ; captives, 511 ; slaves, 1067 ; 
guard of King of Tunis, 724 

Christians flee to Africa from Italy, 
164 ; of Africa, 1 02 1 ; of Angola, 
1059; of Congo district, 1053; of 
Egypt, 1022; of Monomotapa, 
1060; of Nubia, 1052; ofSocotera, 
105 1 

Circassian (Burgi) Mamluks, 888 

Citttiy how the word is employed by 
Leo, 588 

Ciurmatori, 470 

Civet-cat, 947 

Claudius, governor of Abassia, 52 

Clenard, Nicolas, grammarian, 

Climate of Africa, 175 

Cloth, sale of European cloth in 
Timbuktu, 827 

Coins, 231 ; (golden) of Tunis, called 
DobU, 725 

Colleg^es at Fez, 423 

Combs made of wood, 408 

Compilations from Leo's work, 

Conies of Africa, 948 

Conjurors, 459 

Constantine, 704, see ** Renegado"; 
taken by Abu-1- Hasan, 739 
672 ; defeated before Algiers, 684 

Constantinople visited by Leo, 

Conversion of Goths to Islam, 417 ; 

of Negroes to Mohammedanism, 

Cooking: in Fez, 433 
Copper-mines, 777 
Copts, account of the, 1023 
Coral-fisheries, 709 
Com, a camel-load sold for a pair of 

shoes, 398 
Cowrie currency in Timbuktu, 825 
Crocodiles on the Nile, 936 ; descrip- 
tion of, 950-953 ; how captured, 

Cross, Christians branded with cross 

lyr Goths, 678 
Crosses tattooed on cheeks and arms, 

740, 770 
Culeihat Elmuridin, 241 
Cuscusu, a Fezzan dish, 227, 325, 


Dabuh, see Hyena. 

Dant, see Lant. 

Date-trees, the strange properties of, 

Decadence of learning in Fez, 424 
*' Descrizione dell* Affrica,'* various 

editions of, I, lii, et seq. 
Diaz, Paulo, governor of Angola, 


Diseases of the Africans, 180, 182 ; 
prevalent in Morocco, 222-224 

Dobas, name for Moors, 37 

Doble* see Oins. 

Dom Sebastian, xiv, xvii ; over- 
thrown by Molucco, 997 

Don Emanuel, meets the Shereefs 
in battle, 991 

Donkeys in Egypt, 874 ; their per- 
formances, 875 

Doria, Andrea. 696, 764 

Doria, Philip, takes Tripoli, 769 

Dragoons in the Atlas, 953 ; how 
** ingendered", 956 

Dragut, the Corsair, ix, 763, 764, 



Dniaagt in Fez, 419 

Dresaenis, Matthew, extract from 

an oration of his on the Pitte lanni, 

1030- 1047 
Dromedaries, 940 
Dub, an animal, 953 
Dulipan, sea Turban. 
Duties levied on European goods, 


Eafi^les, 956 

** Eddag:uadare"( = Emtr el-Jaudar ?) 

Sultan of Egypt's Viceroy, 891 
Editions of Leo's Book, English, 

Ixv ; Dutch, Ixix ; German, Ixxi ; 

French, Ixxiii 
Edrisi, geographer, xvii 
Edrisite dynasty, 561 
Eg^g^s, artificial hatching 01 Eggs in 

Egypt, 917, 918 
Eg^t, divisions 01, 856, S57 ; 

historical survey, 858 ; climate, 859 
Egyptians, origin of the, 857 
£1-Ag^lab, founds dynasty of Agla- 

bites, 731 
Elamt (lamt), skin shields, 386 
£1-Azhar, mosque and University of 

Cairo, 870 
El-Bekri, Ixxxi et passim (Bicri), 

quoted by Leo, 784 ; 819 
**Elchena," family of *• inne- 

keepers", 429 
Elchise, a garment, 227 
Eldabag^, an Arab poet, native of 

Malaga, 711 
El-Emir el-KabCr (Amir Cabir), 891 
Elephants, description of animal, 74 ; 

manner of capturing, 938 
«* Elfarg:ani", 465 
Elhasid, a pudding, 227 
El-Kai'd NabCi, his revolt in Con- 

stantine, 706 
El-KAim, the Khalif (Elcain), accord- 
ing to Leo, invades Egypt, 136 
El-Kasr El-Kebtr, xiv 
El-Ksar, battle of, xvii 

El-Mahdi, see Mohammed Ibn Tu- 
mart el-Mahdi. 

El-Mansiir, Abu YAsuf Ya'kub 
(lacob). King of Morocco, xvi, 140, 
265 ; extent of his dominions, 270 ; 
gives Temesna to certain Arabs, 
396 ; his place of burial, 403 ; re- 
covers Sallee firom the Spanish, • 
407 (in this place he is incorrectly 
spoken of as the first of the Mari- 
nide dynasty) ; builds New Fez, 
475 ; entertained by a fisherman, 
496 ; founds El-Kasr el-S^htr, 508 ; 
539 ; his death, 567 ; 629, 666 ; 
takes Kaisa, 795 

'' Elmath", an antelope, 777, 805 

El-Morrftkoshi, historian, xvi 

El-OufrAni, historian, xvi 

'< Eluated", 466 

** Eiumha EnormM\ the demon- 
stration of light, 467 

El-WaUd Ibn 'Abd el -Malik 
(Qualid), the Khalif, 509, 730, 759 

Emanuel, King of Portugal, 632 ; 
banishes Jews to Africa, 1005 

Employ^ of the Kairwan mosques, 

English Edition ot Leo's Book, Ixv 
et seq. 

Eng^lish commercial relations, 397 ; 
as idolaters, 504 

En-NAsir, Mohammed III, 271 ; 
his death, 358 

Esh-ShAfi', the Imam (EssaHchia), 

Esh-Sherff (Esserif)> a famous citizen 
of Fez, 508 

^^ Essherauar de Sehrauard^'* ^ 465 

" Etdeale", a Moorish writer, 405 

Ethiopia, Christianity in, 1030 

Eth-Th&biti, Abu 'Abd Allah 
Mohammed, 668, 691, 694 

Etheq (Etegi = Awiad Hadaj), "the 
most noble" Arabian family in 
Africa, 142 

Ettalche {ei-talha)^ the acacia, 970 

Eudoxius, traveller, 12 

Euphorbium, 967 



Europe compared with Africa, 13 
Eutidies, teaching of, followed by 

Copts, 1023 
Ezzermng^hi, captain, 312-319 
EzziAni [Abu-1-Klsem ben Ahmed], 


FarrAsh, ** Master of Revels," 893 
Ferdinand, the Catholic, of Spain; 
511, 518, 534; takes Oran, 660; 
676 ; receives tribute from 
Algerians, 683 ; sends Duke of 
Alva against Jerba, vii, 735 
FestiTal of the bath employ^, 423 
Fe« [Fds] (Fessa), Leo a student 
there, 273 ; how constructed by 
Idris and improved by YOsuf Ibn 
Tashftn, 418 ; exact description of, 
419 ; hospitals, 425 ; baths, 426 ; 
mills, 430 ; occupations in, 431 ; 
porters, 432 ; suburbs of, 471 ; 
gardens, 474 ; New, 475 ; the king 
and his court, 479-485 ; its origin, 
589 ; booksellers, 596 
Figs, only eaten fresh, 413 ; 970 
Filali Shereefs, 807 
Fire, superstitious custom of distri- 
buting fire from an Ethiopian king 
to his tributary princes, 986 
Fire-worship in Africa, 163 
Fish in Fez {se^ Laccia\ 435 
FlorianuSy his carelessness, xxii ; 

criticism of his translation, lix 
Forgery of coin, 470 
Fortune-tellers, 457 
Fountains, cold, 16 
" French pox" in Egypt, 860 
Fritters {Pan tnelatv) sold in Fez, 

Fuel for baths, 427 
Funduks (" fondaks") or hotels, 596 

Games at Fez, 454 
Ganghe, priests of Angola, 1002 
Gardens of Fez, 474 
Garfa Esg^, low-class Arabians, 

GAshia (Caschia), royal saddle-cloth, 

Gates of Cairo, 871 
Gauhar (Gehoar), Arabian general 

sent to invade Egypt, 136 ; founds 

Cairo, 137; 210, 870 
Geber (or Ja'far) the alchemist, 469 
Genoese merchants, the most highly 

fevoured, 576 ; take Tripoli, 739 
Gentiles, looi 

Ghamrazen, see Yaghromor^sen. 
Ghauri: SultAnEl-Ashraf KAnsfih 

el-Ghori, slain by Seltm I, 871 
Giovanni de' Medici, i, xlii 
Giraffes, 939 
Gold used for coinage, 671 
Goron, a bitter nut, 174 
Goths in Sallee, 407 ; persuade the 

English to take Arzila, 504 ; flee 

to Granada, 533 ; in Africa, 704 
Gout, 180 


Graberg di Hems5, Ixxvi et passim, 
Gradaameth, King of Adel, 52 
Granada, Leo's birthplace, ii ; con- 
ditions of its capitulation, xi ; 
invaded by Moors, 509 
Gregory XIII sends mission to the 

Copts, 1024 
Guaral, a kind of lizard, 954 
Guber, a N^ro language, 134 
Gui^himo, the Lord of Heaven, 
worshipped by certain Negroes, 163 
Gypsies, 604 

Habdulmumen, see 'Abd el-MOmen. 
Habhaziz=habb 'aztz, a fruit, 733 
Hakluyt, Richard, Ixvi, induces 

Pory to make his translation of 

Leo, 3 ; letter of approbation to 

Pory, 103 et passim, 
Hannimei, the powerful captain of, 

Hanno, 12 
HArto ar-Rashtd, supposed founder 

of Fez, 416 
Hasan Ibn Mohammed, xxvi 
Hasan el-Basri (Elhesen Ibun Abil- 

hesen), 462 



Hasani dynasty in Morocco, xxvi 

Hashish {keef)^ mentioned by Leo, 
xiv ; (Lhasis), 722 

Hawks, 957 

Hegfazzare, a learned man, 240 

Helena, Queen of Ethiopia, 1035, 

" Hellul", a famous Moorish adven- 
turer, 515 

Henry the Navigator, 631 

Hennit of Batha, 674 ; visited by 
Leo, 675 

Hippo, Saint Augustine, Bishop of, 

Hippopotami, trained by Africans, 

HishAm, brother of the KhaUf El- 

Walld, 731 
Hisn el-'UkAb, the Castle of the 

Eagle, 515. 634 
Hogan, Edward, 369 
Homar Seyef, a *' pestiferous 

preacher", 241, 258 
Horses of Barbary, 156, 942 ; wild, 

Hospitals in Fez, 425 
Hot springs at Constantine, 707 
Hydras, 953 
Hyena (called by the Arabs Dabuh = 

dhabii\ 947 

Ibn 'Abd el-Melik, quoted by Leo, 

Ibn AdhArt, historian, xvi 
Ibn Batuta, Moroccan traveller, xvi 
Ibn er-Rakfk, xix ; quoted by Leo, 

Ibn Khaldiin, xvi (Ibnu Caldim), 

mentioned by Leo, 461 
Ibn Madin, Moroccan philosopher, 


Ibn Sabin, philosopher, xvi 

** Ibnul Farid", 465 

IbrAhim Ibn 'Ali, succeeds his 

brother Tashfin, 354; flees before 

'Abd el-Mflmen, 265 
Idris I, founder of the Edrisite 

dynasty ; his descent from Moham- 

med, 417, 561 ; builds Fez, 418 ; 

592, 685 
Idris II, 416; his claim to the 

Khali&te, 417, 589 ; his death, 623 
lesul, see Mohammed ben Yezid. 
Ifrikia, 759 
Imamia, a sect, 468 
Incubation of eggs in Egypt, 883 
Indigo, 779 
" Innes" in Fez, 428 
Inroads of the sea, 738, 767 
Inundations of the Nile, 860 
loseph, son of Tesfin, see Yiisuf Ibn 

Iron-mines, 399, 535, 550, 672 
Iron coins, 740 
IshAk Ibn IbrAhim, killed by 'Abd 

el-M(imen, 266 
Ismael, the Sophi, see Shih Isma'il. 
Izchia, see Abu Bakr Askia. 

Jacobites in Egypt, 864 

JAmi el-Azhar (Gemih Hashare), 
see El-Azhar 

JAmi el-Hakim (Genith Elhechim), 
a mosque. at Cairo, 871 

Janissaries, 1016 

Japan, reached in 1555 by a Moham- 
medan missionary, 1013 

Jerba, island of, 734, 762; invaded 
by Christians, 735 ; historical note, 
763 ; unsuccessful attack of the 
Duke of Alva, 736 ; Bibliography, 

Jews betray Azamor, 294 ; former 
position of, in Morocco, 355 ; in 
New Fez, 477 ; in Tlemsen, 668 ; 
in Africa, 1004 

John III of Portugal, 991 

Joseph, numerous places in Egypt 
bearing his name, 906 

Jujuba (Ziziphum) a fruit, 406 ; 413 

Julian (Ily&n) governor of Ceuta, 509 

Kafirs, 68 

KairwAn (Cairaoan) taken by Arabs, 
139 ; (Caruoen), principal mosque 
in Fez, 421 ; description of, 730 


Kartas Sagir^ a history of Morocco, 


'* Kaseria*^ common title in Barbary 
for market-place, $99 

Khair ud-Din (Cairadin), brother of 
Barbarossa, succeeds to Algiers, 
684, 692, 696 

Kh&n KhaHU (Canel Halili), 872 

KhAzind&r (Chazendare), the 
treasurer, 892 

Kintdr = Cantaro (Cantharo), a Bar- 
bary measure. 585 

Kirgis, 1014 

Knig^hts of St. John, 770 ; of Malta, 

Kor&n, how studied in Fez, 456 
Kurds, 606 

Laccia, Roman name for a fish 
plentifully sold in Fez, 435 

Languages of the Negroes, enu- 
merated, 134; of the Moroccans, 

Lant or Dant, an animal, 943 

Latin authors mentioned by Leo, 
xix ; writers on Africa, 165 

Learning in Morocco in Leo's time, 
xiv ; of the Arabs, 182- 185 

Leeches, 517 

Lemta, a Berber race, 801 

Leo Africanus, his Arabic name, ii ; 
date of his birth, iv-vi ; his great 
learning, xix, 5 ; affluence of his 
family, xx ; a notary in the Mores- 
tan in Fez, xxii ; acts as judge, xxiii ; 
his poetical gifts, xxvii ; his capture, 
xl ; his life in Rome, xliv ; hi«« 
linguistic attainments, xlv: his 
character, xlviii ; his other writings, 
li ; his status as a traveller, Ixxx ; 
contrasted with Marmol, Ixxxvii ; 
with party of merchants, entertained 
by Prince of Zanaga, 1 54- 1 56 ; has 
dealings with Sicilians, 161 ; pro- 
mises to write a treatise on the 
Mohammedan religion, 164 : his 
adventures in the snow, 170-172 ; 
suffers from thirst in the Libyan 

desert, 174 ; apologises for his out- 
spokenness regarding the Moors, 
188 ; entertained by a ** liberal- 
minded priest" in Haddechis, 234; 
acts as arbitrator in Ileusugaghen, 
235 ; mentions a treatise of his 
own on the tenets of Islam, 242 ; 
a student at Fez, 273 ; acts as 
arbitrator, 276 ; present (aged 10) 
at the capture of Saffi, 288 ; watches 
an encounter between Portuguese 
and Fezzans, 292 ; sent as am- 
bassador to Morocco, 297 ; enter- 
tained in Elmedin by a Granadian, 
299 ; charms a Berber chief with 
his verses, 305 ; grieved at the sight 
of the ilesolation of Anfa, 397 ; 
copies epitaphs at Sella, 403 ; 
visits a Saint's tomb at Thagia, 
405 ; witnesses a struggle between 
the Portuguese and the Moors, 412; 
as notary in an asylum in Fez, 426; 
at Tabriz, 439 ; serves King of 
Fez against Arzila, 506 ; mentions 
a property of his father's, 531 ; 
puts to test the hermit of Batha, 
675 ; witnesses the successes of 
Barbarossa, 684 ; stays in Medua, 
685 ; in Mesila, 702 ; at Ummel- 
hesen in comi)any with fourteen 
Jews, 785 ; visits (jovemor of 
Tuggurt, 791 ; in Rosetta, 866 ; 
says he was thrice in Egypt, 888 ; 
descends the Nile, 904; promises 
description of further travels, 905 ; 
mentions narrow escapes from lions, 
946 ; his experience of crocodiles, 

Leo X, the Pope, see Giovanni de' 

Leopards, 947 
Lepers, 223, 472, 604, 734 
Leprosy cured by the flesh of 

tortoises, 950 
" Leshari", a sect, 468 
Lex Talionis, 243 
Libya, African trilK*s of, 151 ; deserts 

of, 797 




Lion-hunting:, 489 

Lions, miracles against, 405 ; the 

fiercest in Africa, 410; tame, 494 ; 

Lives of Arabian philosophers by 

Leo, 470 
Locusts, 239, 957 ; quotation from 

Orosius, 959-960; quotation from 

Francis Aluarez, 961-966 
Long^evity of Africans, 1 79 
Lopes Sequdra, Portuguese general, 

Lopez Barrig^, a Portuguese cap- 
tain, 990 
Louis IV, Saint Louis, assails 

Alexandria, 863 ; taken prisoner 

at Mansura, 908 
Lunatic asylum, 426 
Lunatics, 425 
Luntuna, family of, founders of 

Morocco, 132 

Machidin, see Almohades. 

Madmen in Tunis, 721 

Magistrates in Fez, 444 

Mahdi, first ** patriarch" of Kairwan, 

Mahumet, governor of Dubdu, anec- 
dote concerning, 542-544 

"Mahumet Benametto'*, founder 
oftheShereefs, 988 

Majolica ware, 431 

Malekites and Hanefites, 886 

Mamluks, origin of body-guard and 
dynasty, 890 

Manna, eaten by the Tuireg, 799 

Mansor, see El-Mansflr. 

Marble, spotted, brought xrom the 
Atlas, 270 

Marg^ian, author of Cabalistic Com- 
mentary, 461 

Mariani, Paulo, pious Christian 
merchant, 1024, 1028 

Marin, see Beni Marini. 

Marinides, see Beni Martni. 

Marino, Messer Thomaso di, a 
merchant of Genoa, 408; his identi- 
fication discussed, 579 

Marmol, Ixxxvii et passim, 

Marrakesh, xiv 

Marriage ceremonies, 448-452 

Mas'iidi, quoted, 819, 936 

Matthew, first ambassador from 
Ethio})ia to Portugal, 1036 

Maundeville, Sir John, Ixxxiii 

Maus, a fruit, see Banana. 

Mausoleum of Kings of Fez, 474 

Meals of the Fezzans, 447 

Measurement of the Nile's increase, 

MeknAsa (Mecnase), 412 ; Abu-1- 
feda's spelling, 584 

Meknes, founders of Meknasa, 584 

Melik ShAh (Malicsach), 463 

Menageries, 270, 357 

Merdez, Arabs dwelling near Bona, 

Mersa el-Bargi, port of Alexandria, 

Mersa el-Kabir (Marsa Elcabir), 
660 ; taken by Spaniards, 677; 695 

Mesuare, chief-commander of Tunis- 
ian army, 723 

Metgara, 782 

Milletor "mil seed", 821 

Mills in Fez, 430 

Misr ul-'atik, 877 

Mistranslations, Ix et seq. 

Mistranslations of Pory, 222 

Mohammed en-N&ser, son of el- 
MansCir, 634^ 717 

Mohammed Ibn Tumartel-Mahdi, 
founder of Almohade dynasty, 265 ; 
his death, 266; 279 

Mohammad VI, of El-Wat'as dy- 
nasty, besieges Meknasa, 414 

Mohammad ben Yezid, succeeds 
Musa as governor of Ifrfkia, 731 

Mohammed VI, Sultan of Fez, xxv, 

Mohammed eth-ThAbiti, Sultan of 
Tlemsen, protects Boabdil, xi 

Mohammed, King of Fez (in Leo's 
time), carried prisoner into Portu- 
gal, 506 ; attempts recovery of 
Tangier, 508 



Mohammed, the Prophet, 1006 
Mohammedanism, historical sketch 

of its rise and progress, 1006- 1016 ; 

in Africa, 1018-1021 
'* Moleththemln", the /t/^rfw-bearers, 

the five nations of Libya, 838 
Molucco, overthrows Dom Sebastian 

of Portugal, 997 
Monasteries in Egypt, 1022 
Money, coined by King of Tlemsen, 


Monomotapa, an African ruler, 


**Afon/e"f how the word is employed 

by Leo, 385 
Moors, use of name, 200 ; Moors 

expelled from Spain, vii, 20, 130; 

various tribes of, 131 -133 
Morocco, its condition in Leo's day, 

xiii-xxi ; present state of, xcv 
Morocco (Maroco), arab. Morrakosh, 

or Marrakosh, vulgarly called 

Marrakesh. Description of the 

town, 262 ; booksellers in the town, 

" Morphia", name of a disease, 930 
Mose Ibnu Chamu, 542 
Mo'tazila, a sect, 602 
Mozimo, a god, 1002 
Mournings for the dead, 453 
Muhazzimin^ see Conjurors. 
Muhtesib, an official, 895 ; various 

spellings of word, 922 
Mulai 'Abd Allah, the Shereef, pro- 
claimed king, 992 ; besieges Maza- 

gan, 996 
Mulai' Abu F&res, King of Tunis, 

Mulai' Ahmad II, xvii 
Mulai' Isma'il, xiii, 615 
Mulai Mohammed, King of Tunis, 

Muliu N&ser el-Wat'as, xxv 
Mulai NiUer, defeats Portuguese at 

Mamora, 583, 989 
Mulai Sa'td, King of Fez, xiii 
Mulai' Zidan, begs aid of the 

English, 574 ; confined in Fez, 586 

Munafid, chief official to King of 

Tunis, 722 
Musa Abu Hammu, 690 
Mus-Araba (Must'arab), Arabians 

descended from Ismael, 150 
Musa ben Nosdfr, 730, 759 
" i^/wja" = bananas, 867 
Mushrooms, see Terfez. 
Mustehg^eme, barbarous Arabs, 150 
Muzaffir (Mudaffir), son of El- 

Mansiir, 666 

"Nai Bessan", Sultan of Egypt's 

lieutenant in Syria, 891 
Navas de Tolosa, battle of, 358, 

Necromancy, 459 
Nefisa, a Saint, 877 ; a shrine built 

in her honour, 878 
Niger, ancient theories concerning, 

17 ; fifteen kingdoms of ** N^ros" 

situate upon the Niger, 820 
Nile, 17 ; its inundations, 44 ; S60 ; 

measurement of its increase, 879 ; 

Nilometer, 916 
NizAm el-Mulk (Nidam Elmule), 

Numidia(Metagonitis), 22, 126, 151 ; 

manners and customs, 152-156 
Nuts, sweet, found near Mamora, 


Observance of festivals, 452 
Occupations and Trades in Fez, 431 
Officers of the Fezzan court, 479-484 
Okba (Hucba Hibnu Nafich), founds 
Kairwan, 135, 209, 730; conquers 
Tunis, 716 
Olives, 175, 176 
*Omar (Hummare), son of Abu 

Fdres, 699 
Oran (Horam), 660, 665 ; descrip- 
tion of 675 ; captured by Ferdinand, 
676 ; ^i 
OstAddAr(Ostadar), Sultan of Egypt's 
Major-domo, 891 



Ostriches, used for focxl, 155, 780; 

description, 955 
'Othm&n, the Khalif, sends army 

into Africa, 134, 730 ; destroys 

Bona, 708 
'OthmiUi (Hutman), son of Abu 

Fares, 660, 699 
Ox, wild, 944 

Pan MelaiOj see Fritters. 

Parrots, 957 

Paul IV (Pope), his embassy to 
Claudius, Emperor of Abyssinia, 

Pedro Navarro, 506, 637 ; takes 
Bougia, 700 ; attacks Mehdia, 
729 ; sent against Tripoli, 740 ; 
746 et passim 

Peele, Georj^e, his drama called 
" Battle of the Three Kings" re- 
ferred to, xiv 

Pers^ama, Abu Bakr, brother of 
Aksia, personally known to Leo, 

Perimal, King of Malabar, 10 11 

Persians, 1013 

Pharao, founder of a town, 490 

Pharoahs of Egypt, 857 

Philip II of Spain, xvii, 615 

Phihp III, viii 

Pig:eons, 454 

Pilgrimage to Mekka, whether per- 
formed by Leo ? xxi 

Pilgrimages to a Saint's tomb at 
Thagia, 405 

Pillar built outside Alexandria by 
Ptolemy, see Pompey's Pillar 

Piperis (Beybars ?), 890 

Piracy in Morocco, xiv, 574, 579 

Pit, a very deep pit, at Centopozzi, 

Pitch, 968 
Pius IV, Pope, sends mission to the 

Copts, 1024 
Plag^ues in Egypt, 860 
Pliny censured, 937 
Poetry of the Arabs of Numidia, 156, 


Poets, African, 455 

Pompe/s Pillar, 864, 909 

Porters in Fez, 432 

Portug^uese destroy Anfa, 397 ; 

attack Mamora, 410 ; routed by 

Moors, 41 1 ; occupy Tangier, 503, 

628 ; at Arzila, 506 ; colonies in 

Africa, 1064 et scq, 
Pory, John, Ixv et seq. 
Preachers in the Mosque at Fez, 422 
Prete lanni, description, 30-45 ; 

term explained, 1 031 et passim. 
Professors in Fez, 424 
Propaganda of Islam among the 

desert races, 820, 838 
I Ptolemy quoted, 12, 15, 18, 21, 

etc. ; by Leo, 499 
I Ptolemies of Egypt, 857 
Pyramids, the, 896 

Quinces, 431 

*• Rabich,*' a fruit-bearing tree, 405 
Rams, of Africa, 945 
Ramusio, i ; in praise of Leo, 8 
Rashid (Rasid), famous general of 

IdrisI, 417 
Ravens, 557 
Rebat, built on model of Marrakesh 

by El MansCir, 401 ; its aqueducts, 

Religion, of the ancient Africans, 

162, 164 
Religions professed in Africa, 100 1 ; 

in Negro-land, 820 
** Renegado", a Christian convert to 

Islam, made governor of Constan- 

tine, 705 
AVM/, a measure, 251 
Revenues of the Kairw&n mosque, 

Rhodian knight, a, sent by Charles V 

to seize Jerba, 736 
Rif, the river, 131 ; meaning of word, 

Rivers of Africa, 17 
Roderick the Goth, overthrown by 

Julian, governor of Ceuta, 509 



Roderic (Theodoricus), King of the 

Goths, 731 
Rog^er II, of Sicily, captures Bona, 

750 ; captures Mehdia, 757 
Roman inscription on Mohammedan 

tomb, 570 ; roads, 704 

Saffron, 743 

''SahacaiS\ 458 

Sahhdrtn, see Conjurors. 

Saic, (Mulal Sa'td Sheikh), 505 

Sa'id II el-Wat*as, 543 

Sa*id (Sahid) wars, 409, 580 

Saint in Thagia, with power over 

lions, 405 
Saint Augustine, 164 ; Bishop of 

Hippo, 708, 750 
Saint George, patron saint of Egypt, 

Saint Mark's body removed from 

Alexandria to Venice, 864 
Saint Philip, mission in Ethiopia, 

Saladin, 888 ; leads an army into 

Egypt, 889 ; founds the Mamluk 

body-guard, 890 
Sal Araes, Viceroy of Algiers, 992 
Salt-mines, at Tegaza, 800 ; 967 
Salt-pctre, 324, 392 
** Saraffi", Egyptian coins, 869 
Sardines {^^ Sardelli")^ caught in 

great quantities, 518 
Sarman, 773 
Schools in Fez, 456 
School-festivals, 456 
Sea-horse, 949 
Sea-ox, 949 
Secretaries of the Sultan of Egypt, 

Sects, Mohammedan, 462 ; in Cairo, 

Sedded, the son of Had, founder of 

Tangier, 506 
Selim I, the Great, in Egypt, 888 
<*Semsul Meharif', Shams ul- 

Ma'drif, 467 
Seven Sleepers, 698, 747 

Shah Ismail, compared with ilu- 

Shereefs, 992, 1013 
Sbar&bd&r (Serbedare), cup-bearers, 


Shebbel fisheries, 377, 567 

Sheger ed-Durr, 908 

Sheila, mosque there built by El- 
MansAr, and selected by him and 
his descendants as a place of burial, 

Shereef (Xeriffo), the King of 

Morocco, 987 
Shereefs, wars with the Beni-Martni, 

xii, xiii ; the rise of, 988-992 ; their 

revenues, 993 ; their forces, 994 
Sherley, Sir Anthony, 369 
Shops in Fez, 439 
Sicily subdued by El-Aglab, 732 
Sidi Buhaza, xxi, 404 
Sidi Bu Medin, Saint buried in 

Hubbed, 672 
Sidi el-Dahi, head of a society of 

*' mad fellows", 721 
** Sidi Heli Berrased", 524 
** Sidi Jeja" = Vahya, v, xxviii, 

Silver-mines, 256 
" Sirru Lasmei Elchusne" = Sirr 

ul AsmA il'Husna, 467 
Slaughter-houses (shambles) in Fez, 

Snails = turtles, considered the cause 

of ill-health, 707, 749 
Snakes, domesticated, 559; and note 

Snake-charmers, 470 
Sneezing in the Mosque. 181 
Soap, 532 

Socotera, the Christians of, 1051 
** Soliman the great Turke", 661 
Solomon and Queen of Sheba, 1032 
Southern Church, the, 1030 
Spanish artists sent to Morocco, 

xvii ; Moors in Fez, 440 ; colonies 

in Africa, 1064 et seq. 
"Sphears", golden, placed in the 

mosque of El-Mansftr by his wife, 




Spinnings, mode peculiar to Tunis, 

Steeple (minaret ?) used as a place of 

safety for workmen's tools, 399 
Suburbs of Fez, 471 
Suez, former names of, 24 ; Turkish 

arsenal at, 25 
Sugar in Egypt, 869 
Sugar-canes brought to Tunis, 725 
Sultan Az-z&ghel» uncle of Boabdil, 

Sungai (Songhai) languages, 134, 

Sunni 'Ali (Sonni Heli), 821, 823 
Sun-worship in Africa, 163 
Superstitions, 462 
Sumag, a medicinal root, 971 

TabarkhiLna (Taburchania), 893 

Table, the table of the Last Supper 
at Toledo, 731 

Tabriz (Tauris) \nsited by Leo, 439 

" Ta^\ a Berber compound found in 
place-names, 385 

Tailors in Fez, 436 

Talavera, viii 

Tangier (Tangia), 21 ; varieties of 
spelling, 627 

Tanzarghente, a root used for a 
perfume, 970 

Tarick, a captain of the Goths, 407 

T4rik (Tarich), Governor of Tangier, 
730 ; conquers Spain, 731 ; 759 

Tartars, 1013 

TAshfin Ibn 'AU, 265 

Tawtl (Ethauil), Arabic metre em- 
ployed in incantations, 460 

Teculeth destroyed by the Portu- 
guese, 233 

Tefas destroyed by Musa en-Naser, 


Temple, Sir Grenville, Ixxxiv 

Terfez (? tur/ds), a poisonous mush- 
room, 969 

7>/, Berber word meaning a 
** spring", 632 

Text-Books of the University of 
Fez, 601 

Tigia language, 49 

Timariotti, feudal knights of the 

Shereefs, 995 
Timbuktu (Tombuto), Leo's uncle 

sent thither as ambassador, 4 ; 

description of, 306 ; meaning of 

the name, 842 
Tisht-kh&na (Testecana), the Royal 

wardrobe, 893 
Tlemsen, kingdom of, 659 ; city of, 

667 ; siege of city, 668 ; customs 

and court of, 670-672 ; derivation 

of name and various spellings, 690 
Tortoise, its flesh a cure for leprosy, 

Tower built by El-MansClr in Rabat, 

401 ; see Borj el- Hasan. 
Translations of Leo's Book, Ivii 
Travellers, principal early, in Africa, 

Treasure-seekers, 468 
Tribes, Arab, in Africa, 143, 211- 

Tripoli, old, 737 ; new, 737 ; early 

history of, 738-740 ; subsequent 

events, 770 
Tripolis taken by the Arabs, 139 
Tu&reg, Berber nomads, 815 
TMftn, see Ahmed Ibn Tiilfln. 
Tunis, governed by Arabs, 141 ; 

historical description, 716-718; 

manners and trade, 719-722; rites 

and ceremonies of the court, 722- 

Turbans (Dulipan) worn by Jews, 

Turks, " Turkish Harquebusiers" 

employed as escorts by merchants, 

707; 1015 
Turkish possessions in Africa, rooo 
Turtles, see Snails. 

Underground river near Marrakesh, 
caves explored for treasure, 272 

Vasco da Gama discovers Buena 

Esperan9aa second time, 19 
Venetians at Oran, 665 



Vices of the Africans, 185 
Volcano, 529 ; and note, 641 
Vultures, 956 

Water-^dieels in Fez, 478 
Weaver, story of the Weaver of 

Meggeo, 535 
Whale's-rib of huge dimensions, 250 
Witches in P'ez, 458 

Ximenes, Cardinal, viii, xliii 

Yaghmorasan, or Yag^hromorlisen 

(Ghamrazen), first of the Ziyanids, 

I Yahya Ibn Ibr&him, founder of the 
I Almohade dynasty, 838 

Yusuf en-NAser (Joseph Enesir), 515 
I Yusuf Ibn TAshfin, first King of 

Morocco, expels Arabs from Kair- 
' wan, 140 ; founds Morocco, 264 ; 

plans subjection of Temesna, 394 ; 

overthrows King of Temesna, 395 ; 

406 ; unites the two quarters 01 
I Fez, 418; 487, 554, 717; "Lord 
I of the Negros", 820 ; lays siege to 

Tlemsen, 667 

Zauiat ben larbuh, 774 

Zegzegt King of, slain by Askia, 

Zibibbo^ a confection of grapes, 526 




' ^" ■'<* * 





Harvard College, Cambridge, MA 02138: (617)495-2413] 

If the item is recalled, the borrower will be notified of 

the need for an earlier return. (Non-receipt of overdue 

notices does not exempt the borrower from overdue finesJ 


MAR 2 1 Tnne I 

SEP 1 1 Sim 


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